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(2) Subject-coded list for (1) a summary of the Categorical Perception segment of the Avanced Topics course and (2) a version of the bibliography coded by subject (visual, auditory, neural, etc.).
1. Goldstone, Robert. Influences of categorization on perceptual discrimination. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 1994 Jun, v123 (n2):178-200.
Abstract: Four experiments investigated the influence of categorization training on perceptual discrimination. Subjects were trained according to 1 of 4 different categorization regimes. Subsequent to category learning, Subjects performed a Same-Different judgment task. Subjects' sensitivities ( d 's) for discriminating between items that varied on category-(ir)relevant dimensions were measured. Evidence for acquired distinctiveness (increased perceptual sensitivity for items that are categorized differently) was obtained. One case of acquired equivalence (decreased perceptual sensitivity for items that are categorized together) was found for separable, but not integral, dimensions. Acquired equivalence within a categorization-relevant dimension was never found for either integral or separable dimensions. The relevance of the results for theories of perceptual learning, dimensional attention, categorical perception, and categorization are discussed.
2. BOOK CHAPTER Canter, David V.; Monteiro, Circe. The lattice of polemic social representations: A comparison of the social representations of occupations in favelas, public housing, and middle-class neighbourhoods of Brazil. IN: Empirical approaches to social representations.; Glynis Marie Breakwell, David V. Canter, Eds. Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press, Oxford, England. 1993. p. 223-247. Pub type: Experimental.
Abstract: (from the book) the facet approach (to data analysis in social representation research) sits between the dimensional and clustering frameworks; it presents a number of aspects of representations that are essentially categorical and shows how they can combine in use to generate continuous, overlapping variations in the social representations held by different groups sharing a common culture; the rather unusual form of analysis (the authors) use, partial order scalogram analysis, while having a number of distinct qualities, is none the less a member of the family of multidimensional scaling techniques. (from the chapter) (the study looks at) how various people, selected from different groups in Brazil, see their society and what forms of consensus exist; focuses on ...occupations that are distributed across (society); aim is to see how these occupations are categorized in relation to a number of salient features that reflect the operation of social processes (such as social class); (Subjects were people living in a favela, in public housing, and middle class neighborhoods in Brazil).
3. Quinn, Paul C. The categorization of above and below spatial relations by young infants. Child Development, 1994 Feb, v65 (n1):58-69.
Abstract: Employed the familiarization-novelty preference procedure to investigate whether 3-mo-old infants categorize the above and below spatial relations between a dot and a horizontal reference bar. 104 Subjects participated in 3 experiments. Exp 1 showed that Subjects who were familiarized with a series of exemplars, each depicting a dot in a different position above a horizontal reference bar, displayed a novelty preference for an exemplar in which the dot appeared below the bar. Similarly, Subjects familiarized with the dot appearing in multiple locations below the bar showed a preference for a stimulus in which the dot was positioned above the bar. The combined results of Exps 2 and 3 suggest that the preference behavior observed in Exp 1 was a consequence of the Subject's ability to form categorical representations of the spatial relations above and below and to respond to novel object arrangements on the basis of these representations. 1994
4. Tuller, Betty; Case, Pamela; Ding, Mingzhou; Kelso, J. A. Scott. The nonlinear dynamics of speech categorization. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 1994 Feb, v20 (n1):3-16.
Abstract: Little is known about the processes underlying the nonlinear relationship between acoustics and speech perception. In Exp 1, the effects of systematic variation of a single acoustic parameter (silent gap duration between a natural utterance of s and a synthetic vowel ay ) on judgments of speech category were explored. The resulting shifts in category boundary between say and stay showed rich dynamics, including hysteresis, contrast, and critical boundary effects. A dynamical model is proposed to account for the observed patterns. Exp 2 evaluated 1 prediction of the model, that changing the relative stability of the 2 percepts allows categorical switching. In agreement with the model, an increase in the number of stimulus repetitions maximized the frequency of judgments of category change near the boundary. Thus, a dynamical approach affords the rudiments for a theory of the effects of temporal context on speech categorization. 1994 all rights reserved).
5. Lewandowsky, Stephan; Herrmann, Douglas J.; Behrens, John T.; Li, Shu-chen; and others. Perception of clusters in statistical maps. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 1993 Nov, v7 (n6):533-551.
Abstract: Observed the performance of 32 undergraduates on a cluster identification task across a variety of common statistical maps in 2 experiments. Stimulus maps displayed mortality rates for several diseases and Subjects had to identify regions of the map that were perceived to form a cluster of particularly high (or low) mortality. Subjects marked the perceived centroid of each cluster, and analyses focused on the dispersion of centroid location across Subjects. Monochrome classed choropleth maps were found to minimize dispersion, compared to a two opposing colors scheme, a dot density map, a pie map, and a categorical (hue-based) color scheme. Maps using a familiar geographical unit supported better recall of the information than maps using less familiar and smaller geographical units. 1994 all rights reserved).
6. BOOK CHAPTER Snowdon, Charles T. Linguistic phenomena in the natural communication of animals. IN: Language and communication: Comparative perspectives. Comparative cognition and neuroscience.; Herbert L. Roitblat, Louis M. Herman, Paul E. Nachtigall, Eds. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Hillsdale, NJ, US. 1993. p. 175-194.
Abstract: (from the chapter) illustrate some of the complexity of (the) natural (vocal) communication systems (of small South American primates known as marmosets or tamarins), focusing on several topics: phonetic variability and categorical perception, social influences on communication, syntax, and referential communication; add some additional examples from the work of others on other species of South American primates and a few examples of work from birds.
7. Windsor, W. Luke. Dynamic accents and the categorical perception of metre. Psychology of Music, 1993, v21 (n2):127-140.
Abstract: Examined the relationship between systematically varied patterns of dynamic accents and 7 musically trained undergraduates' performance in identification and discrimination tasks. Results suggest that dynamic information is interpreted according to its ability to generate an unambiguous metrical framework and that this framework facilitates discrimination between patterns of dynamic accents in a categorical fashion. This is shown to provide support for the interdependence of dynamic accents and the perception of metrical structure. Dynamic accents both generate metrical structure and are perceived as metrical or nonmetrical relative to this structure. 1994
8. Niewiadomska-Bugaj, Magdalena; Zeranska-Kominek, S. Musical self-image and cultural change: Lithuanian minority in Poland case study. Behavioral Science, 1993 Oct, v38 (n4):273-292.
Abstract: Examines the individual's perception of membership in an ethnically defined social group, in particular the hypotheses regarding the implicit definitions of one's own social group elicited from the negatives of perceived differences from members of other groups. The specific hypotheses concern the relationship between the perceived differences and the geographical distance to the group. These hypotheses were tested on the material collected from evaluations of Lithuanian folk songs from various regions by Lithuanian minority in Poland. In addition to the results being generalizable to other ethnic groups, and to perception not restricted to songs but also concerning other aspects of culture (allowing mostly categorical judgments), the results are of interest because of the statistical methodology used, which involves resampling techniques for categorical data.
9. Polzella, Donald J.; Montgomery, Demaris A. Dimensions of color harmony. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1993 Sep, v31 (n5):423-435.
Abstract: Studied the ratings of 21 undergraduates of a random sequence of 144 color pairs on a categorical scale ranging from 1 (harmonizing) to 7 (clashing). Another group of 35 undergraduates rated each individual color on a set of semantic differential scales. The colors were also scaled objectively in terms of Munsell measures for hue, chroma, and value. A 2-dimensional solution accounted for 83.1% of the variability in the transformed data matrices. It was found that hue, value (brightness), and the psychological attribute "pleasantness," were the factors that influenced the color harmony judgments. Harmonious color combinations involved colors that were similar with regard to these attributes. 1994 all rights reserved).
10. Massaro, Dominic W.; Cohen, Michael M.; Gesi, Antoinette; Heredia, Roberto; and others. Bimodal speech perception: An examination across languages. Journal of Phonetics, 1993 Oct, v21 (n4):445-478.
Abstract: Examined whether language and culture influence speech perception in face-to-face communication. Native speakers of Japanese ( n = 21), Spanish ( n = 20), and English ( n = 37) identified the same synthetic unimodal and bimodal speech syllables. Five-step /ba/-/da/ continua were synthesized along auditory and visual dimensions, by varying properties of the syllable at its onset. In the 1st experiment, the 3 language groups identified the test syllables as /ba/ or /da/; in the 2nd, Japanese and English speakers were given an open-ended set of response alternatives. For all language groups, identification of the speech segments was influenced by both auditory and visual sources of information. Results refuted an auditory dominance model which assumes that the contribution of visible speech is dependent on poor-quality audible speech. Results also falsified a categorical model of perception.
11. ten Hoopen, Gert; Hilkhuysen, Gaston; Vis, Gert; Nakajima, Yoshitaka; and others. A new illusion of time perception: II. Music Perception, 1993 Fall, v11 (n1):15-38.
Abstract: Conducted 4 experiments with 16 Subjects to investigate the mechanism that causes the time-shrinking illusory phenomenon. Findings rule out the possibilities that the illusion results from a difficulty in resolving the temporal structure or that the listener was not inadvertently judging the duration of the 1st interval instead of that of the 2nd. Forward masking of the sound markers, delimiting the empty durations, could not explain the illusion; however, competition between expected and observed temporal positions was revealed as a clue to the mechanism of time-shrinking. Categorical perception plays a crucial role in the formation of the illusion. It is argued that the illusion is due to an asymmetric process of temporal assimilation.
12. BOOK CHAPTER Snowdon, Charles T. A comparative approach to language parallels. IN: Tools, language and cognition in human evolution.; Kathleen R. Gibson, Tim Ingold, Eds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England. 1993. p. 109-128.
Abstract: (from the chapter) (justify) the study of non-hominoids (to elucidate the evolutionary origins of language); discuss the importance of studying communication in a naturalistic environment and the importance of social influences on the expression of complex skills; consider various standards for evaluating the performance of non-human animals; assess some of the recent claims for these animals' linguistic and cognitive accomplishments... provide data from a variety of avian and mammalian species with respect to ontogeny, categorical perception, syntax, and representational signalling in order to use the hypothesis of convergent evolution to develop ideas about the evolutionary origins of each of these phenomena.
13. Leinbach, Mary D.; Fagot, Beverly I. Categorical habituation to male and female faces: Gender schematic processing in infancy. Infant Behavior & Development, 1993 Jul-Sep, v16 (n3):317-332.
Abstract: Exp 1 used an infant-controlled habituation procedure to assess 80 5-, 7-, 9-, and 12-mo-old infants' ability to discriminate pictures of adult male and female faces categorically. The 9- and 12-mo-old groups habituated to a series of male or female faces, generalized habituation to a new face of the same sex, and dishabituated when shown an opposite-sex face, thus showing discrimination of male and female faces as separate categories. In Exp 2, the stimuli were altered so that 3 groups of 12-mo-olds (60 Subjects in all) saw men and women pictured with unisex clothing, women pictured with short hair, or women pictured with short hair and both sexes pictured with unisex clothing. Decrements in categorical responding were significant only when both hair and clothing were altered. Individually, a proportion of Subjects in each group demonstrated categorical recognition of male and female faces despite changes in stimuli. 1994
14. Quinn, Paul C.; Eimas, Peter D.; Rosenkrantz, Stacey L. Evidence for representations of perceptually similar natural categories by 3-month-old and 4-month-old infants. Perception, 1993, v22 (n4):463-475.
Abstract: The paired-preference procedure was used in 4 experiments to explore the abilities of a total of 124 infants (aged 3 and 4 mo) to categorize photographic exemplars from natural (adult-defined) basic-level categories. Exps 1-3 revealed that infants could form categorical representations for dogs and cats that excluded birds. Exp 4 showed that the representation for cats also excluded dogs but that the representation for dogs did not exclude cats. A supplementary experiment showed that the representation for dogs did exclude cats when the variability of the dog exemplars was reduced to match that of the cat exemplars. 1994
15. Dror, Itiel E.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.; Waag, Wayne L. Visual-spatial abilities of pilots. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1993 Oct, v78 (n5):763-773.
Abstract: US Air Force pilots and control Subjects participated in 5 experiments, each of which assessed a different type of visual-spatial ability. Although pilots judged metric spatial relations better than did nonpilots, they did not judge categorical spatial relations better than did nonpilots. Pilots mentally rotated objects better than did nonpilots, but pilots did not extrapolate motion, scan images, or extract visual features from objects obscured by visual noise better than did nonpilots. The results imply that efficient use of specific processing subsystems is especially important for, and characteristic of, pilots. The possible neuropsychological bases for the enhanced abilities and their susceptibility to change are discussed. 1994
16. Sharma, A.; Kraus, Nina; McGee, T.; Carrell, T.; and others. Acoustic versus phonetic representation of speech as reflected by the mismatch negativity event-related potential. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology: Evoked Potentials, 1993 Jan-Feb, v88 (n1):64-71.
