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(1) Advanced topic
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(2) Subject-coded list for (1) a summary of the Categorical Perception segment of the Avanced Topics course and (2) a version of the bibliography coded by subject (visual, auditory, neural, etc.).
109. BOOK CHAPTER Butterworth, George. Self-perception in infancy. IN: The self in transition: Infancy to childhood. The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur foundation series on mental health and development.; Dante Cicchetti, Marjorie Beeghly, Eds. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, US. 1990. p. 119-137.
Abstract: (from the chapter) distinguish between two aspects of the self: the existential self, or "I," and the empirical self, or "me" in (William) James' (1890) terms; the existential self is defined as the experience of the agent of activity, while the me is the empirical, or categorical, self--the sum total of one's constituent parts, including the body and possessions; the I-me combination gives a comprehensive framework for theorizing on the self-concept--a framework which will be followed in tracing the origins of self in infancy.
110. BOOK CHAPTER Kuhl, Patricia K. On babies, birds, modules, and mechanisms: A comparative approach to the acquisition of vocal communication. IN: The comparative psychology of audition: Perceiving complex sounds.; Robert J. Dooling, Stewart H. Hulse, Eds. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Hillsdale, NJ, US. 1989. p. 379-419.
Abstract: (from the chapter) purpose of this chapter is to review the current status of our answers to ...questions regarding the human infant's acquisition of speech... important phenomena regarding infants' perception and production of speech are reviewed and two theories that have been advanced to explain these abilities are described. (from the book) provides an elegant review of the most recent work on speech perception by animals and human infants... describes experiments demonstrating that animals whose hearing is similar to that of humans perceive a number of speech sound contrasts categorically, as do humans... results indicate that at least in some instances, auditory-level processing may be sufficient for categorical perception; human infants also show a surprising degree of sophistication in perceiving speech sounds revealing evidence of auditory and auditory-visual equivalence classes for certain speech sounds.
111. BOOK CHAPTER Biederman, Irving. Real-time human image understanding in pilot performance models. IN: Human performance models for computer-aided engineering.; Jerome I. Elkind, Stuart K. Card, Julian Hochberg, Beverly Messick Huey, Eds. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, US. 1989. p. 126-143.
Abstract: (from the chapter) presents an overview of recent theoretical work on object recognition and a summary of some of the major empirical findings... recognition by viewpoint invariant components (RBC); decomposition of an image into geons; relations among geons and models; viewpoint-invariant and categorical origins of geons... connectionist implementations of RBC... model-based matching; Lowe's SCERPO and Ullman's alignment models... special problems related to the perception of multiobject and scene displays are ...discussed; positional uncertainty; display load; scene constraints; segmentation... machine identification of targets in low-resolution images... significant gaps in our knowledge are also indicated.
112. BOOK Handel, Stephen. Listening: An introduction to the perception of auditory events. MIT Press; Cambridge, MA, US, 1989.
Abstract: (from the jacket) "Listening" combines broad coverage of acoustics, speech and music perception, psychophysics, and auditory physiology with a coherent theoretical orientation in a lively and accessible introduction to the perception of music and speech events.... Handel treats the production and perception of music and speech in parallel throughout the text, arguing that their production and perception follow identical principles; music and speech share the same formal properties, involve the same cognitive mechanisms, and cannot exist in separate "modules." The way that a sound is produced determines the physical properties of the acoustic wave. These properties in turn lead to the perception of the event.... All of the author's explanations are coherent and clear, and this strategy includes discussing particular pieces of research in detail rather than covering many things superficially. Handel analyzes causes as well as describing phenomena and sets out for the reader the difficulties inherent in the research methods he discusses. He defines the physical, musical, and psychological terms used, even the most basic ones, and covers all of the experimental methods and statistical procedures in the text.
Contents: (Abbreviated). Preface. A point of view. The production of sound. The psychophysics of audition. The environment of sound. Sound propagation. Localization and locomotion. Sound generation by musical instruments. Sound generation by voice: Speaking and singing. The production of speech sounds. Phonetics: Speech sounds. Models of speech perception. Commonalities: Physical and perceptual. Breaking the acoustic wave into events: Stream segregation. Psychological consequences of streaming. Identification of speakers, instruments, and environmental events. Sound attributes and identification. Perceptual constancy. Phonemes: Notes and intervals. Implications of categorical perception and context effects. A psychophysical perspective. Grammars of music and language. Music theory and perceptual psychology. Perception of music grammars. Rhythm. Physiology of listening. Central nervous system: Auditory cortex. Finally. Glossary. References. Author index. Subject index.
113. BOOK CHAPTER Stern, Daniel N. Developmental prerequisites for the sense of a narrated self. IN: Psychoanalysis: Toward the second century.; Arnold M. Cooper, Otto F. Kernberg, Ethel Spector Person, Eds. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, US. 1989. p. 168-178.
Abstract: (from the chapter) I will here view the self in terms of the various senses of the self that emerge developmentally... five different senses of self emerge developmentally over the period from birth to three or four years; the arrival of the fifth sense of self, that is, the narrated self, is especially important from the developmental viewpoint because the narrated self is the one encountered in psychoanalytic retellings of an analysand's life story... the five senses of self and their approximate time of emergence are, in brief, as follows; an emergent sense of self begins to act between birth and two months; a core sense of self emerges between two and six months; a subjective sense of self emerges beginning around nine months; a verbal or categorical sense of self begins at about eighteen months; and finally, ...a narrative sense of self begins sometime between the third and fourth years... in thinking about what one would need in order to begin to talk about some sense of self that would have any meaning, there are at least four essential things that one would want: agency, coherence, affectivity, and continuity or historicity, so that the self "goes on being".
114. BOOK CHAPTER Feldman, Jack. Objects in categories and objects as categories. IN: A dual process model of impression formation. Advances in social cognition, Vol. 1.; Thomas K. Srull, Robert S. Wyer Jr., Eds. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Hillsdale, NJ, US. 1988. p. 53-63. Pub type: Commentary/Response.
Abstract: (from the chapter) argument is that she (Brewer) did not go far enough in arguing that the cognition of social and nonsocial objects proceeds on identical principles... definition of an object as "social" depends as much on the perceiver as the object or person; only a single process is needed to encompass both... are social and nonsocial objects inherently different... are two processes needed to explain personalization... are visual and verbal modes of representation mirror images... are dimensional and categorical representations different. (summarized) Responds to chapter by Brewer (see 88-231020-001).
115. BOOK CHAPTER Rothbart, Myron. Categorization and impression formation: Capturing the mind's flexibility. IN: A dual process model of impression formation. Advances in social cognition, Vol. 1.; Thomas K. Srull, Robert S. Wyer Jr., Eds. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Hillsdale, NJ, US. 1988. p. 139-144. Pub type: Commentary/Response.
Abstract: (from the chapter) offer ...comments in the hope of clarifying or expanding the ideas put forth by Brewer... see the value of Brewer's model as (a) emphasizing the interdependence of the perceiver's goals with the generality or specificity of the constructs used to encode the characteristics of the stimulus person, and (b) attempting to distinguish the conditions under which categorical or individuating information is most salient... difficulties with the dual process assumption; its lack of flexibility in being able to shift between category and personalized representations. (summarized) Discusses the chapter by M. Brewer (see 88-231020-001).
116. BOOK CHAPTER Schul, Yaacov; Burnstein, Eugene. On Greeks and horses: Impression formation with social and nonsocial objects. IN: A dual process model of impression formation. Advances in social cognition, Vol. 1.; Thomas K. Srull, Robert S. Wyer Jr., Eds. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Hillsdale, NJ, US. 1988. p. 145-154. Pub type: Commentary/Response.
Abstract: (from the chapter) explores how characteristics that distinguish social from nonsocial objects influence the operations carried out during impression formation... argue that even though perception of social objects is similar in many respects to that of nonsocial objects, important differences (which must reflect properties of these objects) do exist... the distinction drawn by Brewer between categorical (or top-down) and personalistic (or bottom-up) impressions is too sharp to be useful... all of human experience is reflected in the saga of Troy. (summarized) Discusses the chapter by M. Brewer (see 88-231020-001).
117. BOOK, EDITED Brown, Jason W., ed.; Dean, George; tr.; Perecman, Ellen; tr.; Franzen, Emil; tr.; and others. Agnosia and apraxia: Selected papers of Liepmann, Lange, and Potzl. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc; Hillsdale, NJ, US, 1988.
