ISWC2009 logo

Workshop on Collaborative Construction, Management

and Linking of Structured Knowledge (CK 2009)

collocated with the 8th International Semantic Web Conference ISWC-2009 October 25, 2009: Westfields Conference Center, near Washington, DC., USA

call for papers pdf logo

CK 2009 Panel: Collaborative ontology development: when it works and when it doesn't?
Moderator: Natasha Noy (Stanford University)
Mark Greaves (Vulcan)
Mark Musen (Stanford University)
Robert Stevens (University of Manchester)
Pat Hayes (Institute for Human and Machine Cognition)

Dr. Robert Stevens from the Bio and Health Informatics Group at the University of Manchester has agreed to give a keynote talk at the workshop.
The title of the talk will be: Collaborative Ontology building: So much more than authoring an Ontology

Notifications sent out, please see updated dates. Camera ready to submit through the easychair site:

Accepted papers, posters and demos will be published in the workshop proceedings as a volume of CEUR-WS. The CK 2009 workshop paper metadata will be made available publicly at the Semantic Web Dog Food site and through this site via RDFa.


Many have argued that the next generation of the Web (Web 3.0) will grow out of an integration between Semantic Web and Social Web (Web 2.0) technologies.Can ontology management benefits from social web? Can Wikipedia be a style of collaborative ontology authoring? How to exploit user feedback for constructing structured knowledge? In these and many other questions lie the opportunity and the challenge to integrate knowledge base approaches to social web ones. This integration involves several very different aspects of technology and social practice. Recent workshops and journal special issues have been devoted to methods for extracting ontologies and other structured knowledge from resources such as Wikipedia and other loosely structured data; or on using Semantic Web representations to describe the social structures and interactions in Web 2.0; or on mapping existing data using semantic technologies. In this workshop, we want to focus on another aspect of linkage between Social Web and Semantic Web techniques:  collaborative and distributed methods for constructing and maintaining ontologies, terminologies, vocabularies, and mappings between them, throughout their entire life cycle.


Topics of interest

They include (but are not limited to):

  • Collaborative creation and editing of structured knowledge
  • Collaborative creation of ontology mappings
  • Efficient methods for maintenance and evolution of structured knowledge that was created collaboratively
  • Individual and group incentives for collaborative knowledge construction and maintenance
  • Ontology repositories, knowledge bases, and their utility in the Social Web.
  • Metadata management
  • User interfaces for collaborative tools for creating structured knowledge
  • Inconsistency management and user-specific views of ontologies
  • Workflows for collaborative construction and linking of structured knowledge
  • Evaluation of collaborative tools: methods, metrics, and experimental reports

Submission guidelines

Papers submitted to the workshop must follow the same submission guidelines of the ISWC'09 conference (no anonymization required). Submissions must be in PDF, and follow Springer format (for instruction see We solicit in this workshop two types of contributions:

  • Research papers analyzing the process of collaborative construction, management and linkage of structured knowledge; the requirements for supporting technologies and the field of exploitation of such knowledge. Formatted papers must not be longer than 10 pages.

  • Demos papers describing relevant tools and prototypes. Formatted papers must not be longer than 2 pages.

  • New!
    All contributions should be prepared in PDF format and submitted through the workshop submission site:

Important dates

Paper submission: 10 August 2009 13 August 2009 (23:59 Hawaiian time) (extended deadline).
Notification : 31 August 2009 4 September 2009.
ISWC early registration deadline: 12 September.
Camera ready : 2 October 2009.
Workshop : 25 October 2009.