Abstract: Recorded the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potential in 11 adults to determine whether the MMN reflects the acoustic or categorical perception of speech. The MMN was elicited by stimulus pairs that had been identified as the same phoneme /da/ (within category condition) and as different phonemes /da/ and /ga/ (across categories condition). Acoustic differences between the 2 pairs of stimuli were equivalent. The MMN was observed in all Subjects in both conditions. Furthermore, the MMN did not differ in latency, amplitude, or area within and across categories, thus indicating equal discrimination in both conditions. The MMN appears to reflect the processing of acoustic aspects of the speech stimulus, but not phonetic processing into categories. 1993
17. David, Anthony S.; Cutting, John C. Visual imagery and visual semantics in the cerebral hemispheres in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 1993 Jan, v8 (n3):263-271.
Abstract: Administered divided visual field tasks to 30 normal Subjects, 22 patients with affective disorder, and 46 schizophrenics to investigate hemisphere differences in the visual processing of standardized pictorial stimuli. There were 2 conditions: In the 1st, Subjects had to make a categorical judgment based on fundamental knowledge stored in semantic memory (a left hemisphere task). In the 2nd condition, Subjects were required to make a relative size judgment (a right hemisphere task). The patient groups, while showing slower reaction time (RT) overall, displayed a right hemisphere advantage on the imagery task. Schizophrenics' right hemispheres showed the normal relationship between closeness of size comparison and RT, additional evidence that the visual imagery mechanism is intact. However, schizophrenic patients failed to show the expected left-hemisphere advantage on the visual-semantic task. 1993
18. Howard, David M.; Rosen, Stuart; Broad, Victoria. Major/minor triad identification and discrimination by musically trained and untrained listeners. Music Perception, 1992 Winter, v10 (n2):205-220.
Abstract: Examined the extent to which a computer-synthesized continuum of major to minor triads was categorically perceived using labeling and discrimination tests. The 32 listeners varied widely in "musicality" (MUS), assessed by an objective test of basic musical skills. There was a strong positive relationship between MUS and ability to label the major/minor continuum consistently. Overall discrimination performance varied only weakly with MUS, although the pattern of discrimination performance across the continuum differed strongly among 3 listener subgroups, distinguished on the basis of MUS. The most "musical" listeners showed a close relationship between the position of the discrimination peak and the category boundary calculated from the labeling function, a strong indicator of categorical perception. On similar criteria, the evidence for categorical perception was moderate in an intermediate group. 1993
19. Schouten, M. E.; Van Hessen, A. J. Modeling phoneme perception: I. Categorical perception. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 1992 Oct, v92 (n4, Pt 1):1841-1855.
Abstract: Two experiments tested the different claims concerning the use of long-term memory made by 2 theories of phoneme perception: the dual-process theory of H. Fujisaki and T. Kawashima (1971) and the trace-context theory as applied to speech perception by N. A. Macmillan and colleagues (e.g., Macmillan et al; 1987). Exp 1 consisted of 5 discrimination and identification tests involving the same consonant and vowel stimuli presented to 14 students. Exp 2 consisted of 6 discrimination and identification tests with the same stimuli used in Exp 1 and involved 14 undergraduates. Data suggest that stop-consonant discrimination is hardly affected by context coding, whereas vowel discrimination is to a large extent determined by it. If this conclusion is justified, it means that stop-consonant phonemes are stored in a separate phoneme memory, whereas vowel phonemes are stored in a context-coding memory; both theories would then be correct. 1993 American Psychological
20. Berti, Anna; Rizzolatti, Giacomo. Visual processing without awareness: Evidence from unilateral neglect. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 1992 Fall, v4 (n4):345-351.
Abstract: Investigated the elaboration of visual stimuli presented to the field contralateral to the lesion in 7 patients (aged 43-82 yrs) with severe unilateral neglect. Subjects tried to respond as fast as possible to target stimuli (pictures of animals and fruits) tachistoscopically presented to the normal field by pressing 1 of the 2 keys according to the category of the targets. By combining different pairs of primes and targets, 3 different experimental conditions were obtained: highly congruent, congruent, and noncongruent. Results show that the responses were facilitated in both the highly congruent and congruent conditions. Findings suggest that patients with neglect are able to process stimuli presented to the neglected field to a categorical level of representation even when they deny the stimulus presence in the affected field. 1993
21. Etcoff, Nancy L.; Magee, John J. Categorical perception of facial expressions. Cognition, 1992 Sep, v44 (n3):227-240.
Abstract: Sets of drawings were generated by computer, each consisting of a series of faces differing by constant physical amounts, running from one emotional expression (i.e., happiness, sadness, anger, disgust, fear) to another (or to a neutral face). 88 undergraduate Subjects discriminated pairs of faces and categorized the emotion displayed by each. Faces within a category were discriminated more poorly than faces in different categories that differed by an equal physical amount. Thus, emotional expressions, like colors and speech sounds, are perceived categorically and not as a direct reflection of their continuous physical properties. 1993 all rights reserved).
22. Hoyer, William J.; Rybash, John M. Age and visual field differences in computing visual-spatial relations. Psychology & Aging, 1992 Sep, v7 (n3):339-342.
Abstract: Age and brain hemispheric differences in visual-spatial performance were investigated using 2 versions of categorical and coordinate (metric) spatial relations tasks. 32 young adults ( M = 19.2 yrs) and 32 older adults ( M = 68.8 yrs) participated. An overall age-related decrement in computing visual-spatial relations was obtained for lateralized presentations and when items were presented centrally. In contrast to some previous findings, there was no evidence to suggest differential aging of the right hemisphere in computing visual-spatial relations. 1993
24. Desain, Peter. A (de)composable theory of rhythm perception. Music Perception, 1992 Summer, v9 (n4):439-454.
Abstract: A definition is given of expectancy of events projected into the future by a complex temporal sequence. The definition can be decomposed into basic expectancy components projected by each time interval implicit in the sequence. A preliminary formulation of these basic curves is proposed and the (de)composition method is stated in a formalized, mathematical way. The resulting expectancy of complex temporal patterns can be used to model such diverse topics as categorical rhythm perception, clock and meter inducement, rhythmicity, and the similarity of temporal sequences. Besides expectancy projected into the future, the proposed measure can be projected back into the past as well, generating reinforcement of past events by new data. The consistency of the predictions of the theory with some findings in categorical rhythm perception is shown. 1992
25. Hopp, Steven L.; Sinnott, Joan M.; Owren, Michael J.; Petersen, Michael R. Differential sensitivity of Japanese macaques ( Macaca fuscata ) and humans ( Homo sapiens ) to peak position along a synthetic coo call continuum. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1992 Jun, v106 (n2):128-136.
Abstract: Difference limens (DLs) for changes in the temporal position of a pitch peak along a synthetic early-high to late-high coo continuum were measured in 2 Japanese macaques and 2 humans in a low-uncertainty, repeating standard discrimination procedure. Lowest DLs (19-32 msec for monkeys; <10 msec for humans) occurred near the endpoints of the continuum. Highest DLs (59-73 msec for monkeys; 25-27 msec for humans) occurred near the center of the continuum. DLs for both monkeys and humans corresponded to previously reported measures of temporal resolution. Neither monkeys nor humans exhibited categorical perception of the coo continuum, with a central area of enhanced sensitivity, a result previously reported by B. May et al (1989) for similar stimuli. The authors conclude that Subjects discriminated variation in coo peak position by using general psychoacoustic mechanisms related to temporal discrimination. 1992
26. Showers, Carolin. Compartmentalization of positive and negative self-knowledge: Keeping bad apples out of the bunch. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 1992 Jun, v62 (n6):1036-1049.
Abstract: Three studies examined whether categorical organization of knowledge about the self explains variance in self-esteem and depression beyond that which is accounted for by sheer amount of positive or negative content. Compartmentalization is the tendency to organize positive and negative knowledge about the self into separate, uniformly valenced categories (self-aspects). As long as positive self-aspects are activated, access to negative information should be minimized. Compartmentalization was associated with high self-esteem and low depression scores for individuals whose positive self-aspects were important; when negative self-aspects were important, compartmentalization was correlated with low self-esteem and high depression scores. An analysis of self-aspect labels showed that individuals with compartmentalized organization define negative self-aspects in especially narrow terms. A possible relationship between compartmentalized organization and cognitive complexity is discussed. 1992 all rights reserved).
27. Freeman, Linton C. Filling in the blanks: A theory of cognitive categories and the structure of social affiliation. Special Issue: Theoretical advances in social psychology. Social Psychology Quarterly, 1992 Jun, v55 (n2):118-127.
Abstract: Contends that people are aware of who is affiliated with whom in their immediate social world. Their perceptions of the patterning of affiliation, however, do not correspond to the patterning actually displayed by interacting humans. Affiliation is not categorical; perceptions of affiliation are. On the basis of experimental evidence about errors in learning simple social structures, a theory that accounts for this discrepancy is proposed. This theory suggests that people impose a categorical form on noncategorical affiliation patterns by a process of filling in the blanks in their experience. 1993
28. Rybash, John M.; Hoyer, William J. Hemispheric specialization for categorical and coordinate spatial representations: A reappraisal. Memory & Cognition, 1992 May, v20 (n3):271-276.
Abstract: Examined S. M. Kosslyn's (see PA, Vol 74:20906) claim that the left hemisphere is specialized for the computation of categorical spatial representations and that the right hemisphere (RH) is specialized for the computation of coordinate spatial representations. 64 undergraduates were administered 2 versions of a categorical or a coordinate task over 3 blocks of 36 trials. Results were supportive of Kosslyn's assertions concerning the role played by the RH in the computation of spatial representations. Subjects displayed a left visual field-RH advantage when performing both versions of the coordinate task. 1992
29. Nakajima, Yoshitaka; ten Hoopen, Gert; Hilkhuysen, Gaston; Sasaki, Takayuki. Time-shrinking: A discontinuity in the perception of auditory temporal patterns. Perception & Psychophysics, 1992 May, v51 (n5):504-507.
Abstract: Examined whether the amount of subjective time shrinking is a monotonous function of the preceding time interval. The preceding interval was kept constant at 50 msec, and the following interval, for which the duration had to be judged, varied from 40 to 280 msec. Results show that at up to 100 msec, the perceived duration increased to a much lesser extent than did the objective duration. Beyond 120 msec, the perceived duration increased and reached a veridical value at 160 msec. Such a sudden change of perceived duration indicates a typical example of categorical perception. Such a categorization of the time dimension might be a clue for processes of speech and music perception. 1992
30. Monteil, Jean-Marc. Intergroup differentiation and individuation: The effect of social deprivation. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive, 1992 Apr, v12 (n2):189-203.
Abstract: Replicated J. M. Monteil and P. Chambres's (1988) results and tested hypotheses from those results to comprehend the observed cancellation of intergroup discrimination. Four groups (2 socially deprived (SDP) and 2 nondeprived (NDP)) of 6 male students (mean age 14 yrs and 7 mo) participated in a study to test the effects on intergroup discrimination of social deprivation followed by positive in-group categorization. Results with NDP Subjects are consistent with those found on intergroup phenomena especially in studies reporting easy assimilation of positive information and increased categorical differentiation (e.g., J. Krueger and M. Rothbart; see PA, Vol 78:4394). Results with SDP Subjects replicate the cancellation of the intergroup bias noted in previous work (e.g., Monteil and Chambres, 1988). Emergence of a potential process of individuation explained the cancellation of the in-/out-group favoritism bias. (French abstract) 1992
31. Ehret, G. Categorical perception of mouse-pup ultrasounds in the temporal domain. Animal Behaviour, 1992 Mar, v43 (n3):409-416.
Abstract: Tested 112 house mouse mothers in a situation with 2 alternative choices for their unconditioned preference of 50 kHz tone bursts of various durations. Categorical perception in the temporal domain was established by labeling and discrimination tests. Two categories occurred: one of nonpreferred short-duration tones (25 msec and shorter) and the other of preferred long-duration tones (30 msec and longer) with a sharp boundary between 25 and 30 msec. Stimuli from the 2 categories were discriminated, however, only if they differed in duration by at least 20-25 msec, which may be the threshold of duration discrimination. The biological significance of categorical perception of communication sounds and possible mechanisms of boundary formation are discussed. 1992
32. Cohen, Leslie B.; Diehl, Randy L.; Oakes, Lisa M.; Loehlin, John C. Infant perception of /aba/ versus /apa/: Building a quantitative model of infant categorical discrimination. Developmental Psychology, 1992 Mar, v28 (n2):261-272.