Abstract: (from the preface) Lange's review covers most of the early work on apraxia and agnosia. At this time, as is clear from the text, it was important to distinguish ideational disorders in execution from, on the one hand, perceptual and conceptual defects, and on the other disturbances of motor or sensory function.... There is as good a description of deep dyslexia, semantic paralexia, and the ability of pure alexics to extract meaning from words as one is likely to encounter in current neurological journals. There is a good discussion of the special position of proper names in reading disorders and categorical effects in visual agnosia, symptoms that have been "rediscovered" by current research. The role of the corpus callosum in various disorders is fully discussed, as well as the idea of interhemispheric antagonism and transcallosal inhibition, and one can see that a Nobel experiment was there all the time, waiting to be rediscovered.... The papers of Potzl were both exciting and exasperating. The case descriptions recall a literature that is probably not too well known in neuropsychology--palinopsia, time acceleration, visual distortion, inverted vision, etc.--while the digressions into theory are unique in the attempt to draw out the physiological implications of focal brain lesions with detailed pathological and cytoarchitectonic studies.
Contents: (Abbreviated). Preface. Section I. Apraxia. H. Liepmann. (Chapter record available). Section II. Agnosia and apraxia. J. Lange. (Chapter record available). Section III. Biographical note on Otto Pozl (by) J. Luwisch. Anatomical findings in a case of time acceleration. H. Hoff and O. Potzl. (Chapter record available). Transformations between body image and external world. H. Hoff and O. Potzl. (Chapter record available). "Inverted vision" resulting from injury: Contribution to cerebrally caused visual disorders. T. Luers and O. Potzl. (Chapter record available). Pathophysiology of the uncus-syndrome and the dreamlike aura. O. Potzl. (Chapter record available). Palinopsia (and its relationship to the specific performance of occupital cortical fields). O. Potzl. (Chapter record available). Disorders of depth perception in cerebral metamorphopsia. H. Hoff and O. Potzl. (Chapter record available). Author index. Subject index.
118. BOOK CHAPTER Boynton, Robert M. Color vision. IN: Annual review of psychology, Vol. 39. Annual review of psychology.; Mark R. Rosenzweig, Lyman W. Porter, Eds. Annual Reviews, Inc, Palo Alto, CA, US. 1988. p. 69-100.
Abstract: (from the chapter) emphasis on psychophysical experiments, choosing papers from selected areas of color science related to human color vision... structure and function of precortical pathways; photopigments; channels... three classes of cones; S-cone distribution; L/M ratio; receptor interactions... chromatic-opponent and achromatic channels in the visual system; channel characteristics; additivity and cancellation; transient desensitization; linearity tests... isoluminance; depth; motion; metacontrast; localization; chromatic vs achromatic contrast... "brightness/luminance" ratio... significance of brightness; flicker; mesopic photometry... spatial masking; masking interactions between chromatic and luminance gratings... chromatic induction; discounting the background; nonlinearities... dichoptic phenomena... color discrimination; effects of space and time; reference chromaticity; metamerism... color constancy; computational approach; context and constancy... categorical color perception... electrophysiology of color vision and its relation to human color perception.
119. BOOK CHAPTER Anderson, James A.; Silverstein, Jack W.; Ritz, Stephen A.; Jones, Randell S. Distinctive features, categorical perception, and probability learning: Some applications of a neural model. IN: Neurocomputing: Foundations of research.; James A. Anderson, Edward Rosenfeld, Eds. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, US. 1988. p. 287-325. Pub type: Reprint.
Abstract: (from the chapter) previously proposed model for memory based on neurophysiological considerations is reviewed... theoretical development... biological and psychological "features"; audition; vision; feedback; perception... computer simulation... probability learning; statistical learning theory; learning rules; short-term memory.
120. BOOK Frances, Robert; Dowling, W. Jay; tr. The perception of music. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc; Hillsdale, NJ, US, 1988.
Abstract: (from the foreword) To name just few issues that are addressed, there are detailed examinations of the effects of tonal framework on the perception of melodic patterns, of processes involved in key attribution, and of the abstract representation of notes and their relationships within a key. We also find descriptions of key-distance and other effects in memory for melodies, and of categorical perception of notes and intervals. In addition, there are challenging discussions of figure-ground phenomena and the role of attention in listening to music.
Contents: (Abbreviated). Preface. Foreword. Introduction. Part I: Syntax. Sound and music. The material. Syntax. Psychological origins and development of the sense of tonality. Part II: Rhetoric. Musical discourse. Perception and linear organization. Perception and simultaneous organization. Part III: Expression and meaning. The problem of meaning. Consistency and coherence of semantic judgments. Themes of signification: Symbolic elements. Themes of signification: Aspects and degrees of convention. Conclusion. References. Supplementary bibliography. Author index. Subject index.
121. BOOK, EDITED; CONFERENCE Weiskrantz, L., ed. Thought without language. Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press; Oxford, England, 1988. Series title: A Fyssen Foundation symposium. Fyssen Symposium, 3rd, Apr, 1987.
Abstract: (from the cover) Does thought depend crucially on language, as some philosophers maintain, or can abstract reasoning and related capacities exist in the absence of language? This volume, based on a Fyssen Foundation symposium held in Versailles in April 1987, addresses this question in a new way, bringing together for the first time three different groups of experts who usually view it from different angles. From studies of the cognitive capacities of pre-linguistic human infants, of the 'silent' right cerebral hemisphere in human adults, and of animals, including birds, rodents, dogs, and primates, there emerges an impressive body of material that sheds new light on the question. Topics covered include the ability of young pre-linguistic infants to perceived causation and to make inferences concerning the structure of the perceived world, the reasoning ability of patients with severe language problems caused by brain damage to the left hemisphere, the skills that animals and infants show in combining separate items of spatial knowledge into an integrated spatial map, the capacity of chimpanzees to add unequal arithmetic fractions, the forming of perceptual categories by infants and what might be a contrasting approach by pigeons, evidence for a variety of types of cognition without conscious awareness in human patients, and what may be homologous processes in animals.
Contents: List of participants. Introduction: Three sides of a coin. Section A: Emergence and instruction. Editorial to section A. The origins of referential communication in human infancy. G. Butterworth and L. Grover. (Chapter record available). The ontogenesis of different types of thought: Language and motor behaviours as non-specific manifestations. P. Mounoud. (Chapter record available). Minds with and without language. D. Premack. (Chapter record available). Discussion, section A. Section B: Categorical perception. Editorial to section B. Functional organization of visual recognition. A. W. Young. (Chapter record available). Face perception and the right hemisphere. J. Sergent. (Chapter record available). Stimulus generalization and the acquisition of categories by pigeons. J. M. Pearce. (Chapter record available). Discussion, section B. Section C: The ontogeny of perceptual and causal knowledge. Editorial to section C. The origins of physical knowledge. E. S. Spelke. (Chapter record available). The necessity of illusion: Perception and thought in infancy. A. L. Leslie. (Chapter record available). An information-processing approach to infant cognitive development. L. B. Cohen. (Chapter record available). Discussion, section C. Section D: Implicit processing and intentionality. Editorial to section D. Access to consciousness: Dissociations between implicit and explicit knowledge in neuropsychological syndrome. D. L. Shacter, M. P. McAndrews, and M. Moscovitch. (Chapter record available). What can the bird brain tell us about thought without language?. G. Horn. (Chapter record available). Intentionality in animal conditioning. A. Dickinson. (Chapter record available). Discussion, section D. Section E: Shapes, space, and memory. Editorial to section E. Differences between adult and infant cognition: Is the crucial variable presence or absence of language?. A. Diamond. (Chapter record available). Animal spatial cognition. C. Thinus-Blanc. (Chapter record available). Primate cognition of space and shapes. B. Bresard. (Chapter record available). Discussion, section E. Section F: Verbal/non-verbal interaction and independence. Editorial to section F. The dynamics of cerebral specialization and modular interactions. M. S. Gazzaniga. (Chapter record available). Cognitive function in severe aphasia. A. Kertesz. (Chapter record available). Language without thought. E. Bisiach. (Chapter record available). Discussion, section F. Section G: Dyslexia and a mathematician's experience. Editorial to section G. A personal view of dyslexia and of thought without language. K. M. Jansons. (Chapter record available). Discussion, section G. Afterthoughts. Author index. Subject index.
122. BOOK, EDITED; CONFERENCE Gabrielsson, Alf, ed. Action and perception in rhythm and music: Papers given at a symposium in the Third International Conference on Event Perception and Action. Royal Swedish Academy of Music; Stockholm, Sweden, 1987. International Conference on Event Perception and Action, 3rd.
Abstract: (from the preface) The main impression of the book as a whole is perhaps that of curiosity and eagerness to investigate phenomena in rhythm and music--an interest which in fact also flourished one hundred years ago in the beginning of experimental psychology.... They (the papers) range from purely empirical to purely theoretical and often differ widely with regard to which aspects of rhythm/music that are treated, as well as regarding the extent to which explicit use is made of concepts and ideas in event perception and ecological psychology.