Accepted papers

Research papers

  • NLP-based support for ontology lifecycle development. Diana Maynard, Adam Funk and Wim Peters.
    This paper describes the implementation of an approach to modelling the dynamics of the propagation of textually derived semantic information, in particular with respect to networked ontologies. On the one hand, new ontologies may be generated automatically from textual data, or existing ontologies may be modified or extended according to new evidence. This can cause problems for large or networked ontologies, where only a small section of the ontology may be modified, and where multiple users may be working with the ontologies simultaneously. Furthermore, interoperability issues may occur where different people are using different tools: for example, some users may be automatically annotating texts and generating new ontologies using NLP techniques such as those found in GATE, while other users may be applying different techniques such as using the various plugins of the NeOn toolkit. In this paper, we describe a plugin for the NeOn toolkit which uses both automatic and manual methods for generating and modifying ontologies on the fly, and enables two-way ontology lifecycle development.
  • Towards Social Performance Indicators for Community-based Ontology Evolution. Pieter De Leenheer, Christophe Debruyne and Johannes Peeters.
    The "living" ontologies that will furnish the Semantic Web are lacking. The problem is that in ontology engineering practice, the underlying methodological and organisational principles to involve the community are mostly ignored. Each of the involved activities in the community-based ontology evolution methodology require certain skills and tools which domain experts usually lack. Finding a social arrangement of roles and responsibilities that must supervise the consistent implementation of methods and tools is a wicked problem. Based on three technology-independent problem dimensions of ontology construction, we propose a set of social performance indicators (SPIs) to bring insights in the social arrangement evolving the ontology, and how it should be adapted to the changing needs of the community. We illustrate the SPIs on data from a realistic experiment in the domain of competency-centric HRM.
  • Observations in collaborative ontology editing using Collaborative Protégé. Daniel Schober, James Malone and Robert Stevens.
    Although living in a world of greater international collaboration, the geographical distribution of developers still makes collaborative development approaches for ontology development difficult to realize. If collaboration is not built into tools, reaching widespread community consensus and encoding according to some shared plan is not easy to achieve. For this reason, tools are developed that allow not only for distributed collaborative ontology creation and modification, but for direct and topic-linked communication about all aspects of the engineering process as well. To investigate this process and corresponding capabilities of the new Collaborative Protégé 3 (CP) tool, an Ontology was enriched in an experimental setting that ran as part of an OntoGenesis network. We investigated the CPs plugins ability to facilitate multiple concurrent edits of a single owl file from different computers, track annotations associated with specific representational units (RUs), e.g. on classes or properties, track annotations associated with actions of ontology change (deletions, axiom edits and annotation edits), and the support for discussion threads and instant messaging communication between ontology developers (real time chat). We present our observations and recommendations for CP based upon this experience. We conclude that, although some caveats persist, the CP tool is now in an advanced state and can be used in practice with sufficient stability and much can be done with configuration to further optimize it. Our practice-driven requirement and fault analysis provoked valuable feedback for the tool developers.
  • Using RDF Metadata To Enable Access Control on the Social Semantic Web. James Hollenbach, Joe Presbrey and Tim Berners-Lee.
    The structure of the Semantic Web gives users the power to share and collaboratively generate decentralized linked data. In many cases, though, collaboration requires some form of authentication and authorization to ensure the security and integrity of the data being generated. Traditional authorization systems that rely on centralized databases are insufficient in this scenario, since they rely on the existence of a central authority that is not available on the Semantic Web. In this paper, we present a scalable system that allows for decentralized user authentication and authorization. The system described supports per-document access control via an RDF metadata file containing an access control list (ACL). A simple interface allows authorized users to view and edit the RDF ACL directly in a Web browser. The system allows users to efficiently manage read and write access to linked data without a centralized authority, enabling a collaborative authoring environment suited to the Semantic Web.
  • Collective Knowledge Authoring. Jim Starz, Brian Kettler and Alden Roberts.
    Most information systems support either a rigid schema enforced by software or a loose schema enforced by a select number of users. This paper investigates having the system enforce the use of a looser schema. Supporting this capability entails using multiple techniques for guiding users towards common semantics when authoring information.
  • The Open Ontology Repository Initiative: Requirements and Research Challenges. Kenneth Baclawski and Todd Schneider.
    Very large data sets are increasingly common both in science and industry. However, incorporating multiple data types from multiple sources to solve major problems is a significant interoperability challenge. Furthermore, documents and other artifacts created in the past can be as important as recently created data sets, but interoperability with such legacy data can also be difficult. The problem with such data sets is not only the differences in recording media and formats but also the enormous changes in terminology over time. Data sets run the risk of rapid obsolescence as the meaning and formats of the data fields are forgotten or no longer available. Semantic technologies based on logic, databases and the Semantic Web can address the problem of meaningful access to and integration of data both today and over decades and centuries. This paper discusses an initiative to develop and deploy a new federated interoperability infrastructure called the Open Ontology Repository (OOR). The OOR is intended to support the full data management lifecycle for the communities that it serves. The OOR grew out of the Ontolog community that has existed for over 6 years and continues to grow in both size and diversity. An initial OOR server based on BioPortal has been deployed, and further development will emphasize technological solutions that build on existing ontology repositories as well as proven architectures and standards. Nevertheless, many research challenges remain to achieve the requirements that have been identified. This paper reports on the research challenges of the OOR initiative and the requirements that gave rise to them. Ultimately, it is hoped that the OOR initiative will result in the deployment of a robust, federated knowledge repository that can collectively correct for multiple points of failure and can foster collaborative stewardship of knowledge and metadata.
  • Towards Collaborative Strategy Content Management using Ontologies. Simon Paradies, Sonja Zillner and Michal Skubacz.
    We propose the use of ontologies for managing strategy content, which is generated and processed during strategy planning processes. We introduce a Protégé extension aiming at facilitating this task. It provides views on the strategy content codified in the ontology in form of diagrams and supports the concurrent graphical editing of these by multiple users at the same time.