Abstract: Two experiments using a visual habituation paradigm examined 7.5 mo-old infants' categorical discrimination of the medial stop consonants /aba/ and /apa/. Infants received digitized natural speech tokens differing in the duration of consonantal closure and in the presence or absence of vocal-fold pulsing. The results provided clear evidence of infant categorical discrimination based solely on closure duration. Infants also shifted their boundary (toward shorter closure durations) if they received pulsing during habituation. A trading relation between closure duration and pulsing was also obtained. Three different quantitative models of infant speech perception were examined. A composite model incorporating categorical discrimination, the boundary shift, and the trading relation produced excellent predictions of infant performance. Application of this model to other aspects of infant speech perception was discussed. 1992
33. Wolfe, Jeremy M.; Friedman-Hill, Stacia R.; Stewart, Marion I.; O'Connell, Kathleen M. The role of categorization in visual search for orientation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 1992 Feb, v18 (n1):34-49.
Abstract: Visual search for 1 target orientation is fast and virtually independent of set size if all of the distractors are of a single, different orientation. However, in the presence of distractors of several orientations, search can become inefficient and strongly dependent on set size (Exp 1). Search can be inefficient even if only 2 distractor orientations are used and even if those orientations are quite remote from the target orientation (e.g., 20Deg. or even 40Deg. away, Exp 2). Search for 1 orientation among heterogeneous distractor orientations becomes more efficient if the target orientation is the only item possessing a categorical attribute such as steep, shallow (Exp 3), tilted left or tilted right (Exp 4), or simply tilted (Exps 5 and 6). Orientation categories appear to be 1 of several strategies used in visual search for orientation. These serve as a compromise between the limits on parallel visual processing and the demands of a complex visual world. 1992
34. Guski, Rainer. Acoustic tau: An easy analogue to visual tau? Ecological Psychology, 1992, v4 (n3):189-197.
Abstract: Building on research into an acoustic tau by B. K. Shaw et al (1991), the different functions that vision and hearing have to serve are reconsidered and the simple analogy between vision and hearing is questioned. Specifically, the warning function of the ear is emphasized and a model of communication is proposed to account for the interplay of audition and vision in the identification of a sound source approaching from a point out of sight. In normal approach situations, the auditory modality will monitor the environment, and a categorical decision about time to turn or time to jump is made to avoid an approaching object. According to the model, if there is time enough to turn, then the visual mode will provide sufficient information for safe estimates of time to contact. 1993 all rights reserved).
35. Butterworth, George. Origins of self-perception in infancy. Psychological Inquiry, 1992, v3 (n2):103-111.
Abstract: Considers antecedents of self-knowledge in processes of sensory perception (SPC) during infancy, guided by J. J. Gibson's (1966, 1979) ecological approach to SPC, which suggests a distinction between self and nonself inherent in SPC. Evidence from human infants who are too young to recognize themselves in mirrors is reviewed for a sensory perceptual basis for the existential and categorical self. Studies of visual proprioceptive control of posture in babies may be interpreted to support an inherent distinction between self and nonself in infant perception. Aspects of bodily self-awareness manifested even by fetuses demonstrate some basis for a categorical self as an original aspect of experience. Self-specification in SPC is also indicated in research on imitation in very young infants, a possible mechanism for the social component of self-concept development. 1992 all rights reserved).
36. Lynch, Michael P.; Eilers, Rebecca E.; Bornstein, Marc H. Speech, vision, and music perception: Windows on the ontogeny of mind. Special Issue: Child development and music. Psychology of Music, 1992, v20 (n1):3-14. Pub type: Literature Review; Review.
Abstract: Reviews studies that have examined how infants' processing abilities of speech, color, and musical stimuli change with development. In categorical perception, developmental change is tracked by examining the tuning of perceptual categories. In both speech perception and color vision, there is evidence that the boundaries between perceptual categories are tuned, or become sharper with development. In color vision, infants categorize visual color without the ability to attach names to psychologically different hues. Infants' hue categorization abilities would suggest that perception does not account for difficulty in color naming. Findings in speech and vision are presented as a model for possible future work in music perception that can result in greater understanding of perceptual development. 1992
37. DISSERTATION Martz, Richard T. Short-term categorical/noncategorical processing in the delayed-discrimination of monaural and dichotic synthetic vowels and nonspeech tones. Dissertation Abstracts International, 1991 Nov, v52 (n5-B):2801.
38. Bartholomew, Kim; Horowitz, Leonard M. Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 1991 Aug, v61 (n2):226-244.
Abstract: A new 4-group model of attachment styles in adulthood is proposed. Four prototypic attachment patterns are defined using combinations of a person's self-image (positive or negative) and image of others (positive or negative). In Study 1, an interview was developed to yield continuous and categorical ratings of the 4 attachment styles. Intercorrelations of the attachment ratings were consistent with the proposed model. Attachment ratings were validated by the self-report measures of self-concept and interpersonal functioning. Each style was associated with a distinct profile of interpersonal problems, according to both self- and friend-reports. In Study 2, attachment styles within the family of origin and with peers were assessed independently. Results of Study 1 were replicated. The proposed model was shown to be applicable to representations of family relations; Subjects' attachment styles with peers were correlated with family attachment ratings. 1991
39. Heller, Morton A.; Nesbitt, Kimberly D.; Scrofano, Danette K. Influence of writing style and categorical information on identification of tactile numerals and letters. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1991 Jul, v29 (n4):365-367.
Abstract: Conducted 3 experiments with 76 Subjects that examined recognition of print capital letters, script letters, and numerals. In Exp 1, letters printed on the skin with component lines in an irregular sequence were much harder to name than normally printed stimuli. In Exp 2, categorical information was an important aid to letter or number identification when Subjects were required to draw the tactile stimuli. Results suggest that observers may not always construct a veridical image when stimuli are drawn on the skin in the absence of categorical information. Performance was much lower for script than for print letters or numerals. In Exp 3, passive script recognition was superior to active script recognition, indicating that passivity per se cannot always explain difficulty in tactile symbol recognition. 1992
40. DISSERTATION Plumert, Jodie M. Children's use of categorical and spatial clustering strategies for recalling objects. Dissertation Abstracts International, 1991 Jun, v51 (n12-B, Pt 1):6126.
41. Burnham, Denis K.; Earnshaw, Lynda J.; Clark, John E. Development of categorical identification of native and non-native bilabial stops: Infants, children and adults. Journal of Child Language, 1991 Jun, v18 (n2):231-260.
Abstract: In Exp 1, using an infant speech identification (ISI) procedure, 48 English-language-environment infants (aged 9-11 mo), 48 children (aged 2.5-3 yrs or 6-7 yrs), and 14 adults were tested for identification of sounds on a native and a nonnative speech continuum. Categorical perception of the contrasts diverged as a function of age, increasing for the native contrast and decreasing for the nonnative between 2 and 6 yrs of age. In Exp 2, 24 infants (aged 0-11 mo), 19 children (aged 2.5-3 yrs or 6.5-7 yrs), and 7 adults were tested for their identification of a continuum of harmonic tones varying in pitch. The perception of the native contrast became more categorical with age, while perception of the nonnative contrast became less categorical. Exp 3, in which 30 adults were tested on the continua with a multitrial open-set procedure, demonstrated that results with the ISI procedure in Exps 1 and 2 are comparable to results with traditional methods. 1991
42. Tuller, Betty; Kelso, J. A. The production and perception of syllable structure. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research, 1991 Jun, v34 (n3):501-508.
Abstract: Data from 11 undergraduates demonstrate that naturally occurring linear changes in articulation may be perceived discontinuously. Specifically, linear changes in relative phase of glottal and oral movements are perceived as categorical changes in the location of syllable juncture. Thus, phase transitions observed during speech demarcate a change in syllabic organization. 1991
43. Massaro, Dominic W.; Weldon, Mary S.; Kitzis, Stephen N. Integration of orthographic and semantic information in memory retrieval. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 1991 Mar, v17 (n2):277-287.
Abstract: A central goal of this study was to determine how multiple sources of information are evaluated and integrated during memory retrieval. An expanded factorial design was used to vary 2 sources of information independently of one another and to present each source alone. Subjects solved crossword-like puzzles with varying numbers of orthographic and semantic cues. The results of the experiment indicated that (1) performance is better given 2 sources of information relative to just 1; (2) evaluation of each source of information provides continuous rather than just categorical (all-or-none) information; and (3) the 2 sources are integrated multiplicatively rather than simply used independently of one another as claimed by nonintegration models. A fuzzy logical model of perception--taken from the pattern recognition domain--gave a good description of the memory results. A single channel model, an averaging model, and an adding model produced poor descriptions of the results. 1991 all rights reserved).
44. Nakatani, Kaneto. / Categorical factors in the oblique effect under successive and absolute judgments of inclination. Japanese Journal of Psychology, 1991 Feb, v61 (n6):400-403. Language: Japanese.
Abstract: Studied the effects of an inclined frame of reference on inclination of the target line under conditions of successive and absolute judgments. Human Subjects: 9 normal Japanese adults (aged 19-22 yrs) (undergraduate students). Subjects estimated the inclination of stimuli using 36 response categories (plus 90 degrees to minus 85 degrees in 5-degree steps). Mean judgment errors were measured as a function of physical or physical/relative inclination with horizontal or inclined frames of reference. (English abstract) 1991
45. Maruszewski, Tomasz. Psychophysical scaling and valuation of social objects. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 1991, v22 (n2):107-116.
Abstract: Investigated the determinants of the value of the exponent of S. S. Stevens's power function, which is used to describe judgments referring to behaviors of positive valence (e.g., generosity), negative valence (e.g., theft), and neutral behaviors (interest in computer programming). The positively valued behavior was described by Stevens's function with a higher exponent than was the negatively valued behavior; the lowest exponent was obtained for neutral behaviors. An identical pattern of results was found for 3 different ways of expressing judgments. When judging others had more serious consequences, a decrease of exponents was observed (i.e., ratings were more conservative). Categorical responding was found in which Subjects judged the intensity of some feature of the target person identically despite considerable changes, but only for emotionally valued behaviors. 1992 American Psychological
46. CONFERENCE PAPER Kewley-Port, Diane. Cross-disciplinary advances in speech science. Future of Science and Services Seminar (1990, Rockville, Maryland). ASHA Reports Series (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association), 1990 Dec (n20):69-85.
Abstract: Presents 3 areas of research in speech science that reflect the contributions of other disciplines. Psychoacoustics and speech perception research are discussed in terms of categorical perception of sound continua, capabilities of the auditory system to process vowels, auditory models, and future research. Computer-based speech training aids are examined with reference to computer-based speech training systems, feedback in such systems, the Indiana Speech Training Aid, and the role of clinical evaluation. Phonological development is discussed in terms of its potential for reciprocal contributions to other disciplines, linguistic aspects, and psychology and the development of speech perception. 1992
47. Bissonnette, Victor; Bernstein, Ira H. Artifacts can replicate: A reply to Piliavin and Charng. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 1990 Sep, v16 (n3):554-561.
Abstract: Comments on J. Piliavin and H. Charng's (see PA, Vol 76:21125) defense of R. Burnkrant and T. Page's (see PA, Vol 72:13536) suggestion that the Self-Consciousness Scale measures 4 different traits, rather than the 3 traits proposed by A. Fenigstein et al (see PA, Vol 54:6584). Piliavin and Charng ignore important statistical problems in reaching this conclusion, and their factor-analytic results reflect the same problems that I. Bernstein et al (see PA, Vol 74:6021) point out in Burnkrant and Page's analysis. Item-level factor analyses as usually conducted will always exaggerate the dimensionality of categorical data such as item responses. The tripartite division of Fenigstein et al is functional in its present form. Discussion focuses on topics such as issues related to replicability and the consequences of item distribution differences. 1991
48. Pastore, Richard E.; Li, Xiao-feng; Layer, Jody K. Categorical perception of nonspeech chirps and bleats. Perception & Psychophysics, 1990 Aug, v48 (n2):151-156.
Abstract: Conducted an experiment, using tonal stimuli based on the nonspeech stimuli of I. G. Mattingly et al (see PA, Vol 46:10045), in which 4 undergraduates could classify nonspeech chirp, short bleat, and bleat continua with boundaries equivalent to the syllable place continuum of Mattingly et al. With the possible exception of the higher frequency boundary for both bleats and the Mattingly syllables, ABX discrimination peaks were clearly present and corresponded in location to the given labeling boundary. 1991 American Psychological
49. Serino, Carmencita. La comparaison sociale et la structure des systemes categoriels: quelques reflexions sur la prototypicalite du Soi. / Social comparison and structure of categorical systems: Some reflections about the typicality... Cahiers Internationaux de Psychologie Sociale, 1990 Jun (n6):73-96. Language: French.