Contents: Preface. A historical approach to rhythm as perception. Paul Fraisse. Categorical rhythm perception: An ecological perspective. Eric F. Clarke. Playing triplets: Facts and preferences. Piet G. Vos and Stephen Handel. How to terminate a phrase. An analysis-by-synthesis experiment on a perceptual aspect of music performance. Anders Friberg, Johan Sundberg and Lars Fryden. Is the musical ritard an allusion to physical motion?. Ulf Kronman and Johan Sundberg. Notation, motion and perception: Some aspects of musical rhythm. Ingmar Bengtsson. Once again: The theme from Mozart's Piano Sonata in A Major (K.331): A comparison of five performances. Alf Gabrielsson. Approaching jazz performances empirically: Some reflections on methods and problems. Peter Reinholdsson. The perception of pulse in musical rhythm. Richard Parncutt. (Chapter record available). The interpretive component in musical performance. L. H. Schaffer and N. P. Todd. Perspectives on musical time. Mari Riess Jones. Measuring music. Gerald J. Balzano. What can a musician learn about music performance from newly discovered microstructure principles (PM and PAS)?. Manfred Clynes. Sound examples.
123. BOOK, EDITED Harnad, Stevan, ed. Categorical perception: The groundwork of cognition. Cambridge University Press; New York, NY, US, 1987.
Abstract: (from the jacket) "Categorical Perception" brings together all the known examples of categorical perception, from research on humans and animals, infants and adults, in all the sense modalities so far investigated: hearing, seeing, and touch. The perceptual findings are interpreted in terms of the available cognitive and neuroscientific theories of how categorical perception is accomplished by the brain: Is it inborn? Is it learned? What is it that the mind does to the incoming continuous information to sort it into the discrete categories we can see, manipulate, name, and describe? Work on elementary perceptual and psychophysical categories (colors, sounds) is then compared with work on higher order categories: objects (tables, chairs), patterns, abstract concepts (goodness, truth). From a focus on the most thoroughly investigated case of categorical perception--speech perception--the book proceeds to an integrative view of categorization in general.
Contents: List of contributors. Preface. Introduction: Psychophysical and cognitive aspects of categorical perception: A critical overview by Stevan Harnad. Part I: Psychophysical foundations of categorical perception. Categorical perception: Some psychophysical models. Richard E. Pastore. (Chapter record available). Beyond the categorical/continuous distinction: A psychophysical approach to processing modes. Neil A. Macmillan. (Chapter record available). Part II: Categorical perception of speech. Phonetic category boundaries are flexible. Bruno H. Repp and Alvin M. Liberman. (Chapter record available). Auditory, articulatory, and learning explanations of categorical perception in speech. Stuart Rosen and Peter Howell. (Chapter record available). On infant speech perception and the acquisition of language. Peter D. Eimas, Joanne L. Miller and Peter W. Jusczyk. (Chapter record available). Part III: Models for speech categorical perception. Neural models of speech perception: A case history. Robert E. Remez. (Chapter record available). On the categorization of speech sounds. Randy L. Diehl and Keith R. Kluender. (Chapter record available). Categorical partition: A fuzzy-logical model of categorization behavior. Dominic W. Massaro. (Chapter record available). Part IV: Categorical perception in other modalities and other species. Perceptual categories in vision and audition. Marc H. Bornstein. (Chapter record available). Categorical perception of sound signals: Facts and hypotheses from animal studies. Gunter Ehret. (Chapter record available). A naturalistic view of categorical perception. Charles T. Snowdon. (Chapter record available). The special-mechanisms debate in speech research: Categorization tests on animals and infants. Patricia K. Kuhl. (Chapter record available). Brain mechanisms in categorical perception. Martha Wilson. (Chapter record available). Part V: Psychophysiological indices of categorical perception. Electrophysiological indices of categorical perception for speech. Dennis L. Molfese. (Chapter record available). Evoked potentials and color-defined categories. D. Regan. (Chapter record available). Part VI: Higher-order categories. Categorization processes and categorical perception. Douglas L. Medin and Lawrence W. Barsalou. (Chapter record available). Developmental changes in category structure. Frank C. Keil and Michael H. Kelly. (Chapter record available). Spatial categories: The perception and conceptualization of spatial relations. Ellen Bialystok and David R. Olson. (Chapter record available). Part VII: Cognitive foundations. Category induction and representation. Stevan Harnad. (Chapter record available). Author index. Subject index.
124. BOOK CHAPTER Pastore, Richard E. Categorical perception: Some psychophysical models. IN: Categorical perception: The groundwork of cognition.; Stevan Harnad, Ed. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, US. 1987. p. 29-52.
Abstract: (from the chapter) discusses the original conceptualization of CP (categorical perception) in terms of expected psychophysical measures, comparing that conceptualization with less discrete modes of perception... psychophysical models of nondiscrete stimulus processing which should yield data meeting the criterion for categorical perception are discussed.
125. BOOK CHAPTER Macmillan, Neil A. Beyond the categorical/continuous distinction: A psychophysical approach to processing modes. IN: Categorical perception: The groundwork of cognition.; Stevan Harnad, Ed. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, US. 1987. p. 53-85.
Abstract: (from the book) a detection-theory based model of perceptual processing ...is offered as a framework for categorical perception research... Durlach-Braida model.
126. BOOK CHAPTER Repp, Bruno H.; Liberman, Alvin M. Phonetic category boundaries are flexible. IN: Categorical perception: The groundwork of cognition.; Stevan Harnad, Ed. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, US. 1987. p. 89-112.
Abstract: (from the book) various factors that may influence the location of phonetic category boundaries on physical-stimulus continua of the kind widely used in speech-perception research... context provided by other stimuli in a test ( ...gives rise to ...sequential contrast, range-frequency shifts, and selective adaptation)... internal structure of a single speech stimulus... listener's linguistic experience and expectations (effects of semantic and syntactic structure, and of cross-language phonetic differences).
127. BOOK CHAPTER Rosen, Stuart; Howell, Peter. Auditory, articulatory, and learning explanations of categorical perception in speech. IN: Categorical perception: The groundwork of cognition.; Stevan Harnad, Ed. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, US. 1987. p. 113-160.
Abstract: (from the book) the "motor theory" posited that the categorical nature of perception was a result of the categorical nature of the gestures used in production... proposed that CP (categorical perception) arises from natural sensitivities of the auditory system... third point of view considers (CP) to arise from the use of categories that are determined ...by learning... distinction between voiceless affricates and fricatives, and that between voiced and voiceless plosives... data from adults, children, infants and nonhuman mammals perceiving speech.
128. BOOK CHAPTER Eimas, Peter D.; Miller, Joanne L.; Jusczyk, Peter W. On infant speech perception and the acquisition of language. IN: Categorical perception: The groundwork of cognition.; Stevan Harnad, Ed. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, US. 1987. p. 161-195.
Abstract: (from the book) abilities of prelinguistic infants to perceive speech... relate their perceptual abilities to the development of phonological and lexical systems... hypothesis that the processing of speech in infants (and adults) is performed on a nonsegmented, continuous speech signal and that the categorical representations resulting from this processing have a syllabic structure.
129. BOOK CHAPTER Remez, Robert E. Neural models of speech perception: A case history. IN: Categorical perception: The groundwork of cognition.; Stevan Harnad, Ed. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, US. 1987. p. 199-225.
Abstract: (from the book) examination of the phonetic-feature detector... specialized perceptual functions ...including categorical perception of the sounds in the phoneme repertoires of many languages... characterization of speech perception set in neural terms appropriated from descriptions of the visual system.
130. BOOK CHAPTER Diehl, Randy L.; Kluender, Keith R. On the categorization of speech sounds. IN: Categorical perception: The groundwork of cognition.; Stevan Harnad, Ed. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, US. 1987. p. 226-253.
Abstract: (from the chapter) defending the following claims about the correspondence between speech signals and phonetic categories... within certain limits of time and frequency, there is almost no significant aspect of acoustic structure that is irrelevant to phonetic categorization... experienced listeners make use of "all" potentially relevant cues for phonetic categories, provided these cues are detectable... (relatively localized (e.g., syllable-sized) portions of the acoustic signal generally do not contain sufficient information to specify phonetic categories unambiguously).
131. BOOK CHAPTER Massaro, Dominic W. Categorical partition: A fuzzy-logical model of categorization behavior. IN: Categorical perception: The groundwork of cognition.; Stevan Harnad, Ed. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, US. 1987. p. 254-283.
Abstract: (from the chapter) goal ...is to clarify the issues involved in the study of categorical perception (CP) and to offer an alternative view of the phenomenon.
132. BOOK CHAPTER Bornstein, Marc H. Perceptual categories in vision and audition. IN: Categorical perception: The groundwork of cognition.; Stevan Harnad, Ed. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, US. 1987. p. 287-300.
Abstract: (from the chapter) review evidence that colors are perceived categorically... overview some parallel lines of inquiry on categorization in vision and audition.
133. BOOK CHAPTER Ehret, Gunter. Categorical perception of sound signals: Facts and hypotheses from animal studies. IN: Categorical perception: The groundwork of cognition.; Stevan Harnad, Ed. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, US. 1987. p. 301-331.