Demo/Poster papers

  • MoKi: A Collaborative Enterprise Modelling Tool. Chiara Ghidini, Barbara Kump, Stefanie Lindstaedt, Nahid Mahbub, Viktoria Pammer, Marco Rospocher and Luciano Serafini.
    Enterprise modelling is the process of creating an enterprise model, that is a structured description representing the relevant aspects of an enterprise. In this system demonstration we present MoKi (Modelling Wiki), a collaborative tool for enterprise modelling that (i) supports access to the enterprise model at different levels of formality (informal, semi-formal and formal), (ii) supports integrated modelling of several aspects of an enterprise, and (iii) ensures a coherent development of the formal part.
  • Schema Management in a Semantic Wiki. Alan Meredith, Dan Reininger, Bob Bullard and Jeff Mershon.
    A semantic wiki for tactical intelligence requires collaborative, iterative schema management. Application developers can provide users with control and visibility required to tailor ontology to meet unique requirements.
  • Collaborative Meta-Modeling of Multi-Domain R&D Projects. Sonja Zillner.
    Multi-domain R&D projects require collaboration and competition. To understand the paradox phenomenon of co-opetition, i.e. the cooperative competition, a meta-level reflection is necessary. In this paper, we will introduce an OWL DL based approach for the collaborative meta-modeling of multi-domain research and development projects. An ontology-based knowledge structure provides means (modeling constructs) for documenting the dynamic project progress. The approach of collaborative project meta-modeling employs the Protege collaboration plug-in and the Pellet reasoner.
  • One Click Annotation. Ralf Heese, Markus Luczak-Rösch, Radoslaw Oldakowski, Olga Streibel and Adrian Paschke.
    The realization of the Semantic Web as a linked machine readable Web of data depends on the availability of authoring tools that enable ordinary Web users (i.e. non-experts with respect to Web technologies) to create and publish semantic data. In this paper, we introduce the "One Click Annotator" for enriching texts with RDFa annotations and linking resources through an intuitive user interface, thereby hiding the complexity of creating semantic data. With this easy to use approach we aim at contributing to the change of the Web into a Semantic Web consisting of semantic information objects and linked data. We discuss requirements, challenges, and solutions for the implementation of the annotator.
  • GNOWSYS-mode: An Emacs based Text Editor for Semantic and Structured Document Editing. Divya Sinha, Alpesh Gajbe, Rajiv Nair, Ganesh Gajre and Nagarjuna G.
    Keeping the requirements of semantic web in mind we have developed a special editing environment to collaboratively create, update and manage knowledge networks and structured documents, that works as a client to GNOWSYS server. GNOWSYS (Gnowledge Networking and Organizing System) is a frame based triple-store supporting ontology versioning, publishing and managing multiple ontologies along with instances. The presentation shows how the version management of knowledge networks happens on the server side and how to view and manage them from the client. The project supported by gnowledge lab, and Google Summer of Code 2009 and GNU.