Abstract: Discusses social comparison and social categorization processes and their implications for establishing the typicality of the self. The theory of prototypicality is discussed, and metric vs nonmetric approaches to social categorization are compared. In addition, the role of the self as a source of intragroup and intergroup differentiation is described, and differences between self-ingroup comparisons and self-outgroup comparisons are noted. (English abstract) 1992
50. Blount, Joseph P.; Blount, Mary R. Teaching about speech perception and production inexpensively on microcomputers. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 1990 Apr, v22 (n2):219-222.
Abstract: Suggests inexpensive ways to use microcomputers to teach 9 topics in speech perception and production: letter-to-sound correspondence, formants, voice onset time, sequences of sound units, acoustic vs perceived silence, parallel transmission, synthetic vs natural speech, categorical perception, and top-down processing. 1990
51. Collins, Nancy L.; Read, Stephen J. Adult attachment, working models, and relationship quality in dating couples. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 1990 Apr, v58 (n4):644-663.
Abstract: Three studies examined correlates of adult attachment. In Study 1, a scale to measure adult attachment style dimensions (ASDs) was developed based on C. Hazan and P. Shaver's (see PA, Vol 74:21950) categorical measure. Factor analyses revealed 3 dimensions underlying this measure: the extent to which an individual (1) is comfortable with closeness, (2) feels he or she can depend on others, and (3) is anxious or fearful about such things as being abandoned or unloved. Study 2 explored the relation between ASDs and working models of self and others. ASDs were related to self-esteem, expressiveness, instrumentality, trust in others, beliefs about human nature, and styles of loving. Study 3 explored the role of ASDs in 3 aspects of ongoing dating relationships: partner matching on ASDs; similarity between the attachment of one's partner and caregiving style of one's parents; and relationship quality. Evidence was obtained for partner matching and for similarity between one's partner and one's parents, particularly the opposite-sex parent. ASDs were related to how each partner perceived the relationship. For women, Dimension 1 was the best predictor of relationship quality; and the best predictor for men was Dimension 3. 1990 all rights reserved).
52. Zerbolio, Dominic J.; Golden, Christin M. Categorical color coding in a one-phase avoidance procedure. Animal Learning & Behavior, 1990 Feb, v18 (n1):83-89.
Abstract: Four colors (red, yellow, green, and blue) were arranged in 2-color sets to determine if 96 goldfish can discriminate between sets associated with shock or with safety/shock omission (SSO) in a discrimination-learning (DL) procedure. Subjects learned to discriminate between 2-color sets if colors were natural categorical color-code mates. When natural code mates were not in the same set and were paired with different shock consequents, no DL occurred, suggesting that goldfish are not able to code colors arbitrarily. Original-learning preference measures between colors in sets associated with SSO showed that Subjects chose red over any other color. 1990 all rights reserved).
53. Phillips, Roger D.; Wagner, Sheldon H.; Fells, Catherine A.; Lynch, Michael. Do infants recognize emotion in facial expressions? Categorical and "metaphorical" evidence. Infant Behavior & Development, 1990 Jan-Mar, v13 (n1):71-84.
Abstract: Investigated whether or not infants understand the meaning of emotion when displayed in facial expressions (FEs). 77 7-mo-old infants participated in 2 procedures. First, a categorization task assessed the ability to form an emotion category across exemplars that differed on a salient feature (toothiness), using a habituation/discrimination design. Subjects did not categorize joy and anger expressions successfully. Second, "metaphorical" mapping was used to test Subjects' construction of meaning in FEs. This task involved the simultaneous presentation of an auditory event (e.g., descending tone) and a pair of FEs (e.g., joy and sadness), one of which was preselected to match metaphorically the auditory event. Converging analyses revealed that 6 of 10 trials yielded longer looking to the predicted than to the nonpredicted FEs in the presence of metaphorically equivalent auditory events. 1990
54. Massaro, Dominic W.; Cohen, Michael M. Perception of synthesized audible and visible speech. Psychological Science, 1990 Jan, v1 (n1):55-63.
Abstract: To determine whether and how multiple sources of information influence speech perception (SP), synthetic audible and visual speech were combined in a novel expanded factorial design. Specifically, 5 levels of audible speech varying between /ba/ and /da/ were crossed with 5 levels of visible speech varying between the same alternatives. Results of an experiment, with 7 college students who chose among 8 response alternatives for each of 35 possible stimuli, are used to test between 2 contrasting models of SP: a fuzzy logical model of perception and a categorical model of perception. Evidence indicates that (1) perceivers have continuous information about various sources of information, (2) each source is evaluated, and (3) all sources are integrated in SP. 1990
55. Weary, Daniel M. Categorical perception of bird song: How do great tits ( Parus major ) perceive temporal variation in their song? Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1989 Dec, v103 (n4):320-325.
Abstract: Studies on mammals (especially humans) have shown that categorical perception of continuous variation is common with certain speech sounds. In great tits ( Parus major ), certain songs have been classified by researchers (e.g., P. K. McGregor and J. R. Krebs; see PA, Vol 68:12003) on the basis of one continuous variable, phrase length. This experiment tested whether songs that varied in this feature were perceived categorically. The birds were trained to discriminate between two reference songs that differed only in phrase length. They were then presented with test songs that formed a continuum between the two reference stimuli. In two experiments with different song stimuli, the birds did not respond to test songs in a categorical fashion (i.e., the response functions were linear or near-linear as opposed to the step-functions or sigmoid curves predicted from categorical perception). This evidence suggests that great tits did not perceive continuous variation in the phrase length of their own songs categorically. 1990 American Psychological
56. Kosslyn, Stephen M.; Koenig, Olivier; Barrett, Anna; Cave, Carolyn B.; and others. Evidence for two types of spatial representations: Hemispheric specialization for categorical and coordinate relations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 1989 Nov, v15 (n4):723-735.
Abstract: Analyses of human object recognition abilities led to the hypothesis that 2 kinds of spatial relation representations are used in human vision. Evidence for the distinction between abstract categorical spatial relation representations and specific coordinate spatial relation representations was provided in 4 experiments. These results indicate that Subjects make categorical judgments--on/off, left/right, and above/below--faster when stimuli are initially presented to the left cerebral hemisphere, whereas they make evaluations of distance--in relation to 2 mm, 3 mm, or 1 in. (2.54 cm)--faster when stimuli are initially presented to the right cerebral hemisphere. In addition, there was evidence that categorical representations developed with practice. 1990
57. Foster, David H.; Ferraro, Mario. Visual gap and offset discrimination and its relation to categorical identification in brief line-element displays. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 1989 Nov, v15 (n4):771-784.
Abstract: Visual processing was investigated in judgments of relative line position. Stimulus continua were generated by bisecting a straight line and displacing the segments. Experiment 1 measured discrimination of pairs of longitudinally displaced segments at equal steps along the continuum. At long (2 s) durations discrimination fell smoothly, but at short (100 ms) durations it was sharp-peaked. In Experiment 2 the short-duration stimuli were labeled with subsets of the labels no gap, just a gap, and more than just a gap. Theoretical discrimination performances were computed and the one based on no gap and just a gap closely fitted observed performance. Experiments 3 and 4 were similar to 1 and 2, with lateral replacing longitudinal displacement. Similar "categorical" performance was obtained. It was concluded that there are discrete mechanisms for early detection of relative line position and that 2 labels can be used to characterize performance in each direction. 1990
58. Reed, Marjorie A. Speech perception and the discrimination of brief auditory cues in reading disabled children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1989 Oct, v48 (n2):270-292.
Abstract: Conducted 2 experiments to explore (1) temporal order deficits and categorical perception deficits among reading disabled children (RDs) and (2) the extent of the deficit and some of its information processing consequences. Subjects were (Exp 1) 46 2nd- and 3rd-grade RDs (aged 7 yrs 9 mo to 10 yrs 4 mo) and (Exp 2) 10 RDs and 10 controls. Results support P. Tallal's (see PA, Vol 65:8220) contention that some RDs have difficulty making temporal order judgments on stimuli (auditory nonspeech tones) differentiated by very brief cues. However, RDs also have difficulty in making the same judgments with consonant-vowel syllables differentiated by brief cues. 1990
59. Burki-Cohen, Judith; Grosjean, Francois; Miller, Joanne L. Base-language effects on word identification in bilingual speech: Evidence from categorical perception experiments. Language & Speech, 1989 Oct-Dec, v32 (n4):355-371.
Abstract: Demonstrated that the perception of a code-switched word (CSW) is influenced by the base-language (BL) in which it occurs. 16 French-English bilingual adults served as Subjects in 2 experiments. Subjects identified stimuli from computer-edited series that ranged from an English to a French word as either the English or the French endpoint. Stimuli were preceded by either an English or a French context sentence. The BL had a contrastive effect on perception of a CSW when the endpoints of the between-language series were phonetically marked as English and French, respectively. When the endpoints of the series were phonetically unmarked (thus compatible with either language) however, no effect of the BL was found; in particular, the assimilative effect observed with other paradigms (F. Grosjean, 1988) was not found. 1991
60. Hilton, James L.; Fein, Steven. The role of typical diagnosticity in stereotype-based judgments. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 1989 Aug, v57 (n2):201-211.
Abstract: The relative impact that categorical information and nondiagnostic individuating information each have on stereotype-based judgments was examined. Three experiments tested and found consistent support for the hypothesis that the impact of Subjects' stereotypes on their judgments of target individuals would be diluted significantly more by the presence of individuating information that was nondiagnostic for the judgment task at hand but was relatively high in typical diagnosticity (i.e., useful across many social judgment tasks) than by individuating information that was nondiagnostic for the judgment task at hand and was relatively low in typical diagnosticity (i.e., useful across few social judgment tasks). The authors conclude that the typical diagnosticity of individuating information is an important, although previously overlooked, factor in social perception. 1989 American Psychological
61. Dooling, Robert J.; Okanoya, Kazuo; Brown, Susan D. Speech perception by budgerigars ( Melopsittacus undulatus ): The voiced-voiceless distinction. Perception & Psychophysics, 1989 Jul, v46 (n1):65-71.
Abstract: Studied the discrimination of synthetic speech sounds from the bilabial, alveolar, and velar voice onset time (VOT) series in 5 budgerigars operantly trained to detect changes in a repeating background of sound consisting of a synthetic speech token. Results suggest that budgerigars discriminate among synthetic speech sounds from the 3 VOT continua, especially between those from the bilabial and alveolar series, in a categorical fashion. 1990
62. Schulze, Hans-Henning. Categorical perception of rhythmic patterns. Special Issue: Rhythm perception, rhythm production, and timing. Psychological Research, 1989 Jun, v51 (n1):10-15.
Abstract: Two female music students were asked to identify a rhythm which is a member of a set of patterns interpolated between 2 rhythms (6/8 and 4/4 times). Subjects first learned the one-to-one association of the different patterns with a numerical label, and then performed a complete identification experiment. The identification matrix was analyzed in terms of discriminability of neighboring rhythmic patterns. Two questions are of interest: (1) whether variations within a rhythmic category can be discriminated better than chance and (2) whether the discrimination function is nonmonotonic, with a peak at the boundary between the rhythms. Results indicate that the answer to both questions is positive. 1990
63. Honig, W. K.; Stewart, Karen E. Discrimination of relative numerosity by pigeons. Animal Learning & Behavior, 1989 May, v17 (n2):134-146.
Abstract: Conducted 5 experiments with pigeons. Exps 1-3 used pigeons trained to discriminate between uniform arrays of 2 elements that differed in color, form, or size. In Exp 4, pigeons were taught to discriminate between 2 groups of categorical stimuli: pictures of birds and pictures of flowers. Exp 5 demonstrated transfer of stimulus control on the numerosity dimension. Results suggest that the numerosity of similar items is a salient feature of stimulus arrays. 1989
64. White, Peter A. Judgements of abnormality and their consequences for judgements of infractions of human and civil rights. Community Mental Health in New Zealand, 1989 May, v4 (n2):72-86.
Abstract: Proposes that people make a categorical distinction in their beliefs between normality (or mental health) and abnormality. Individuals and groups who are judged or believed to possess the defining characteristics of abnormality are not accorded the rights and privileges with which those regarded as "normal" are endowed in society. This has the consequence that conditions that might otherwise be regarded as violations of rights are not judged particularly unfair when the victim of them is believed by the judge to be abnormal. The particular identity of the victim, whether individual or group, is of no consequence as far as this effect is concerned. Findings of 2 studies that support this hypothesis are reported. 1989
65. Hirschfeld, Lawrence A. Discovering linguistic differences: Domain specificity and the young child's awareness of multiple languages. Human Development, 1989 May-Jun, v32 (n3-4):223-236.