Abstract: (from the chapter) experimental evidence for categorical perception (CP) of sound signals in animals (insects, anurans, birds, mammals)... mechanisms of CP related to learned and innate categorizations and to temporal and spectral sound analysis are proposed.
134. BOOK CHAPTER Snowdon, Charles T. A naturalistic view of categorical perception. IN: Categorical perception: The groundwork of cognition.; Stevan Harnad, Ed. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, US. 1987. p. 332-354.
Abstract: (from the chapter) two experiments with pygmy marmosets... results imply that at least some aspects of category boundaries must be acquired through individual experience rather than being hard-wired... CP (categorical perception) in speech and nonlinguistic vocalization may be no different from perceptual processing in other modalities.
135. BOOK CHAPTER Kuhl, Patricia K. The special-mechanisms debate in speech research: Categorization tests on animals and infants. IN: Categorical perception: The groundwork of cognition.; Stevan Harnad, Ed. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, US. 1987. p. 355-386.
Abstract: (from the chapter) analyzes the contribution of animal studies of CP (categorical perception) to the special-mechanisms debate... animal findings are compared with human CP effects using nonspeech stimuli.
136. BOOK CHAPTER Wilson, Martha. Brain mechanisms in categorical perception. IN: Categorical perception: The groundwork of cognition.; Stevan Harnad, Ed. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, US. 1987. p. 387-417.
Abstract: (from the chapter) hypothesized relationships between particular brain areas and modality-specific categorization processes were tested... results are interpreted in terms of current models of hemispheric specialization... in addition to empirical findings relating CP (categorical perception) to adaptation-level theory and to inferred brain functions, ...prototypical stimuli, shifts in category boundaries, and the presumed uniqueness of speech signals are discussed.
137. BOOK CHAPTER Molfese, Dennis L. Electrophysiological indices of categorical perception for speech. IN: Categorical perception: The groundwork of cognition.; Stevan Harnad, Ed. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, US. 1987. p. 421-443.
Abstract: (from the chapter) review of the auditory-evoked potential (AEP) and clinical neuropsychology literature related to categorical perception (CP)... electrophysiological recording techniques.
138. BOOK CHAPTER Regan, D. Evoked potentials and color-defined categories. IN: Categorical perception: The groundwork of cognition.; Stevan Harnad, Ed. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, US. 1987. p. 444-452.
Abstract: (from the chapter) reviews the color characteristics of EPs (evoked potentials) and draws attention to some simple (noncognitive) properties of EPs that might be confounded with EP effects associated with changes in perceived category.
139. BOOK CHAPTER Medin, Douglas L.; Barsalou, Lawrence W. Categorization processes and categorical perception. IN: Categorical perception: The groundwork of cognition.; Stevan Harnad, Ed. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, US. 1987. p. 455-490.
Abstract: (from the chapter) investigators who study categorical perception (CP) and those who study semantic categories... describe common issues that both areas face... review empirical similarities between the two lines of research... review points of future comparison ...in these two areas.
140. BOOK CHAPTER Keil, Frank C.; Kelly, Michael H. Developmental changes in category structure. IN: Categorical perception: The groundwork of cognition.; Stevan Harnad, Ed. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, US. 1987. p. 491-510.
Abstract: (from the chapter) explores possible parallels between shifts in semantic and conceptual development and corresponding shifts in perceptual development... discussion of Rosch's work on prototype and basic level phenomena.
141. BOOK CHAPTER Bialystok, Ellen; Olson, David R. Spatial categories: The perception and conceptualization of spatial relations. IN: Categorical perception: The groundwork of cognition.; Stevan Harnad, Ed. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, US. 1987. p. 511-531.
Abstract: (from the chapter) mental representation assigned to spatial displays in both perception and conception is described in terms of propositional representations that are both relational and categorical.
142. BOOK CHAPTER Harnad, Stevan. Category induction and representation. IN: Categorical perception: The groundwork of cognition.; Stevan Harnad, Ed. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, US. 1987. p. 535-565.
Abstract: (from the chapter) theories to explain CP (categorical perception) effects... the "Whorf Hypothesis" explains color-boundary effects by proposing that language somehow determines our view of reality... the "motor theory of speech perception" explains phoneme-boundary effects by attributing them to the patterns of articulation required for pronunciation.
143. BOOK CHAPTER Rubin, John M.; Richards, W. A. Spectral categorization of materials. IN: Image understanding 1985-86.; Whitman Richards, Shimon Ullman, Eds. Ablex Publishing Corp, Norwood, NJ, US. 1987. p. 20-44. Pub type: Reprint.
Abstract: (from the chapter) here we seek a representation of material reflectance in which trivial surface variations can be overlooked in order to appreciate important similarities; at the same time, the representation must allow some discrimination among different materials... we develop such a categorical color space, based on a theoretical solution to the problem of identifying material changes... a trichromatic system, it will be shown, yields a two-dimensional color space in which the axes will turn out to represent boundaries between different materials; the four quadrants of the two-dimensional space represent material categories... spectral information at edges; the opposite slope sign inference; spectral normalization; choosing a representation; trichromacy: finding more material changes; relation to psychophysics: the unique primaries.
144. BOOK CHAPTER Massaro, Dominic W. Integrating multiple sources of information in listening and reading. IN: Language perception and production: Relationships between listening, speaking, reading and writing. Cognitive science series.; Alan Allport, Donald G. MacKay, Wolfgang Prinz, Eds. Academic Press, Inc, London, England. 1987. p. 111-129.
Abstract: (from the chapter) reading and listening are viewed as having analogous stages of language processing... multiple sources of information supporting the identification and interpretation of the language input... sources of support provide continuous rather than categorical information... major constraints to be met by potential theories of language processing.
145. BOOK, EDITED Garfield, Jay L., ed. Modularity in knowledge representation and natural-language understanding. MIT Press; Cambridge, MA, US, 1987.
Abstract: (from the jacket) This book presents new essays in which a diverse group of philosophers, linguists, psycholinguists, psychologists, and neuroscientists--including both proponents and critics of the modularity hypothesis--address general questions and specific problems related to modularity.... The contributors (many of whom present new empirical evidence) take up questions concerning the degree to which the mind might usefully be decomposed into functional modules, the dimensions along which this decomposition might usefully be brought to bear on such a modular decomposition. They also discuss the nature, the function, and the structure of particular modules and submodules. Some of the most significant of these investigations concern the extent to which particular modules are able to communicate with others and the differences and relationships between those mental processes that seem to be modular and those that clearly are not.
Contents: Preface. Introduction: Carving the mind at its joints by Jay L. Garfield. Part I: Modularity and psychological method. Introduction. Jay L. Garfield. (Chapter record available). Modules, frames, fridgeons, sleeping dogs, and the music of the spheres. Jerry A. Fodor. (Chapter record available). Against modularity. William Marslen-Wilson and Lorraine Komisarjevsky Tyler. (Chapter record available). Binding, plausibility, and modularity. Kenneth Forster. (Chapter record available). Context effects in lexical processing: A connectionist approach to modularity. Michael K. Tanenhaus, Gary S. Dell and Greg Carlson. (Chapter record available). Part II: Semantics, syntax, and learnability. Introduction. Steven Weisler. The autonomy of syntax and semantics. James Higginbotham. (Chapter record available). Levels of meaning. Norbert Hornstein. (Chapter record available). Quantification, ellipsis, and logical form. Steven Weisler. (Chapter record available). Categorical grammar and domain specificity of universal grammar. Michael Flynn. (Chapter record available). Combinatory grammars and human language processing. Mark Steedman. (Chapter record available). The components of learnability theory. Jane Grimshaw. (Chapter record available). Part III: On-line processing. Introduction. Mark Feinstein. Modes and modules: Multiple paths to the language processor. Patrick J. Carroll and Maria L. Slowiaczek. (Chapter record available). Modularity and interaction in sentence processing. Gerry Altmann. (Chapter record available). Modularity in the syntactic parser. Amy Weinberg. (Chapter record available). Modularity in sentence comprehension. Charles Clifton, Jr. and Fernanda Ferreira. (Chapter record available). Theories of sentence processing. Lyn Frazier. (Chapter record available). Mandatory processing in speech perception: A case study. Joanne L. Miller. (Chapter record available). Part IV: The visual module. Introduction. Neil Stillings. Modularity and interaction of brain regions underlying visuomotor coordination. Michael A. Arbib. (Chapter record available). Marr's theory of vision. Tyler Burge. (Chapter record available). Modularity and naturalism in theories of vision. Neil Stillings. (Chapter record available). Bibliography. List of authors. Index.
146. BOOK, EDITED McKenzie, Beryl E., ed.; Day, Ross H., ed. Perceptual development in early infancy: Problems and issues. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc; Hillsdale, NJ, US, 1987. Series title: Child psychology.