Event schedule

09:00 Start
09:1009:30 Observations in collaborative ontology editing using Collaborative Protégé
Daniel Schober, James Malone and Robert Stevens
09:3009:50 Collective Knowledge Authoring
Jim Starz, Brian Kettler and Alden Roberts
09:5010:10 Using RDF Metadata To Enable Access Control on the Social Semantic Web
James Hollenbach, Joe Presbrey and Tim Berners-Lee
10:1010:30 NLP-based support for ontology lifecycle development
Diana Maynard, Adam Funk and Wim Peters
10:3011:00 Coffee break
11:0011:20 Towards Social Performance Indicators for Community-based Ontology Evolution
Pieter De Leenheer, Christophe Debruyne and Johannes Peeters
11:2011:40The Open Ontology Repository Initiative: Requirements and Research Challenges
Kenneth Baclawski and Todd Schneider
11:4012:00Towards Collaborative Strategy Content Management using Ontologies
Simon Paradies, Sonja Zillner and Michal Skubacz
12:0012:10MoKi: A Collaborative Enterprise Modelling Tool
Chiara Ghidini, Barbara Kump, Stefanie Lindstaedt, Nahid Mahbub, Viktoria Pammer, Marco Rospocher and Luciano Serafini
12:1012:20Schema Management in a Semantic Wiki
Alan Meredith, Dan Reininger, Bob Bullard and Jeff Mershon
12:2012:30 Collaborative Meta-Modeling of Multi-Domain R&D Projects
Sonja Zillner
14:0015:00Invited Talk: Collaborative Ontology building: So much more than authoring an Ontology
Robert Stevens
15:0015:10One Click Annotation
Ralf Heese, Markus Luczak-Rösch, Radoslaw Oldakowski, Olga Streibel and Adrian Paschke
15:1015:20GNOWSYS-mode: An Emacs based Text Editor for Semantic and Structured Document Editing
Divya Sinha, Alpesh Gajbe, Rajiv Nair, Ganesh Gajre and Nagarjuna G.
15:2016:10 Coffee break / poster and demo session
16:1017:15Panel: Collaborative ontology development: when it works and when it doesn't?
Natasha Noy (Stanford University)
Mark Greaves (Vulcan)
Mark Musen (Stanford University)
Robert Stevens (University of Manchester)
Pat Hayes (Institute for Human and Machine Cognition)
Research paper (20 minutes)
Demo/Poster paper (10 minutes)
Break / lunch


Organizing committee

Program Committee

  • Mathieu D'Aquin, Knowledge Media Institute, UK
  • Sören Auer, University of Leipzig, Germany
  • Ken Baclawski, Northeastern University, US
  • Simone Braun, FZI, Germany
  • Vinay Chaudhri, SRI international, USA
  • Mike Dean, BBN Technologies, USA
  • Jèrôme Euzenat, INRIA, France
  • Sean Falconer, University of Victoria, Canada
  • Aldo Gangemi, ISTC-CNR, Italy
  • John Graybeal, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, USA
  • Andreas Hotho, University of Kassel, Germany
  • Elisa Kendall, Sandpiper Software, USA
  • Peter Mika, Yahoo Research, Spain
  • Valentina Presutti, ISTC-CNR, Italy
  • Marta Sabou, Knowledge Media Institute, UK
  • Daniel Schober, University of Freiburg, Germany
  • Robert Stevens, University of Manchester, UK
  • Gerd Stumme, University of Kassel, Germany
  • Mari Carmen Suarez-Figueroa, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain
  • Giovanni Tummarello, DERI, Ireland
  • Denny Vrandecic, AIFB, Germany
  • Anna Fensel, FTW, Austria

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