Abstract: Notes that recent work (e.g., E. Turiel (1983); J. G. Smetana (see PA, Vol 72:14202)) supports the claim that even preschoolers acquire domain-specific and structured knowledge about natural kinds, on the one hand, and certain types of social and normal judgments, on the other. The present paper considers the young child's recognition of multiple languages in light of these findings on domain specificity. It is argued that the realization that more than one language exists is predicated on the emergence of metasocial as well as metalinguistic awareness, since (1) from what is known about the young child's perception of speech, the linguistic, particularly acoustic, evidence available to the child does not warrant the inference that multiple languages exist, and (2) this realization appears to be temporally associated with changes in the preschooler's social categorical development rather than with changes in metalinguistic awareness. 1989
66. Nelson, Douglas A.; Marler, Peter. Categorical perception of a natural stimulus continuum: Birdsong. Science, 1989 May, v244 (n4907):976-978.
Abstract: Investigated the role of categorization (recording of variable stimuli into discretely different categories) in birdsong perception by studying the songs of the swamp sparrow (SS). A habituation procedure was used to compare territorial responses of wild male SSs to pairs of test songs. Results show that territorial male SSs partition a natural continuum of notes into 2 categories known to play different roles in song organization. It is suggested that categorization allows birds to assign stimuli quickly and accurately to the correct note category, thereby resolving ambiguities resulting from intergradations between categories. 1989
67. Best, Catherine T.; Studdert-Kennedy, Michael; Manuel, Sharon; Rubin-Spitz, Judith. Discovering phonetic coherence in acoustic patterns. Perception & Psychophysics, 1989 Mar, v45 (n3):237-250.
Abstract: In 3 experiments, 88 young adult listeners were trained to hear a continuum of 3-tone, modulated sine wave patterns, modeled after a minimal pair contrast between 3-formant synthetic speech syllables, either as distorted speech signals carrying a phonetic contrast (speech listeners) or as distorted musical chords carrying a nonspeech auditory contrast (music listeners). The music listeners could neither integrate the sine wave patterns nor perceive their auditory coherence to arrive at consistent, categorical percepts, whereas the speech listeners judged the patterns as speech almost as reliably as the synthetic syllables on which they were modeled. The outcome is consistent with the hypothesis that listeners perceive the phonetic coherence of a speech signal by recognizing acoustic patterns that reflect the coordinated articulatory gestures from which they arose. 1989 all rights reserved).
68. May, Brad; Moody, David B.; Stebbins, William C. Categorical perception of conspecific communication sounds by Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 1989 Feb, v85 (n2):837-847.
Abstract: Examined the hypothesis that Japanese macaques derive meaning from the temporal position of a frequency peak within a vocalization by parceling the acoustic variation inherent in natural contact calls into 2 functional categories, and thus exhibit behavior that is analogous to the categorical perception of speech sounds by humans. Four Japanese macaques were trained to classify natural contact calls by performing operant responses that signified either an early or late frequency peak position. Then, Subjects were tested in a series of experiments that required them to generalize this behavior to synthetic calls representing a continuum of peak positions. Demonstration of the classical perceptual effects noted for human listeners suggests that categorical perception reflects a principle of auditory information processing that influences the perception of sounds in the communication systems of humans and animals. 1989
69. Clarkson, Richard L.; Eimas, Peter D.; Marean, G. Cameron. Speech perception in children with histories of recurrent otitis media. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 1989 Feb, v85 (n2):926-933.
Abstract: Investigated the ability of 24 preschool children (aged 4.9-6.0 yrs) to perceive differences in voice onset time (VOT) in naturally produced speech. Three groups of normal-hearing Subjects were tested on identification and discrimination tasks: (1) group C, controls who had normal language abilities and no history of severe, recurrent otitis media (OM); (2) group OM, in which Subjects had such histories but normal language abilities; and (3) group OM/DL, in which Subjects also had delays in language acquisition. Compared with group C, group OM/DL showed marked differences in ability to identify and discriminate speech patterns, and perception was less categorical. Group OM's performance fell between that of the other 2 groups, with deficits more pronounced in the discrimination task. 1989 all rights reserved).
70. Hoy, Ronald R. Startle, categorical response, and attention in acoustic behavior of insects. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 1989, v12:355-375. Pub type: Literature Review; Review.
Abstract: Discusses the concepts of categorical response, acoustic startle, and selective attention as they apply to humans and reviews the literature to explore possible analogs in insects, focusing on crickets, moths, praying mantises, and green lacewings. The definitions are modified to take into account surplus meaning (cognitive implications) in the original concepts as applied to humans. 1989
71. Hernandez Pozo, Rocio. Prejuicios categoriales en igualacion de colores, formas y numeros entre Hispanohablantes: Ninos y adultos. (Categorical prejudices in equivalence of colors, shapes, and numbers among Spanish-speaking children... Revista Intercontinental de Psicologia y Educacion, 1989, v2 (n1-2):207-222. Language: Spanish.
Abstract: Studied the effects of verbal competence vs dimensional bias and age on the performance of conditional discrimination tasks. Subjects were 12 normal male and female Mexican adults (aged 18-24 yrs) (university students). Seven normal Mexican schoolage children (aged 9-12 yrs) (primary school students). Subjects were presented with drawings or words that differed in either physical or semantic properties of color, shape, and number; and they were asked to match the drawings or words according to color, shape, or number. The results were evaluated according to response latency, number of correct responses, physical and semantic properties of stimuli, and age. Statistical tests were used. (English abstract) 1991
72. Uchikawa, Hiromi; Uchikawa, Keiji; Boynton, Robert M. Influence of achromatic surrounds on categorical perception of surface colors. Vision Research, 1989, v29 (n7):881-890.
Abstract: Assessed color appearance of color samples isolated in a dark field illuminated by hidden projectors, which appeared as self-luminous aperture colors. Three experienced and 3 naive observers participated in 3 experiments. Color samples seen in isolation appeared as aperture colors, whereas addition of a surround caused them to appear as surface colors. Aside from becoming darker in appearance, most colors did not change in hue, except for brown and orange. Increasing the overall level of luminance had little effect on color perception (with or without surrounds), except to decrease reports of gray. 1990
73. Watson, Charles S.; Kewley-Port, Diane. Some remarks on Pastore (1988). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 1988 Dec, v84 (n6):2266-2270.
Abstract: Addresses R. E. Pastore's (see PA, Vol 76:24790) response to a study by D. Kewley-Port et al (1988). New data are reported supporting the conclusion of Kewley-Port et al (i.e., that the temporal acuity of the auditory system does not appear to be the origin of categorical perception of speech or nonspeech sounds differing in temporal onsets). 1989
74. Burns, Richard A.; Gordon, Walter U. Some further observations on serial enumeration and categorical flexibility. Animal Learning & Behavior, 1988 Nov, v16 (n4):425-428.
Abstract: 12 rats were runway-trained in a variety of serial discriminations that involved 3 different reward outcomes: Noyes pellets (R), a Kellogg's Corn Pop (R'), and 30 sec of confinement in an unbaited goal area (N). In a 4-day transfer shift phase, half of the Subjects originally trained R'RRN/N were shifted to a new series pair, RRRN/NRRRN, as were all the Subjects trained RRN/N. The remaining half of the matched Subjects were shifted to RRN/NRRN, as were the Subjects originally trained on the RRRN/N series pair. The transfer to the new series was more powerful in Subjects initially trained with the R'RRN series than in either of the control groups. This shift result indicates that Subjects classified the differing motivational events of the R'RRN series into at least 3 numerical categories: 1 R', 2 Rs, and 3 rewards. 1989
75. Andrews, Michael W. Spatial strategies of oriented travel in Callicebus moloch and Saimiri sciureus. Animal Learning & Behavior, 1988 Nov, v16 (n4):429-435.
Abstract: Examined the behavior of 9 titi monkeys ( Callicebus moloch ) and 12 squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri sciureus ) with respect to 3 categorical strategies of spatial orientation: direction, turn, and place. Subjects were trained to travel to a fixed location from a constant release point. Following training, each Subject was tested by releasing it a number of times from 3 other release points and analyzing travel paths. Most Subjects tended to be highly consistent in spatial behavior, typically following travel paths consistent with 1 of the 3 spatial strategies. No single strategy characterized the behavior of either species. 1989
76. Krueger, Joachim; Rothbart, Myron. Use of categorical and individuating information in making inferences about personality. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 1988 Aug, v55 (n2):187-195.
Abstract: In three experiments, we explored the effects of categorical information (stereotypes) and case information (traits or behaviors) on judgments about an individual's characteristics. Subjects judged a target person's aggressiveness on the basis of a description containing both a broad social category and specific case information. In Experiment 1, the description included (a) a category that was either weakly or strongly related to aggressiveness and (b) a behavior that was unrelated, moderately diagnostic, or highly diagnostic of aggressiveness. Trait inferences were a function of both the stereotypic and the behavioral information. A single behavior was not sufficient to override the category effect. In Experiment 2, temporally consistent behaviors were presented as case information; under these conditions, category information had no effect on trait judgments. This finding was extended in Experiment 3 in which subjects predicted behaviors on the basis of the target person's sex and a moderately diagnostic trait. 1989
77. Ludemann, Pamela M.; Nelson, Charles A. Categorical representation of facial expressions by 7-month-old infants. Developmental Psychology, 1988 Jul, v24 (n4):492-501.
Abstract: We investigated the ability of 7-month-olds to categorize the facial expressions happy, fear, and surprise when these expressions varied both by the model depicting the expression and by how intensely the expression was portrayed in a series of three experiments. In Experiment 1, infants successfully discriminated a single model posing a mild versus an extreme version of happy and fear. In Experiment 2, infants categorized happy when depicted by for different models posing mild and extreme versions and discriminated happy from fear. In Experiment 3, infants categorized both happy and surprise posed by five models varying in degree of expressiveness and discriminated these expressions from fear. In both Experiments 2 and 3, there was no evidence that infants could also (a) categorize the fear expressions and discriminate fear from happy or from surprise or (b) discriminate surprise from happy after habituating to surprise. These results are discussed in the context of the importance of experience in recognizing facial expressions and of how such experience influences the ease with which various expressions can be encoded and discriminated from other expressions in the laboratory. 1989
78. Frick, Robert W. Issues of representation and limited capacity in the auditory short-term store. British Journal of Psychology, 1988 May, v79 (n2):213-240.
Abstract: Argues that the representation in auditory short-term store (ASTS) is uncategorical and unparsed but that there is a stage of recovery just prior to recall in which the information in ASTS is parsed and categorized. The amount of representational medium in ASTS is fixed and allocated proportionally to each item presented. When too many items are presented, they are not represented with sufficient fidelity to be recovered, leading to the phenomenon of limited capacity. These claims are contrasted with the predictions of a slot model, in which ASTS is hypothesized to store a fixed number of categorical and parsed items. Explanations are offered for several phenomena in immediate ordered recall, including the Hebb effect, the correlation between perceptibility and capacity, and serial position curves. 1989 all rights reserved).
79. Fabre, Jean-Marc. Une thematique centrale de l'etude des activites d'evaluation: les effets de contexte. (A central theme in the study of evaluation activities: The effects of context.). Bulletin de Psychologie, 1988-89 May-Jun, v42 (n390):528-537. Language: French.
Abstract: Discusses the activities of judgment and perceptual evaluation of objects, stimuli, and dimensions, which can be physical (like size and weight) or symbolic (like mortality and responsibility). Context is one of the main factors influencing perceptual evaluations. The effects of context are part of everyday life, while in laboratory research they are considered a nuisance to be prevented or eliminated. Topics addressed include fluctuations of the context effect linked with the response system, quantification of context- and response-entropy, categorical differentiation, and recent applications of contextual psychophysics. 1991 all rights reserved).
80. Molfese, Dennis L.; Molfese, Victoria J. Right-hemisphere responses from preschool children to temporal cues to speech and nonspeech materials: Electrophysiological correlates. Brain & Language, 1988 Mar, v33 (n2):245-259.
Abstract: Auditory-evoked responses (AERs) were recorded from scalp electrodes placed over the left and right temporal hemisphere regions of 6 female and 6 male 3-yr-olds while they listened to a series of velar stop consonants that varied in voice onset time and to 2-formant tone stimuli with temporal lags comparable to the speech materials. A late occurring negative peak in the right hemisphere AERs discriminated between both the speech and nonspeech materials in a categorical-like manner. Sex-related hemisphere differences were also noted in response to the 2 different stimulus types. Results replicate earlier work with speech materials and suggest that temporal delays for both speech and nonspeech auditory materials are processed in the right hemisphere. 1988
81. Kewley-Port, Diane; Watson, Charles S.; Foyle, David C. Auditory temporal acuity in relation to category boundaries; speech and nonspeech stimuli. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 1988 Mar, v83 (n3):1133-1145.