Abstract: (from the preface) This book is not intended to be either a comprehensive reference work or a systematic handbook on perception in infancy. Nor is it another published report of a recently held conference. It is a collection of "state-of-the-art" essays on perception during the first year or so of infant development.... The twelve chapters encompass a broad range of problems. The first three are grouped under the heading of History and Methods and are concerned with a number of theoretical and methodological issues, the history and evolution of some current problems, and a detailed examination of particular indices for studying attention in infancy. The second group is devoted entirely to the problem of object perception considered in terms of visual size constancy, form perception, and shape constancy, localization in the spatially extended environment, and the role of movement in perceiving objects. Given that perception at maturity commonly involves more than one sensory channel the question arises as to when and how information from different channels is combined. The three chapters in the third section are concerned with this problem. The fourth section is given entirely to the perception of speech in early infancy, and the last section to a comment on some emergent themes.... We have mainly in mind that the work will be of greatest interest to those actively involved in research on infant perception, to those who are less involved but interested in being brought up to date on what the current research issues are, and graduate students who are at the beginning of, some way through, or nearly finished a program of research on perception in infancy.
Contents: (Abbreviated). Preface. Part I: History and methods. Problems and issues in the study of perceptual development in infancy. B. E. McKenzie and R. H. Day. (Chapter record available). How to know what infants know: Historical notes on an ever-present problem. Boris Crassini. (Chapter record available). Cardiac change responses and attentional mechanisms in infants. David Finlay and Algis Ivinskis. (Chapter record available). Part II: Perception of objects. Visual size constancy in infancy. R. H. Day. (Chapter record available). The origins of form perception. Michael Cook. (Chapter record available). The development of spatial orientation in human infancy: What changes?. B. E. McKenzie. (Chapter record available). The role of movement in object perception by infants. Denis K. Burnham. (Chapter record available). Part III: Bimodal perception. The development of auditory-visual localization in infancy. Jeff Field. (Chapter record available). Visual and haptic bimodal perception in infancy. Sharne Rolfe-Zikman. (Chapter record available). Can human neonates imitate facial gestures?. Ray Over. (Chapter record available). Part IV: Speech perception. The development of the categorical identification of speech. Denis K. Burnham, Lynda J. Earnshaw and Maria C. Quinn. (Chapter record available). Part V: A concluding commentary. Perceptual development in infancy: Reflections on some central issues. B. E. McKenzie and R. H. Day. (Chapter record available). Author index. Subject index.
147. BOOK CHAPTER Burnham, Denis K.; Earnshaw, Lynda J.; Quinn, Maria C. The development of the categorical identification of speech. IN: Perceptual development in early infancy: Problems and issues. Child psychology.; Beryl E. McKenzie, Ross H. Day, Eds. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Hillsdale, NJ, US. 1987. p. 237-275.
Abstract: (from the chapter) concerned with two main themes; development of speech perception; identification of speech sounds... define categorical perception and present the results of early studies with infants and adults... consider the evolution of language and the ontogenetic development of speech perception in humans... theories from each of these areas and empirical evidence regarding ontogenetic development suggest that speech perception is initially psychoacoustic in nature and only comes to have a phonological basis as a result of experience... methodological issues regarding infant discrimination procedures, the differences between infant and adult procedures, and the differences between discrimination and identification are described... present the results of the first study to use an infant speech identification procedure successfully... evidence from this study suggests that perception of speech in infancy is not truly categorical but becomes increasingly so with experience, especially with the active experience involved in language acquisition between 2 and 6 years.
148. BOOK CHAPTER Massaro, Dominic W. Information-processing theory and strong inference: A paradigm for psychological inquiry. IN: Perspectives on perception and action.; Herbert Heuer, Andries F. Sanders, Eds. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Hillsdale, NJ, US. 1987. p. 273-299.
Abstract: (from the chapter) goal in this essay is to integrate the information-processing approach with the study of the world of information... defense of information-processing theory; inference research strategy in psychological inquiry; previous criticisms and alternatives are evaluated and found either lacking or restatements of the same paradigm... illustrates the usefulness of the paradigm in the study of speech perception... integrating information and information processing; representative designs; limitations; information-integration framework... research strategy; falsification... speech perception by eye and ear; single versus multiple sources; integration versus nonintegration; categorical versus continuous information; independent versus nonindependent evaluation of sources; additive versus multiplicative integration.
149. BOOK, EDITED Roskam, Edward E., ed.; Suck, Reinhard, ed. Progress in mathematical psychology, 1. Elsevier Science Publishing Co, Inc; Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1987.
Abstract: (from the publicity materials) This volume examines measurement theory, perceptual processes, psychophysics, reaction times, intelligence, scaling, measurement of individual differences, memory processes, preference and decision.
Contents: Preface. Part I Measurement theory. On the reference to real numbers in fundamental measurement: A model-theoretic approach. R. Niederee. (Chapter record available). Applications of the theory of meaningfulness to attitude models. B. Orth. (Chapter record available). On specific objectivity as a concept of measurement. H. Irtel. (Chapter record available). Classification and transformation of ordinal scales in the theory of measurement. M. Droste. (Chapter record available). Approximation theorems for conjoint measurement models. R. Suck. (Chapter record available). Likelihood considerations within a deterministic setting. A. J. Smolenaars. (Chapter record available). Part II Cognitive processes. A formal model for associative memory. J. G. W. Raaijmakers. (Chapter record available). Seven minus two and structural operations. H. Buffart. (Chapter record available). Toward a psychometric theory of intelligence. E. E. Roskam. (Chapter record available). Concentration, speed and precision in simple mental tasks. G. J. Van Breukelen, R. W. Jansen, E. E. Roskam, A. H. Van der Ven, and J. C. Smit. (Chapter record available). Part III Performance and timing. Modeling dependent processing in reaction time analysis. H. Colonius. (Chapter record available). Measuring facilitation in the motor componenet. A. Diederich. (Chapter record available). Timing of rats' lever pressing when learning not to press: Temporal holes in the latency distributions. H. Eisler. (Chapter record available). Stress in waiting situations - Predictions from a mathematical model. H. Holling and G. Gediga. (Chapter record available). Part IV Perception and psychophysics. Effects of the setting and adjustment of decision criteria on psychophysical performance. M. Treisman. (Chapter record available). The Goodman-Kruskal gamma coefficient as an alternative to signal-detection theory's measures of absolute-judgment accuracy. T. O. Nelson. (Chapter record available). Linear contrast-interrelationship-functions and detection by probability summation among channels of the visual system. U. Moretensen. (Chapter record available). Intensity invariance in binocular brightness processing. H. Irtel. (Chapter record available). On the logical status of the size-distance invariance hypothesis. J. Lukas. (Chapter record available). Olfactory psychophysics: Sensitivity measures. A. Garriga Trillo. (Chapter record available). Hybrid adaptive methods. M. Zaus. (Chapter record available). Part V Psychometrics and scaling theory. Bayesian estimation methods in Rasch's multiplicative Poisson model. M. G. H. Jansen. Iterative estimation of pattern and error parameters in a probabilistic unidimensional unfolding model. R. van Blokland-Vogelsang, A. Verbeek, and P. Eilers. (Chapter record available). A polynomial model for expert categorical judgment. J. P. Barthelemy and E. Mullet. (Chapter record available). Configural effects in similarity judgments: A theoretical analysis. J. Becker and B. Billhardt. (Chapter record available). On dichotomisation methods in Boolean analysis of questionnaires. J. Van Buggenhaut and E. Degreef. (Chapter record available). A finite state theory of performance in multiple-choice tests. M. A. Garcia-Perez. (Chapter record available). Part VI Social choice and conflict. Problems of content and structure in utilities for social choice. Th. Bezembinder. (Chapter record available). A random utility model for the evaluation of "social motives" by ranking methods. U. Schulz and T. May. (Chapter record available). Dynamic decision making in dual control problems with conflicting goals. G. Van den Wittenboer, J. De Bruyn, and J. Catau. (Chapter record available). Indexes. Subject index. Author index.
150. BOOK CHAPTER Schouten, M. E. H. Speech perception and the role of long-term memory. IN: The psychophysics of speech perception. NATO ASI series D: Behavioural and Social Sciences, No. 39.; M. E. H. Schouten, Ed. Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, Dordrecht, Netherlands. 1987. p. 66-79.
Abstract: (from the chapter) in this paper, we will first have a look at the psychoacoustic position; after concluding that psychoacoustic thresholds are seldom the cause of categorical perception, we will then try to sketch out the factors that we think do cause categorical perception; finally we will review three theories to see whether and how they incorporate these factors.
151. BOOK Massaro, Dominic William. Speech perception by ear and eye: A paradigm for psychological inquiry. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc; Hillsdale, NJ, US, 1987.
Abstract: (from the cover) Information processing and psychophysical approaches are joined in "Speech Perception by Ear and Eye" to devise a systematic series of experiments on speech perception and language. Results are analyzed and integrated to derive a formal model of how auditory and visual information contributes to speech perception.... Dominic Massaro's research documents how watching a person's face as they speak influences the speech perception process. The investigations indicate that with the integration of multiple sources of information by the language perceiver, no one source should be necessary for effective communication. These findings offer many new psychophysical perspectives on the assessment and treatment of communicative disabilities.... In addition, Massaro's model is extended to person perception, decision-making, sentence interpretation, and category learning. The book will engage experimental psychologists, psycholinguists, and speech scientists with its straightforward investigation of a new area of study and its widely applicable paradigm for psychological inquiry.
Contents: Scientific framework for psychological inquiry. Single versus multiple sources of speech information: The contribution of visible speech. Integration versus nonintegration of auditory and visual information in speech perception. Categorical versus continuous information in speech perception: The relationship between identification and discrimination. Categorical versus continuous information in speech perception: Model tests and ratings. Independent versus dependent evaluation of sources. Additive, minimization, or multiplicative integration. Lifespan changes in speech perception by ear and eye. Specificity versus generality of the findings. References. Author index. Subject index.
152. BOOK CHAPTER Jusczyk, Peter. Speech perception. IN: Handbook of perception and human performance, Vol. 2: Cognitive processes and performance.; Kenneth R. Boff, Lloyd Kaufman, James P. Thomas, Eds. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, US. 1986. p. 1-57.
Abstract: (from the book) the relationships between auditory information and speech are examined in detail; provides some of the basic analysis of speech signals and explains how the auditory system has become adapted for the analysis of speech. (from the chapter) basic phenomena to be explained by models of speech perception; perceptual constancy; categorical perception of speech; context-sensitive cues; differences in processing speech and nonspeech sounds... the question of specialized speech processing mechanisms; some early models of speech perception; phonetic feature detector models; new methods of analyzing the acoustic properties of speech... arguments in favor of a special speech mode; cross-language differences in the perception of speech; how the speech mode may develop... on-line processing of fluent speech; why a bottom-up approach is plausible; factors that influence word recognition; the role of suprasegmental information in speech processing; misperceptions; perceiving speech under noisy conditions; processing synthetic versus natural speech.
153. BOOK CHAPTER Eimas, Peter D. The perception of speech in early infancy. IN: Language, writing, and the computer. Readings from "Scientific American.". (William S.-Y. Wang, Comp.), W. H. Freeman & Co, Publishers, New York, NY, US. 1986. p. 17-23. Pub type: Reprint.
Abstract: (from the introduction) results of Eimas and his associates show that the ability of categorical perception appears very early in infants in a universal way and then narrows to specific ways as babies become accultured to their particular language. (from the chapter) search for inborn mechanisms of speech perception; effectiveness of (the) mechanisms... phonemes of language; acoustic variables.
154. BOOK CHAPTER; CONFERENCE Rumbaugh, Duane M. Comparative psychology: Patterns in adaptation. IN: The G. Stanley Hall lecture series, Vol. 5.; Anne M. Rogers, C. James Scheirer, Eds. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, US. (Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, G. Stanley Hall Lecture Series, 1984) 1985. p. 10-53.
Abstract: (from the preface) (examines) the field of comparative psychology and makes the case for its potential as an integrative framework for the science of psychology; (explores) the phenomenon of animal behavior; looks closely at the concepts of ethology and fixed-action patterns and the consequences these can produce; gives examples of how their senses permit animals to be sensitive to important stimuli in the environment, opening the door to the possibility of behavior stimulated by the environment rather than exclusively by instinct... (discusses) the concept of cognition, the mechanisms of learning, memory, perception, thinking, and language, specifically as these pertain to animals and their behavior; discussion illuminates such concepts as categorical learning, the feature-positive effect, the serial-position effect, the numerical attributes of stimuli, and the implications of spatial learning and memory studies; urges further study of how organisms integrate independently learned units of information to a constructive advantage... focuses ...discussion of the intelligence of primates by considering recent research, particularly with chimpanzees. (from the chapter) adaptation; humans in a comparative perspective; language and primates.
155. Molfese, Dennis L.; Laughlin, Nellie K.; Morse, Philip A.; Linnville, Steven E.; and others. Neuroelectrical correlates of categorical perception for place of articulation in normal and lead-treated rhesus monkeys. Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology, 1986 Dec, v8 (n6):680-696.
Abstract: Evaluated categorical perception of place of articulation contrasts in 15 rhesus monkeys ( Macaca mulatta ). The Subjects had been chronically exposed to subclinical levels of lead, either from conception to birth or for 6 mo beginning at birth, or were never exposed to lead. The brain responses recorded from the right hemisphere of the normal control group discriminated between the categories of (dae) and (gae). Categorical discriminations were also noted for Subjects exposed to lead over only the left hemisphere. Postnatal exposure resulted in categorical discrimination associated with slower latency components, suggesting a less mature pattern than that obtained for prenatally exposed Subjects. Results suggest that the neurocortical mechanisms associated with categorical perception of place information may differ between human and nonhuman primates and that early exposure to lead alters these processes. 1987
156. CONFERENCE PAPER Styles, E. A.; Allport, D. Alan. Perceptual integration of identity, location and colour. Symposium on Visual Attention and Action (1985, Bielefeld, Federal Republic of Germany). Psychological Research, 1986 Dec, v48 (n4):189-200.
Abstract: Conducted 5 experiments with university volunteers to examine how visual information about an object is integrated. Subjects were instructed to name selectively just 1 object among a briefly presented and pattern-masked array of other objects; the object was specified in terms of its color and/or its relative location. The categorical relation between the target object and its surrounding nontargets was manipulated. Results indicate that categorical identity information was available even at short exposures, but this information was not coordinated with information about relative position or color. A preliminary outline model of visual attribute integration in the selective control of action and in the creation of episodic memory is put forward. 1988
157. Streitfeld, Barbara; Wilson, Martha. The ABCs of categorical perception. Cognitive Psychology, 1986 Oct, v18 (n4):432-451.
Abstract: In 4 experiments, 56 right-handed Subjects (primarily male university students) provided judgments of 4 sensory continua, 2 visual and 2 tactual-kinesthetic. Results show that the adaptation level for a set of stimuli served as a category boundary whether stimuli on the continuum differed by linear or logarithmic increments. For all sensory continua (visual length and texture, tactual length, and weight), discrimination of stimuli belonging to different perceptual categories was more accurate than discrimination of stimuli belonging to the same perceptual category. Shifts in the adaptation level produced shifts in the location of the category boundary. It is suggested that the concept of adaptation-level based categorization (ABC) provides a unified account of judgmental processes in categorical perception without recourse to post hoc constructs such as implicit anchors or external referents. The concept of adaptation level also is seen as directing attention both to the intrinsic mechanisms that lead to category formation and to experiential factors that determine how particular physical values will be categorized. 1987
158. Quinn, Paul C.; Eimas, Peter D. On categorization in early infancy. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1986 Oct, v32 (n4):331-363. Pub type: Literature Review; Review.
Abstract: Reviews the research literature on the abilities of infants to categorize information from the domains of vision and speech. The evidence suggests that infants are able to categorize their experiences and that their categorical representations follow the same fundamental principles that govern the categorical representations of adults. Studies of categorization in the visual domain with dot patterns, schematic faces, hue, and orientation have shown that infants and adults form categorical representations and that the structure of the representations are prototypic in nature. Similar findings are available in the area of speech perception. Consideration is given to some of the difficulties that are encountered when the attempt is made to extrapolate from the categories and underlying concepts that are available to infants to those that exist in adults. (5 p ref) 1987 American Psychological
159. French-St. George, Marilyn. What does speech sound like to the hearing impaired? Volta Review, 1986 Sep, v88 (n5):109-122.
Abstract: Discusses how hearing impaired listeners use their residual hearing to extract cues that help them understand the spoken language of others. Speech perception is defined, and issues pertinent to understanding the process are addressed, including the acoustic correlates of linguistic units, categorical perception, and the building blocks of the perceptual process. Research is presented suggesting the importance of auditory skills (envelope detection, frequency and temporal resolution, and frequency/intensity discrimination) in the development of speech perception. The influence of additional sensory modalities, especially vision, on speech perception is discussed. It is suggested, in light of technical advances, that an understanding of the use of residual hearing and its integration with other modalities is increasingly important. 1988 all rights reserved).
160. Cohen, Henri; Levy, Joseph J. Sex differences in categorization of tactile stimuli. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 1986 Aug, v63 (n1):83-86.
Abstract: To investigate the effect of sex differences in categorization of tactile stimuli, 9 male and 9 female right-handed university students rated the perceived similarity between pairs of stimuli varying in texture and shape. Results indicate that men had better categorical abilities than women in processing haptic information. 1987
161. Bazoumana, Nda; Belle, Francoise. Evaluation des partenaires et des rapports sociaux dans le processus de differentiation categorielle. (Evaluation of partners and social relations in the process of categorical differentiation.). Psychologie Francaise, 1986 Jul, v31 (n2):141-147. Language: French.