Abstract: Examined the effects of stimulus uncertainty on categorical perception of speech and nonspeech stimuli. Exp I replicated the tasks used by R. M. Sachs and K. W. Grant (1976) to evaluate processing of a bilabial voice onset time (VOT) continuum, using 4 college students. Exp II extended VOT discrimination results to nonword stimuli by presenting 4 Subjects, using "noise-buzz" stimuli developed by J. D. Miller et al (1976). Findings indicate that Subjects' auditory acuity for discrimination of changes in both speech and nonspeech stimuli was a decreasing function of the duration of standard onset time. Discrimination of temporal onsets and VOT differences, however, appeared to depend on different processes. 1989
82. Houck, Cherry K.; Geller, Carol H.; Engelhard, Judy B. Learning disabilities teachers' perceptions of educational programs for adolescents with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1988 Feb, v21 (n2):90-97.
Abstract: Perceptions of 135 teachers of students with learning disabilities working in middle-junior high and high school programs were examined regarding the following: (1) the presence of specific attributes often associated with successful programs, (2) their professional views on field-related issues, and (3) suggestions for program improvement. Data were examined to determine if teachers' perceptions differed based on program type (i.e., resource, self-contained), level (i.e., middle-junior high, high school) or setting (urban, suburban, rural). Subjects did not acknowledge the strong presence of many attributes (e.g., student participation in individual program planning) thought to be associated with successful programs. Cross categorical grouping of Subjects with mild mental retardation, learning disabilities, and emotional disturbance was not supported. Subjects reported a stronger presence of program attributes over which they had greater control or that reflected on them personally (e.g., ongoing assessment). 1988
83. King, Donald L. "Anchor-range" results with "same" and "different" responses and similar and dissimilar stimuli. Psychological Research, 1988, v50 (n3):173-180.
Abstract: Tested the predictions of the criterial-range categorical-perception and relational theories by extending previous research by the present author (see PA, Vol 71:02984) in a study with 68 undergraduates who responded to dissimilar circles 3 and 10 mm in diameter and similar circles 3 and 5 mm, 5 and 7 mm, and 7 and 10 mm in diameter. In a 2nd experiment with 26 undergraduates, the dissimilar and similar circles did not overlap in size. The "same" responses to the unexpected same pairs of similar circles were faster than the "same" responses to the identical pairs in the blocks. In contrast, the "different" responses to the unexpected different pairs of similar circles were slower than the "different" responses to the identical pairs in the blocks. These anchor-range results imply that the relation between the similar circles in the context of the relation between the dissimilar circles affected performance. 1989
84. Zollinger, Heinrich. Categorical color perception: Influence of cultural factors on the differentiation of primary and derived basic color terms in color naming by Japanese children. Vision Research, 1988, v28 (n12):1379-1382.
Abstract: Conducted color-naming tests with 12-15 yr old Japanese children who lived in 2 locations in Japan (Yonezawa and Tokyo) and 1 location in West Germany (Dusseldorf). Results demonstrate that the primary basic color terms based on E. Hering's (1874) opponent color scheme were not influenced by the increasing Western cultural influence from Yonezawa to Tokyo and to Dusseldorf. The derived color terms for brown, orange, and pink hues did appear to be influenced, however. Results extend the findings of K. Uchikawa and R. M. Boynton (1987) and support the hypothesis that the psycholinguistics of color naming are based on a universal neurobiology of human color vision. 1989
85. Pepperberg, Irene M. Acquisition of the same/different concept by an African Grey parrot ( Psittacus erithacus ): Learning with respect to categories of color, shape, and material. Animal Learning & Behavior, 1987 Nov, v15 (n4):423-432.
Abstract: Trained and tested an African Grey parrot (previously taught to use vocal English labels to discriminate more than 80 different objects and to respond to questions concerning categorical concepts of color and shape) on relational concepts of same and different. Accuracy was 69.7-76.6% for pairs of familiar objects not used in training and 82.3-85% for pairs involving objects whose combinations of colors, shapes, and materials were unfamiliar. Data demonstrate that the Subject's responses were based on the question being posed as well as the attributes of the objects. Findings provide evidence of the Subject's competence in an exceptional (non-species-specific) communication code. 1988
86. Quinn, Paul C. The categorical representation of visual pattern information by young infants. Cognition, 1987 Nov, v27 (n2):145-179.
Abstract: Studied 156 3- and 4-mo-old infants' ability to acquire 2 categories simultaneously. A familiarization-novelty preference procedure and geometrical form categories were used in all experiments. In Exps I and III, Subjects were familiarized with either a single form category, 2 form categories, or a single form category plus a set of forms that did not define a category. Results show that, despite increased attentional and memorial demands, presentation of an additional form category did not harm the efficiency of categorization and changed the representation of the form category information from exemplars to a prototype. Contrasting form information that was not categorical in structure decreased the Subjects' ability to recognize new members of the single familiar category and hindered the Subjects' ability to form a categorical representation. Implications for cognitive development are discussed. (French abstract) 1988 all rights reserved).
87. Bowers, Robin L.; Richards, Ralph W. Children's time perception as affected by order of stimulus presentation. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 1987 Oct, v65 (n2):587-592.
Abstract: Two groups 5- to 6-yr-olds (N = 29) estimated the time required to view 15 color slides containing an assortment of familiar objects. In one group, the pictures appeared in categorical order; the other group viewed the same 15 slides in a random order. Results show that, although picture-recall was similar for the 2 groups, Subjects in the category groups estimated significantly longer durations than Subjects in the random condition. Findings are discussed in the context of R. E. Ornstein's (1969) storage size hypothesis. 1988
88. Russell, James A.; Fehr, Beverley. Relativity in the perception of emotion in facial expressions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 1987 Sep, v116 (n3):223-237.
Abstract: The same facial expression will be seen as expressing different types and degrees of emotion, depending on what other faces are seen. A relatively neutral face seems sad when presented alongside a happier face, happy alongside a sadder face. A relatively unhappy face seems sad when presented alongside an angrier face, angry alongside a sadder face. The specific emotion seen in a face can be predicted by combining the idea that human judgment is relative with a model of the scale implicit in the judgment of emotion. In that model, categories and dimensions descriptive of feelings are interrelated in a systematic fashion: Categorical descriptors such as happy, sad, calm, and angry are at specific locations around the periphery of an emotion judgment space defined by degree of pleasure and degree of arousal. Specific hypotheses were tested here in six experiments. Supportive results were found with successive and with simultaneous presentation of anchor and target, with various target expressions including expressions of neutral, surprised, and angry feelings, with both posed and spontaneous target expressions, with target expressions posed by the same actor seen in the anchor and by a different actor, with different groups of observers, and with different emotion category labels. 1988 American Psychological
89. Walden, Brian E.; Montgomery, Allen A.; Prosek, Robert A. Perception of synthetic visual consonant-vowel articulations. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research, 1987 Sep, v30 (n3):418-424.
Abstract: Evaluated 2-dimensional animations of speech articulations, using 13 Subjects (aged 19-48 yrs). Synthetic speechlike articulations were visually presented following the classic categorical perception experimental paradigm. Animations were generated on a computer-based graphics system. Three sets of observations were obtained for each syllable representation, and labeling data were obtained. Subjects rated each animation indicating the extent to which it was like the exemplar syllables. Results indicate that although the labeling functions showed rather abrupt transitions from one response category to the other, the peaks in the discrimination functions did not coincide with the category boundaries. Further, the mean rating functions were relatively linear, and the distribution of rating responses revealed unimodal distributions whose peak locations differed depending on the stimulus. 1988
90. Snow, David A.; Anderson, Leon. Identity work among the homeless: The verbal construction and avowal of personal identities. American Journal of Sociology, 1987 May, v92 (n6):1336-1371.
Abstract: Studied processes of identity construction among homeless street people using data from a field survey of 168 homeless Subjects, focusing on how homeless persons generate identities that provide them with a measure of self-worth and dignity, and determining relationships among role, identity, and self-concept. Subjects were observed and some were interviewed to determine the ways in which they spoke of self and personal identity. Distancing one's self from the other homeless, embracement of street role identity, and fictive storytelling were 3 generic patterns of "identity talk" found. Categorical embracement and embellishment were found most often in those who had been on the streets 2 or more yrs. The personal identities constructed by the homeless Subjects seem to change with the passage of time on the streets. 1988
91. Werker, Janet F.; Tees, Richard C. Speech perception in severely disabled and average reading children. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 1987 Mar, v41 (n1):48-61.
Abstract: Tested the hypothesis that children with specific disabilities in reading may have subtle auditory and/or speech perception deficits by comparing the performance of 14 severely disabled readers (aged 8-14 yrs) with 14 normal readers in 4 speech perception tasks. Results indicate that perception was significantly less categorical among the severely disabled readers in 3 of the 4 speech perception tasks. The possible implications of this small, but significant, difference are discussed in relation to previous conflicting findings concerning reading performance in dyslexia. (French abstract) 1988 American Psychological
92. Morse, Philip A.; Molfese, Dennis L.; Laughlin, Nellie K.; Linnville, Steven E.; and others. Categorical perception for voicing contrasts in normal and lead-treated rhesus monkeys: Electrophysiological indices. Brain & Language, 1987 Jan, v30 (n1):63-80.
Abstract: Evaluated categorical perception of voicing contrasts in 15 rhesus monkeys ( Macaca mulatta ), chronically exposed to subclinical levels of lead either from conception to birth, for approximately 6 mo postnatally beginning at birth, or never exposed to lead. Auditory evoked responses were recorded at 1 yr of age from scalp electrodes placed over the left and right hemispheres during stimulus presentation. A late component of the brain responses recorded from the right temporal region of all Subjects discriminated between stimuli in a categorical manner. Results suggest that the neurocortical mechanisms associated with categorical perception for voicing information may be similar across human and nonhuman primates. It is suggested that early exposure to lead alters these processes. 1987
93. Adams, Christina L.; Molfese, Dennis L.; Betz, Jacqueline C. Electrophysiological correlates of categorical speech perception for voicing contrasts in dogs. Developmental Neuropsychology, 1987, v3 (n3-4):175-189.
Abstract: Recorded auditory evoked responses (AERs) from the left and right temporal and parietal scalp regions of 15-wk-old border collies. AERs were collected while Subjects listened to series of consonant-vowel syllables in which the consonant sounds varied in voice onset time (VOT). Analyses indicated that portions of the right-hemisphere AERs discriminated between the consonant sounds in a categorical manner. These components occurred between 50 and 180 msec following the speech onset. Results indicate that the underlying neurocortical mechanisms used in VOT perception and their direction of lateralization in the brain are not unique to humans or primates in general. 1989
94. Kowalczyk, Marek. Prawdopodobienstwo i prototypowosc w procesie kategorialnej identyfikacji percepcyjnej: Analiza teorii spostrzegania Jerome S. Brunera. / Probability and prototypicality in the process of categorical... Przeglad Psychologiczny, 1987, v30 (n2):319-351. Language: Polish.
Abstract: Discusses the interaction between category accessibility (representing the influence of cognitive and motivational extrasensory factors) and the goodness of fit or prototypicality of an identified exemplar in the process of categorical perceptual identification. A mathematical model for processing probabilistic information in the course of category identification is proposed. The implications of the assumption that this model is consistent with Bayes' theorem and E. Rosch's (1978) concept of the structure of natural categories are considered. (English & Russian abstracts) 1990
95. Uchikawa, Keiji; Boynton, Robert M. Categorical color perception of Japanese observers: Comparison with that of Americans. Vision Research, 1987, v27 (n10):1825-1833.
Abstract: 10 native Japanese observers (4-68 yrs old) named 424 colors of the Optical Society of America Uniform Color Scales set using monolexemic color terms of their choice. Results are compared with those from 7 Subjects previously studied by R. M. Boynton and C. X. Olson (in press). It is concluded, in agreement with the original thesis of B. Berlin and P. K. Kay (1969), that there are 11 basic color terms in each language, each of which describes a fundamental color sensation dependent on an underlying physiology that does not differ between the 2 groups. 1988
96. BOOK, EDITED; CONFERENCE Honig, W. K., ed.; Fetterman, J. Gregor, ed. Cognitive aspects of stimulus control. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc; Hillsdale, NJ, US, 1992.
Abstract: (from the preface) This volume reflects a growing interest in the relationship between stimulus control in animal learning, and the animals' ability to cope with the many complex aspects of the real world. Traditionally, the stimuli used for discrimination learning and other aspects of the control of behavior have been simple, and restrictive in time or space. This permits a precise description of discriminative stimuli, it facilitates the replication of experimental findings, and it allows psychologists to study sensory capacities of animals.... It has been generally assumed that the use of complex and extended stimuli would lead to variability in responding, precluding an analysis of the underlying dimensional control.... More recent years have seen an enrichment and expansion of the area of stimulus control, with stimuli that approximate natural objects, events, or locations. Spatial orientation and memory have burgeoned as experimental topics. There has been interesting research on the features of complex arrays that determine spatial location, on timing and the "internal clock," on serial order in behavior, on categorical discriminations with complex and "naturalistic" stimuli, and more recently on numerosity discrimination.... The chapters in this volume address each of these areas in the context of stimulus control, and consider processes and problems that may be common to these various topics.