Abstract: Describes 2 evaluative scales for the study of social categorization processes: 1 provides an individual's evaluation of group members, and the other provides the evaluation of social relations involving this individual. The use of these scales in a study of the social relationships of female engineers and managers with male peers, subordinates, and secretaries in 2 enterprises is discussed. (English abstract) 1988
162. Zold, Balint; Toth, Tibor; Tolna, Judit. Colour preference: A new approach. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 1986 Jun, v62 (n3):739-752.
Abstract: Devised a model-type dimensional color test (DCT) involving the method of semantic differential. In pilot studies, 90 university students classified 24 colors according to 6 criteria (e.g., warm vs cold), and 300 lower socioeconomic status (SES) Subjects (aged 18-30 yrs) indicated their color preference. Test-retest reliability of the DCT was studied using 91 Subjects (mean age 36.6 yrs). Results show that for well-matched groups, the consistency of age, sex, and social dependency of the color preference phenomenon could be described in the dimensional approach. The test-retest reliability of the model test was satisfactory for 4 of the 6 dimensions. The test was validated by comparison with the parameters of the Maudsley Personality Inventory and averaged personality ratings on a 70-item check list made by 16 or 17 peers. It is concluded that the dimensional model test can give better results than those produced by color tests adopting the categorical approach. 1987
163. Zentall, Thomas R.; Jackson-Smith, Pamela; Jagielo, Joyce A.; Nallan, Gary B. Categorical shape and color coding by pigeons. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 1986 Apr, v12 (n2):153-159.
Abstract: Two studies with 32 pigeons assessed the categorical coding of shapes and the existence of a higher-order color category (all colors). Subjects were trained on 2 independent tasks (matching-to-sample and oddity-from-sample). One task involved red and a plus sign, the other a circle and green. On test trials, 1 of the 2 comparison stimuli from one task was replaced by one of the stimuli from the other task. Differential performance based on which of the 2 stimuli from the other task was introduced suggested categorical coding rules. In Exp I, evidence for the categorical coding of sample shapes was found. Categorical color coding was also found; however, it was the comparison stimuli rather than the samples that were categorically coded. Exp II replicated the categorical shape sample effect and ruled out the possibility that the particular colors used were responsible for the categorical coding of comparison stimuli. Results support the view that pigeons can develop categorical rules involving shapes and colors and that the color categories can be hierarchical. 1986 all rights reserved).
164. Cooper, Andre M.; Whalen, D. H.; Fowler, Carol A. P-centers are unaffected by phonetic categorization. Perception & Psychophysics, 1986 Mar, v39 (n3):187-196.
Abstract: Determined whether the perceived onset of a word (P-center) was sensitive to the phonetic identity of the prevocalic segments of a syllable using 3 Subjects in 4 experiments. It was found that phonetic judgments were categorical while P-center judgments were continuous. Results demonstrate that P-center location is not determined by the phonetic identity of syllable initial consonants nor by the rise time or the amplitude envelope of the signal as P. Howell (1984) has argued. It is suggested that, instead, a combination of the duration of the prevocalic consonant and the duration of the syllable rhyme is at work. Both the phonetic structure of a syllable and the particular acoustic realizations of its structure affect the location of the P-center. 1987
165. Heller, Morton A. Central and peripheral influences on tactual reading. Perception & Psychophysics, 1986 Mar, v39 (n3):197-204.
Abstract: In 7 experiments, 198 Subjects, including 82 undergraduates, attempted to read 2-, 3-, or 4-letter words printed on their palms, wrists, or fingers. Successive letters were either drawn over each other at the same location or were spatially separated on skin surfaces. Results indicate (1) a peripheral source of masking, since reading was aided by writing letters at different cutaneous locations, and (2) central contributions to tactual reading, since categorical information aided reading, as did knowledge of (constant) orientation. Difficulties found in reading print-on-palm were ascribed to aftersensations derived from drawing a point across the skin, a passive form of touch. It was proposed that passive touch may be limited in performance when memory is loaded. 1987
166. Fiedler, Klaus. Person memory and person judgments based on categorically organized information. Acta Psychologica, 1986 Feb, v61 (n2):117-135.
Abstract: Free recall, cued recall, and rating-like judgments--conceived as alternative modes of expressing memorized information--were assessed in a person memory task with 48 university students. The target person had been described with respect to the presence or absence of 48 different interests (e.g., Mozart, sonatas, tennis, boxing) in 12 interest categories (e.g., music, sports). Results are explained within a categorical coding framework that suggests 2 functionally independent stages of recall: (a) access to a higher-order memory code on the category level, and (b) reconstruction of specific items within categories. Thus, social information was encoded at the level of abstract categories; the specific category contents were only reconstructed if necessary. Assessing the categorical code and reconstructing the specifics within categories are 2 independent processes. 1987 all rights reserved).
167. Massaro, Dominic W.; Thompson, Laura A.; Barron, Brigid; Laren, Elizabeth. Developmental changes in visual and auditory contributions to speech perception. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1986 Feb, v41 (n1):93-113.
Abstract: Investigated whether children are poorer lip-readers than adults and whether there is a positive correlation between lip-reading ability and the visual influence given bimodal speech. 40 children, aged 2 yrs 5 mo to 6 yrs 10 mo, and 11 16-32 yr old adults were tested in 3 experiments with both auditory and visual sources and were also required to identify speech events on the basis of only the visual source. In addition to replicating the previous findings of the 1st author (see PA, Vol 72:9208) in the bimodal situation, the present findings indicate that children are poorer lip-readers than adults. A positive correlation was observed between lip-reading ability and the size of the visual contribution to bimodal speech perception. A fuzzy logical model of speech perception provides a good quantitative description of the results even with the assumption that the visual information was equivalent in both the bimodal and lip-reading conditions. Results also contradict the categorical perception of speech events and any nonindependence in the evaluation of auditory and visual information in speech perception. 1986
168. Feldman, Jack M.; Camburn, Artegal; Gatti, G. Michelle. Shared distinctiveness as a source of illusory correlation in performance appraisal. Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, 1986 Feb, v37 (n1):34-59.
Abstract: Investigated the formation of illusory correlations between group membership and quality of job performance in 4 experiments involving 362 undergraduates and members of a fire department. Information-processing theories predict that stimuli equally and highly distinctive will be perceived to be associated, even in the absence of a statistical relationship. Group membership and behavioral performance indicants for the job of municipal fire fighter were manipulated in a stimulus set such that the relative frequency of an arbitrary minority group matched the relative frequency of extemely good-poor behaviors. A delay was introduced between stimulus presentation and measurement in 3 of the 4 experiments to test a categorical processing explanation for the illusory correlation phenomenon. Results show little evidence of illusory association on evaluation, recognition, or estimation tasks until the affective contrast between frequent and infrequent stimulus behaviors was increased to a degree unlikely to occur naturally. It is concluded that the shared distinctiveness source of the illusory correlation is unlikely to produce appraisal-relevant local stereotypes. 1986
169. Muncer, Steven J.; Gorman, Bernard; Campbell, Anne. Sorting out aggression: Dimensional and categorical perceptions of aggressive episodes. Aggressive Behavior, 1986, v12 (n5):327-336.
Abstract: 147 college students nominated a pool of real-life aggressive episodes they had observed or in which they had been involved. 24 of these situations were given back to a subset of 53 Subjects who were asked to sort them into meaningful groups on the basis of perceived similarity. The data were analyzed by a multidimensional scaling package and by cluster analysis. Both techniques revealed that the major dimensions and groupings were in terms of verbal-physical form, familiar other-strangers, and equity-victimization. Results suggest that contextual, form, and social judgment dimensions may be central in Subjects' categorical schema. 1988 all rights reserved).
170. Samuel, Arthur G.; Tartter, Vivien C. Acoustic-phonetic issues in speech perception. Annual Review of Anthropology, 1986, v15:247-273. Pub type: Literature Review; Review.
Abstract: Reviews research on the translation of a speaker's acoustic stream to a listener's phonetic code, concentrating on basic, simple stimuli. Categorical perception and the right ear advantage, 2 phenomena largely responsible for postulating the existence of a special mode for speech as distinct from other acoustic stimuli, may be due to more general psychological and cognitive mechanisms. Other phenomena supporting special acoustic-phonetic mechanisms are reviewed. A hypothetical "feature detector" may be a possible acoustic phonetic mechanism. Some invariant changes of sound in the speech signal across linguistic environments support the idea of a feature detector. Recent studies with infants show early ability to integrate auditory and visual speech cues. Studies of infant perception are congruent with studies of adult speech perception. Special vs general acoustic-phonetic processing of speech is addressed. 1988 all rights reserved).
171. Collins, M. Jane; Hurtig, Richard R. Categorical perception of speech sounds via the tactile mode. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research, 1985 Dec, v28 (n4):594-598.