Contents: Preface. The perception of the extended stimulus. J. Gregor Fetterman, D. Alan Stubbs and David MacEwen. (Chapter record available). Absolute and relational control in a temporal comparison task. Leon R. Dreyfus. (Chapter record available). Time present and time past. Marcia L. Spetch and Benjamin Rusak. (Chapter record available). Three psychophysical principles in the processing of spatial and temporal information. Ken Cheng. (Chapter record available). Animals' perception and memory for places. Donald M. Wilkie, Robert J. Willson and Suzanne E. MacDonald. (Chapter record available). Pigeon's concept of experienced and nonexperienced real-world locations: Discrimination and generalization across seasonal variations. Donald F. Kendrick. (Chapter record available). Stimulus control of central place foraging on the radial maze. William A. Roberts, Maria T. Phelps and Gordon B. Schacter. (Chapter record available). Spatial memory structure and capacity: Influences on problem-solving and memory-coding strategies. B. Carey Rakitin, Nancy L. Dallal and Warren H. Meck. (Chapter record available). Landmarks, the hippocampus, and spatial search in food-storing birds. David F. Sherry. (Chapter record available). Conceptualization of natural and artificial stimuli by pigeons. Edward A. Wasserman and Ramesh S. Bhatt. (Chapter record available). The study of animal cognitive processes. Anthony A. Wright. (Chapter record available). The perception of pitch constancy in bird songs. Ron Weisman and Laurence Ratcliffe. (Chapter record available). Features of forms in pigeon perception. Donald S. Blough. (Chapter record available). The visual perception and processing of textures by pigeons. Robert G. Cook. (Chapter record available). Emergent properties of complex arrays. W. K. Honig. (Chapter record available). Cognitive aspects of movement estimations: A test of imagery in animals. Julie J. Neiworth. (Chapter record available). An ecological approach to stimulus control and tracking. Mark Rilling. (Chapter record available). Counting as the chimpanzee views it. Sarah T. Boysen. (Chapter record available). Levels of organized behavior in rats. E. J. Capaldi. (Chapter record available). Logical transitivity in animals. Hank Davis. (Chapter record available). Author index. Subject index.
97. BOOK CHAPTER Leyens, Jacques-Philippe; Yzerbyt, Vincent Y.; Schadron, Georges. The social judgeability approach to stereotypes. IN: European review of social psychology, Vol. 3.; Wolfgang Stroebe, Miles Hewstone, Eds. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England. 1992. p. 91-120.
Abstract: (from the chapter) existing models of impression formation and stereotyping focus on the fit between data and theory, or between individuating and categorical information; this fit is supposed to be determined by cognitive and motivational factors; (proposes) that current perspectives on social judgment can be enriched by going beyond data and theory and adding a third aspect, the social judgeability of the target; (presents) this new approach; (suggests) several ways to manipulate judgeability; (builds) upon earlier work and provide(s) new empirical evidence; (reinterprets) classic experiments ...within this framework which considers stereotypes as social explanations and not as errors or prejudices.
98. BOOK, EDITED Kosslyn, Stephen M., ed.; Andersen, Richard A., ed. Frontiers in cognitive neuroscience. MIT Press; Cambridge, MA, US, 1992.
Abstract: (from the general introduction) The purpose of this book is to make it easier for researchers and students to enter cognitive neuroscience by pulling together many of the key articles that form the foundations of the field.... The book begins with key articles in the cognitive neuroscience of vision. Because vision has been such an active area, we divided this part into two sections, one that focuses on the nature of distinct "streams" of visual processing and one that focuses on the ways in which neurons code information. We next present articles on other sensory modalities, specifically audition and somatosensory processing. We then present a set of articles on attention.... We then turn to memory; this part is also relatively long, and it has been divided into a section on the mechanisms used to store new information and another section on the nature of distinct memory systems. We close with a part on higher cortical functions, which we organize into a section on reasoning and a section on language.
Contents: (Abbreviated). General introduction (by) Stephen M. Kosslyn and Richard A. Andersen. I: Vision. Processing streams. The functional organization of projections from striate to prestriate visual cortex in the rhesus monkey. S. M. Zeki. (Chapter record available). Object vision and spatial vision: Two cortical pathways (1983 reprint). M. Mishkin, L. G. Ungerleider and K. A. Macko. Segregation of form, color, movement, and depth: Anatomy, physiology, and perception (1988 reprint). M. Livingstone and D. Hubel. Concurrent processing streams in monkey visual cortex (1988 reprint). E. A. DeYoe and D. C. Van Essen. The color-opponent and broad-band channels of the primate visual system (1990 reprint). P. H. Schiller and N. K. Logothetis. Oscillatory responses in cat visual cortex exhibit inter-columnar synchronization which reflects global stimulus properties (1989 reprint). C. M. Gray, P. Konig, A. K. Engel and W. Singer. Multiple analyses of orientation in the visual system. P. Cavanagh. (Chapter record available). Visual agnosia in monkey and in man. D. N. Levine. (Chapter record available). Representation. Visual properties of neurons in inferotemporal cortex of the macaque. C. G. Gross, C. E. Rocha-Miranda and D. B. Bender. (Chapter record available). The functional properties of the light-sensitive neurons of the posterior parietal cortex studied in waking monkeys: Foveal sparing and opponent vector organization. B. C. Motter and V. B. Mountcastle. (Chapter record available). Direction- and velocity-specific responses from beyond the classical receptive field in the middle temporal visual area (MT) (1985 reprint). J. Allman, F. Miezin and E. McGuinness. Illusory contours and cortical neuron responses (1984 reprint). R. von der Heydt, E. Peterhans and G. Baumgartner. The analysis of moving visual patterns (1986 reprint). J. A. Movshon, E. H. Adelson, M. S. Gizzi and W. T. Newsome. Visual information processing: Artificial intelligence and the sensorium of sight. D. Marr and H. K. Nishihara. (Chapter record available). Network model of shape-from-shading: Neural function arises from both receptive and projective fields. S. R. Lehky and T. J. Sejnowski. (Chapter record available). A back-propagation programmed network that simulates response properties of a subset of posterior parietal neurons. D. Zipser and R. A. Andersen. (Chapter record available). Categorical versus coordinate spatial relations: Computational analyses and computer simulations (1992 reprint). S. M. Kosslyn, C. F. Chabris, C. J. Marsolek and O. Koenig. II: Auditory and somatosensory systems. Audition. Auditory cortex. J. F. Brugge and R. A. Reale. (Chapter record available). A neural map of auditory space in the owl (1978 reprint). E. I. Knudsen and M. Konishi. Neural axis representing target range in the auditory cortex of the mustache bat. N. Suga and W. E. O'Neill. (Chapter record available). Magnetic location of cortical activity (1982 reprint). L. Kaufman and S. J. Williamson. Somatosensory system. Double representation of the body surface within cytoarchitectonic areas 3b and 1 in "SI" in the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). M. M. Merzenich, J. H. Kaas, M. Sur and C.-S. Lin. (Chapter record available). III: Attention. Isolating attentional systems: A cognitive-anatomical analysis (1987 reprint). M. I. Posner, A. W. Inhoff, F. J. Friedrich and A. Cohen. A cortical network for directed attention and unilateral neglect. M.-M. Mesulam. (Chapter record available). Enhancement of inferior temporal neurons during visual discrimination. B. J. Richmond and T. Sato. (Chapter record available). Selective attention gates visual processing in the extrastriate cortex (1985 reprint). J. Moran and R. Desimone. Behavioral modulation of visual responses in the monkey: Stimulus selection for attention and movement. R. H. Wurtz, M. E. Goldberg and D. L. Robinson. (Chapter record available). Function of the thalamic reticular complex: The searchlight hypothesis. F. Crick. (Chapter record available). IV: Memory. Storage mechanisms. Long-lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission in the dentate area of the anaesthetized rabbit following stimulation of the perforant path. T. V. P. Bliss and T. Lomo. (Chapter record available). Presynaptic mechanism for long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. J. M. Bekkers and C. F. Stevens. (Chapter record available). Is there a cell-biological alphabet for simple forms of learning? (1984 reprint). R. D. Hawkins and E. R. Kandel. Modeling the neural substrates of associative learning and memory: A computational approach (1987 reprint). M. A. Gluck and R. F. Thompson. Simulation of paleocortex performs hierarchical clustering (1990 reprint). J. Ambros-Ingerson, R. Granger and G. Lynch. Gradient following without back-propagation in layered networks. A. G. Barto and M. I. Jordan. (Chapter record available). Memory systems. Neuronal firing in the inferotemporal cortex of the monkey in a visual memory task. J. M. Fuster and J. P. Jervey. (Chapter record available). Neuronal correlate of pictorial short-term memory in the primate temporal cortex (1988 reprint). Y. Miyashita and H. S. Chang. Memory related motor planning activity in posterior parietal cortex of macaque. J. W. Gnadt and R. A. Andersen. (Chapter record available). Mnemonic coding of visual space in the monkey's dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (1989 reprint). S. Funahashi, C. J. Bruce and P. S. Goldman-Rakic. A memory system in the monkey. M. Mishkin. (Chapter record available). Mechanisms of memory. L. R. Squire. (Chapter record available). Lasting consequences of bilateral medial temporal lobectomy: Clinical course and experimental findings in H. M.. S. Corkin. (Chapter record available). Implicit memory: History and current status (1987 reprint). D. L. Schacter. Memory dysfunction and word priming in dementia and amnesia (1987 reprint). A. P. Shimamura, D. P. Salmon, L. R. Squire and N. Butters. V: Higher cortical functions. Reasoning. The neurological basis of mental imagery: A componential analysis (1984 reprint). M. J. Farah. Localization of cortical areas activated by thinking (1985 reprint). P. E. Roland and L. Friberg. Mental rotation of the neuronal population vector (1989 reprint). A. P. Georgopoulos, J. T. Lurito, M. Petrides, A. B. Schwartz and J. T. Massey. Aspects of a cognitive neuroscience of mental imagery (1988 reprint). S. M. Kosslyn. Some functional effects of sectioning the cerebral commissures in man. M. S. Gazzaniga, J. E. Bogen and R. W. Sperry. (Chapter record available). Behavioural effects of frontal-lobe lesions in man (1984 reprint). B. Milner and M. Petrides. Language. Positron emission tomographic studies of the cortical anatomy of single-word processing (1988 reprint). S. E. Petersen, P. T. Fox, M. I. Posner, M. Mintum and M. E. Raichle. Cortical language localization in left, dominant hemisphere. G. Ojemann, J. Ojemann, E. Lettich and M. Berger. (Chapter record available). The organization of language and the brain. N. Geschwind. (Chapter record available). Evidence for modality-specific meaning systems in the brain (1988 reprint). R. A. McCarthy and E. K. Warrington. The conceptual status of deep dyslexia: An historical perspective (1980 reprint). J. C. Marshall and F. Newcombe. Surface dyslexia (1983 reprint). M. Coltheart, J. Masterson, S. Byng, M. Prior and J. Riddoch. Name index. Subject index.
99. BOOK CHAPTER Norman, J. Farley; Todd, James T. The visual perception of 3-dimensional form. IN: Neural networks for vision and image processing.; Gail A. Carpenter, Stephen Grossberg, Eds. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, US. 1992. p. 93-110.
Abstract: (from the chapter) the mere fact that observers are able to perceive 3-dimensional form does not reveal the specific parameters by which visible objects are perceptually represented; in an effort to shed new light on this issue, the present article will examine some alternative geometric frameworks for representing shape, and it will review the available psychophysical evidence to see which of these frameworks are most similar to the properties of human perception... euclidean structure; affine structure; ordinal structure; topological structure; nominal or categorical structure.
100. BOOK CHAPTER Owren, Michael J.; Seyfarth, Robert M.; Hopp, Steven L. Categorical vocal signaling in nonhuman primates. IN: Nonverbal vocal communication: Comparative and developmental approaches. Studies in emotion and social interaction.; Hanus Papousek, Uwe Jurgens, Mechthild Papousek, Eds. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, US; Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l'Homme; Paris, France. 1992. p. 102-122.
Abstract: (from the chapter) review ...recent results from psychophysical studies of audition in Japanese macaques and the possible implications for categorization of coo calls by this species; species-typical coo call processing has been examined in detail, and similarities to some common human speech perception phenomena ...have been proposed.
101. BOOK CHAPTER Krumhansl, Carol L. Music psychology: Tonal structures in perception and memory. IN: Annual review of psychology, Vol. 42. Annual review of psychology.; Mark R. Rosenzweig, Lyman W. Porter, Eds. Annual Reviews, Inc, Palo Alto, CA, US. 1991. p. 277-303.
Abstract: (from the chapter) review begins with research in the psychoacoustic tradition which investigates the perceptual effects of isolated tones and intervals; studies concerned with general principles of tonal organization in melody and harmony are reviewed next; consider perception and memory of extended sequences and the influences of linguistic and music theories on research in music perception and cognition... consonance; tuning and intonation; categorical pitch perception; absolute pitch perception; models of tonal relations; tonal hierarchies; harmony and key; coding models of music; melody perception and memory; melody and rhythm.
102. BOOK CHAPTER Eimas, Peter D. The perception of speech in early infancy. IN: The emergence of language: Development and evolution: Readings from "Scientific American" magazine.; William S.-Y. Wang, Ed. W. H. Freeman & Co, Publishers, New York, NY, US. 1991. p. 117-127. Pub type: Reprint.
Abstract: (from the introduction) discusses how infants divide phonetic continua into a manageable set of discrete units; it appears that infants categorize speech sounds in essentially similar ways, regardless of which linguistic community they are born into; this capacity of categorical perception diminishes significantly after childhood, presumably because the nervous system has become fixed on particular sound systems.
103. BOOK Goodluck, Helen. Language acquisition: A linguistic introduction. Basil Blackwell, Inc; Oxford, England, 1991. Pub type: Instructional Material; Textbook.
Abstract: (from the jacket) This text is an up-to-date introduction to language acquisition, designed to meet the needs of advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students in linguistics and cognitive science. It is the first language acquisition text to be written from the perspective of recent theoretical linguistics, and uses Chomskyan generative grammar as a framework for description. Taking models and analyses from generative phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics, Professor Goodluck describes children's language acquisition using examples from a variety of languages. Further chapters take up central questions concerning cognitive mechanisms by which children process language and form rules, the nature of the input to the language learner, and the relation between language development and other aspects of cognitive development.... The book is extensively illustrated with models and figures, and each chapter is followed by questions for discussion and suggestions for further reading.
Contents: (Abbreviated). Preface and acknowledgements. Introduction: Linguistics and language acquisition. Knowledge of language: Competence and performance. Types of linguistic knowledge. The projection problem. Universal grammar. Phonological acquisition. Speech sounds. Phonetics, phonology and language variation. Categorical perception in adults and infants. Early speech sounds. Feature acquisition. Child phonologies. Morphological development and innovation. Types of morphological rules. Children's knowledge of level ordering. Rule use and innovation. A cross-linguistic perspective. The acquisition of syntax. Syntactic structures and universal grammar. Early syntax. Syntax in the pre-school years. Syntactic development after age six. Further aspects of syntactic and semantic development. The auxiliary system of English. The acquisition of auxiliary systems: Syntax. The acquisition of negation. An aside on developmental orders and individual development. The acquisition of modality, tense and aspect. The development of word meanings. Quantification and logical form. Cognition, environment and language learning. Innateness. The role of universal grammar in language development. Learnability and acquisition principles. Motherese. Language development and cognitive development. Performance development. Estimating competence. Adult processing mechanisms. Children's sentence processing. Discourse integration. Bibliography. Index.
104. BOOK CHAPTER Kuhl, Patricia K. Perception, cognition, and the ontogenetic and phylogenetic emergence of human speech. IN: Plasticity of development.; Steven E. Brauth, William S. Hall, Robert J. Dooling, Eds. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, US. 1991. p. 73-106.
Abstract: (from the chapter) (poses) the question ...are human infants' speech perception abilities unique to the species; five topics on infants' perception of speech have been reviewed: categorical perception, talker normalization, speech prototypes, the auditory-visual perception of speech, and vocal imitation... suggests that human infants may not begin life with a special speech module; the processing strategies infants employ when acquiring the mother tongue may be rooted in quite general perceptual and cognitive skills.
105. BOOK, EDITED Commons, Michael L., ed.; Herrnstein, Richard J., ed.; Kosslyn, Stephen M., ed.; Mumford, David B., ed. Behavioral approaches to pattern recognition and concept formation. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc; Hillsdale, NJ, US, 1990. Series title: Quantitative analyses of behavior, Vol. 8.
Abstract: (from the preface) The contents of the present volume were first prepared for and presented at the "Eighth Symposium on Quantitative Analyses of Behavior Held at Harvard: Pattern Recognition and Concepts in Animals, People and Machines" on June 7 and 8, 1985. Subsequent revision and expansion of the papers resulted text relating to two broad sets of issues. Hence, that one year's symposium appears as two volumes. The current one, Volume VIII in the general series, presents the papers dealing with the results of experiments with animals. Volume IX (see 90-066014-000) addresses computational and clinical approaches to pattern recognition and concept formation.
Contents: About the editors. List of contributors. Preface (by) Michael L. Commons. Part I: Categories and concepts in birds. Categorical color and shape coding by pigeons. Thomas R. Zentall, Pamela Jackson-Smith and Joyce A. Jagielo. (Chapter record available). Rudimentary rule-governed behavior in the pigeon. Richard Pisacreta. (Chapter record available). Size invariance in visual pattern recognition by pigeons. Celia M. Lombardi and Juan D. Delius. (Chapter record available). Pigeons' perception of complex movement patterns. Jacky Emmerton. (Chapter record available). Pattern recognition, updating, and filial imprinting in the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus). Catriona M. E. Ryan and Stephen E. G. Lea. (Chapter record available). Configural processes in pigeon perception. Kenneth M. Steele. (Chapter record available). Part II: Shape and form. Form similarity and categorization in pigeon visual research. Donald S. Blough. (Chapter record available). Shape constancy in the pigeon: The perspective transformations decomposed. John Cerella. (Chapter record available). Unnatural concepts and the theory of concept discrimination in birds. Stephen E. G. Lea and Catriona M. E. Ryan. (Chapter record available). Visual categorization by pigeons. Robert G. Cook, Anthony A. Wright and Donald F. Kendrick. (Chapter record available). Author index. Subject index.
106. BOOK CHAPTER Zentall, Thomas R.; Jackson-Smith, Pamela; Jagielo, Joyce A. Categorical color and shape coding by pigeons. IN: Behavioral approaches to pattern recognition and concept formation. Quantitative analyses of behavior, Vol. 8.; Michael L. Commons, Richard J. Herrnstein, Stephen M. Kosslyn, David B. Mumford, Eds. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Hillsdale, NJ, US. 1990. p. 3-21.
Abstract: (from the chapter) the purpose of the experiments that follow is (a) to identify pigeons' color categories using a procedure somewhat different from that used by Wright and Cumming (1971), (b) to assess the degree to which color categories are flexible (i.e., can a particular stimulus be assigned to more than one category), (c) to determine the generality of categorical coding (i.e., is categorical coding by pigeons limited to the hue dimension), and (d) to examine pigeons' ability to use hierarchical codes (e.g., can pigeons code a red hue as red and also as color).
107. BOOK, EDITED Caverni, Jean-Paul, ed.; Fabre, Jean-Marc, ed.; Gonzalez, Michel, ed. Cognitive biases. North-Holland; Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1990. Series title: Advances in psychology, 68.
Abstract: (from the publicity materials) The texts in this volume present an account of research into the cognitive biases observed on various tasks: reasoning, categorization, evaluation, and probabilistic and confidence judgments.... The authors have attempted to discern the contribution of the study of bias to our understanding of the cognitive processes involved in each case, rather than proposing an inventory of the different types of biases.
Contents: Introduction. Section 1: Biases relative to the external structure of information. Conditions for accuracy: General or specific?. Arie W. Kruglanski. (Chapter record available). The anchoring-adjustment heuristic in an "information rich, real world setting": Knowledge assessment by experts. Jean-Paul Caverni and Jean-Luc Peris. (Chapter record available). Grouping and categorization in judgments of contingency. Klaus Fiedler and Roman Graf. (Chapter record available). Framing biases in genetic risk perception. Jo Huys, Gerry Evers-Kiebooms and Gery d'Ydewalle. (Chapter record available). Students' conceptions in physics and mathematics: Biases and helps. Annick Weil-Barais and Gerard Vergnaud. (Chapter record available). Section 2: Biases in reasoning pragmatics. Conversational and world knowledge constraints on deductive reasoning. Vittorio Girotto and Guy Politzer. (Chapter record available). Remembering conclusions we have inferred: What biases reveal. Ruth M. J. Byrne and P. N. Johnson-Laird. (Chapter record available). Syllogistic reasoning with probabilities and continuous truth values. Jean Costermans and Veronique Heuschen. (Chapter record available). Belief bias and problem complexity in deductive reasoning. Jonathan St. B. T. Evans and Paul Pollard. (Chapter record available). Biases in children's conditional reasoning. Vittorio Girotto. (Chapter record available). Are there biases in analogical reasoning?. Mark T. G. Keane. (Chapter record available). Pragmatic reasoning schemas for conditional promises: Context and representation. Henry Markovits and Christiane Lesage. (Chapter record available). Non-logical solving of categorical syllogisms. Guy Politzer. (Chapter record available). Section 3: Response biases and context effects. Response bias and contextual effects: When biased?. Allen Parducci. (Chapter record available). Psychophysical approaches, contextual effects and response bias. Claude Bonnet. (Chapter record available). Context effects in face recognition: Below response bias. The contribution of a simulation. Anne-Caroline Schreiber, Stephane Rousset and Guy Tiberghien. (Chapter record available). The relative importance of facial expression and context information in emotional attributions--Biases, influence factors, and paradigms. Harald G. Wallbott. (Chapter record available). Methods for determining the locus of context effects in judgment. Douglas H. Wedell. (Chapter record available). Section 4: Biases relative to the categorization activity. Social biases in categorization processes. Willem Doise. (Chapter record available). Cognitive biases in social categorization: Process and consequences. C. Neil Macrae and Miles R. C. Hewstone. (Chapter record available). Biases in categorization. Edith A. Das-Smaal. (Chapter record available). Studies on self-centered assimilation processes. Jean-Paul Codol. (Chapter record available). Specificity and categorization in judgment: A cognitive approach to stereotypes. Jean-Marc Fabre. (Chapter record available). Section 5: Biases in probabilistic judgment. Biases in probabilistic judgment: A historical perspective. George Wright and Peter Ayton. (Chapter record available). Are two judges better than one? On the realism in confidence judgments by pairs and individuals. Carl Martin Allwood and Carl-Gustav Bjorhag. (Chapter record available). Uncertain memories: Evaluating the competence of probabilistic cognition. Peter Ayton and George Wright. (Chapter record available). Theories of bias in probability judgement. Michael H. Birnbaum, Carolyn J. Anderson and Linda G. Hynan. (Chapter record available). Overconfidence in self-assessment of motor skill performance. Nigel Harvey. (Chapter record available). Bias in meta-memory performance and its implications for models of memory structure. Alastair G. R. McClelland, Andrew S. Coulson and Sarah E. Icke. (Chapter record available). Section 6: Biases and cognitive aids. Cognitive aids and debiasing methods: Can cognitive pills cure cognitive ills?. Gideon Keren. (Chapter record available). Confirmation bias, problem-solving and cognitive models. David W. Green. (Chapter record available). A study of two biases in probabilistic judgments: Representativeness and equiprobability. Marie-Paule Lecoutre, Jean-Luc Durand and Jean Cordier. (Chapter record available).
108. BOOK CHAPTER Massaro, Dominic W. Language processing and information integration. IN: Contributions to information integration theory, Vol. 1: Cognition; Vol. 2: Social; Vol. 3: Developmental.; Norman Henry Anderson, Ed. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Hillsdale, NJ, US. 1990. p. 259-292.
Abstract: (from the chapter) language processing offers an ideal domain for the framework of information integration theory; information integration theory provides a valuable approach to the study of speech perception, reading, and language understanding; studies (in this chapter) have demonstrated something about the fundamental stages of processing involved, and how multiple sources of information are used to support communication; there is now good evidence that perceivers use multiple sources of information in language processing; in addition to uncovering the information processing that occurs in language understanding, the information integration paradigm can help determine the variety of sources of information that are functional... continuous information in language; continuous information and categorical alternatives; a general model (representation and integration of information); reading (integrating visual features in letter identification, orthographic context in letter recognition, sentential context in word recognition); speech perception (phonological context in syllable recognition; sentential context in word recognition; syntactic, semantic, and prosodic information in sentence interpretation; aural-visual speech perception). (from the preface to Ch. 7, Vol. I) the study of language understanding ...is well-suited to an information integration framework; one theme of the diverse experimental studies in this chapter is multiple determination; listening involves a continuous, complex stream of stimulus information, accompanied by a continuous stream of decisions to determine what was said and what it means; each successive decision typically depends on multiple cues, including auditory stimulation and nonauditory context; the unconscious ease of understanding what we hear masks a complex system of information integration.
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