Abstract: Used a categorical perception paradigm to evaluate the tactile perception of speech sounds of 4 normal-hearing adults (aged 22-43 yrs) in comparison with their auditory perception. Results show that speech signals delivered by tactile stimulation was categorically perceived on a voice-onset time (VOT) continuum. The boundary for the voiced-voiceless distinction fell at longer VOTs for tactile than for auditory perception. It is concluded that the procedure is useful for determining characteristics of tactile perception and for prosthesis evaluation. 1986 all rights reserved).
172. Raz, Israel; Noffsinger, Douglas. Identification of synthetic, voiced stop-consonants by hearing-impaired listeners. Audiology, 1985 Nov-Dec, v24 (n6):437-448.
Abstract: Investigated the identification of synthetic, voiced stop consonants changing in place of articulation in 26 normal-hearing listeners (aged 18-30 yrs) and 16 hearing-impaired listeners (aged 24-63 yrs) who reported difficulties in understanding speech but attained high speech discrimination scores on standard test materials. Two place continua (each containing 13 stimuli changing from /ba/ to /da/ and /ga/) were employed: a continuum in which place was cued by an initial noise burst and formant transitions, and a continuum in which place was cued by formant transitions alone. All normal Subjects exhibited categorical and highly consistent identification for both stimulus continua. For hearing-impaired Subjects, identification was less consistent for the burst-and-transition stimuli and much poorer for transition-only stimuli. Similar differences were observed when comparing the responses of 4 Subjects with a unilateral hearing loss when the stimuli were presented to their normal and impaired ears, and 2 Subjects with a unilateral, sudden-onset hearing loss with recovered pure-tone sensitivity. Results suggest that difficulties in understanding speech, often claimed by hearing-impaired listeners who nevertheless attain high speech discrimination scores (in quiet) for standard test materials, can be observed in the identification of synthetic consonant-vowel approximations that change in place of articulation. (French abstract) 1986 all rights reserved).
173. Quinn, Paul C.; Siqueland, Einar R.; Bomba, Paul C. Delayed recognition memory for orientation by human infants. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1985 Oct, v40 (n2):293-303.
Abstract: Studied the effect of a delay (between the end of the familiarization phase and the beginning of the test phase) on discrimination of the orientation of square-wave gratings, using the familiarization/novelty preference paradigm and 144 2-3 mo olds. Three stimulus pairs were studied: horizontal-vertical, non-mirror-image obliques, and mirror-image obliques. Data indicate that the members of the oblique-oblique stimulus pairs were confused in memory to a greater extent than the members of the horizontal-vertical stimulus pair. These findings are consistent with the 3rd author's (see PA, Vol 71:25495) recent report that infants respond to the orientation of a visual stimulus in a categorical-like manner. 1986 all rights reserved).
174. Rozsypal, A. J.; Stevenson, D. C.; Hogan, J. T. Dispersion in models of categorical perception. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 1985 Sep, v29 (n3):271-288.
Abstract: Asserts that a signal detection theory model of auditory discrimination with a nonlinear mapping from stimulus continuum to perceptual continuum can account for the enhanced discrimination at the category boundary found in categorical perception. Properties of this transformation are specified by a unimodal dispersion function. It is shown that a system consisting of 2 acoustic feature detectors with an associated decision function is also a dispersive system, which models categorical perception of a stimulus continuum as well as boundary shifts under adaptation. The effect of detector adaptation on discrimination is discussed in view of 3 types of decision variable (angular distance decision, normal distance decision, and path length decision) and different types of detector noise. 1987
175. Zerbolio, D. J. Categorical color coding in goldfish. Animal Learning & Behavior, 1985 Aug, v13 (n3):269-273.
Abstract: 32 goldfish, trained in the shuttlebox apparatus to avoid shock, acquired a color discrimination between 2 colors (red/green) and were tested in transfer with a new set of colors (yellow/blue). Transfer color shock-pairing was either consistent with (red = yellow, blue = green) or opposite to (red = yellow, green = blue) categorical color coding observed in pigeons. Groups with transfer shock-pairing consistent with categorical color coding showed positive transfer, and groups with transfer shock-pairing opposite to categorical color coding showed negative transfer that was similar to an attenuated reversal learning effect. These results indicate that goldfish, like pigeons, code different colors as behavioral equivalents even though they can easily learn to discriminate between them. As with pigeons, the finding of the categorical color coding phenomenon suggests that all transfer effects in conditional discrimination designs using only color changes in transfer testing can be more parsimoniously explained by the categorical color coding phenomenon than by the conceptual learning process. 1986 American Psychological
176. Repp, Bruno H.; Williams, David R. Categorical trends in vowel imitation: Preliminary observations from a replication experiment. Speech Communication, 1985 Aug, v4 (n1-3):105-120.
Abstract: In a replication of a study by R. D. Kent (1973), Subjects (the present authors) imitated synthetic stimuli from (u)-(i) and (i)-(ae) continua at 3 temporal delays. Acoustic analysis of the response vowels revealed similar patterns across delays. Both Subjects showed clear evidence of nonlinearities in the stimulus-response mapping and of preferred response formant frequencies, although strictly categorical responses were generally absent. It is suggested that vowel imitation responses reflect the joint influences of perceptual and articulatory factors. (French & German abstracts) 1986
177. Wayland, Susan; Taplin, John E. Feature-processing deficits following brain injury: II. Classification learning, categorical decision making, and feature production. Brain & Cognition, 1985 Jul, v4 (n3):356-376.
Abstract: Tested the finding by the present authors (see PA, Vol 73:17690) that overselectivity in feature processing underlies the disorders that aphasics display in processing both visual and verbal material by exploring the relationships between the behavior of brain-injured Subjects on 3 experimental tasks--classification learning, categorical decision making, and feature production. 25 brain-injured Subjects, who took part in the earlier study and 6 normal undergraduates were administered tests in each task. From each of these tests a score selected as being indicative of overselective responding was entered into a principal components analysis, together with measures of visual recognition and memory, visual reasoning, naming skills, and severity of aphasia. Analysis supported the assumption that feature-processing disability is a specific and separable deficit, although related both to naming ability and to severity of aphasia. The relevance of the overselectivity hypothesis to naming difficulties following brain injury is discussed. 1986
178. Ketefian, Shake. Professional and bureaucratic role conceptions and moral behavior among nurses. Nursing Research, 1985 Jul-Aug, v34 (n4):248-253.
Abstract: It was theorized that professional-bureaucratic role conceptions of nurses and their perceptions of the discrepancy between ideal and actual values would influence the manner in which they practiced and operationalized their professional values, including moral behavior. Data were obtained from 217 practicing nurses representing different positions, areas of practice, education, age, ethnic groups, and work settings. Professional categorical role conception was positively related to moral behavior, while professional normative role conception and professional role discrepancy were negatively related. Bureaucratic role discrepancy was positively related to moral behavior. Hierarchical multiple-regression analyses showed that the combination of professional and bureaucratic normative role conceptions, professional and bureaucratic categorical role conceptions, and professional and bureaucratic role discrepancies explained a greater amount of the variance in moral behavior than either of the pairs of variables alone. 1986
179. Boyer, Robert W.; Charleston, Dodds E. Auditory memory-search. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 1985 Jun, v60 (n3):927-939.
Abstract: Developed a methodology for an auditory analog to the visual memory-search task first reported by S. Sternberg (see PA, Vol 40:10810) to test the effects of processing load with high levels of practice using auditory stimuli and to examine the generality of hypotheses of processing mode based on visual memory search. Two experiments involving a total of 16 undergraduates were conducted. Simultaneously presented pure tones discriminable by frequency and location were used in a single-presentation search task. The number of tones in the memory and test sets, the presence or absence of a match, and categorical differences between targets and distractors were varied in a fixed-set procedure using consistent mapping of stimuli to responses such that tones used in the memory set were never used as distractors. Results demonstrated that Subjects were able to perform the search tasks even when as many as 4 pure tones were presented simultaneously. Under conditions in which target and distractor ensembles were composed of a mixture of high and low tones, accuracy and mean reaction time (RT) continued to show load effects after extensive practice. Under conditions in which targets were categorically different from distractors, low tones vs high tones, load effects were nonsignificant even at the beginning of practice. Implications for search-task paradigms and for a theory of automaticity are discussed. Parameters that relate automatic and controlled processing to an underlying quantitative continuum are emphasized. 1986 American Psychological
180. Eimas, Peter D. The equivalence of cues in the perception of speech by infants. Infant Behavior & Development, 1985 Apr-Jun, v8 (n2):125-138.
Abstract: Investigated the perceptual equivalence of the temporal and spectral cues that differentiate the words say and stay in 96 healthy 2-, 3-, and 4-mo-olds. The specific values of the temporal and spectral cues were arranged within each member of the stimulus pairs to be discriminated so that they either cooperated or conflicted in the manner in which they signaled this stop-consonant manner contrast. The stimuli in pairs with cooperating cues were discriminated, whereas stimuli differentiated by conflicting cues were not discriminated; both findings are in accord with the equivalence of cues hypothesis. The results also affirm the contention that the cues for speech derive their effectiveness, at least in part, from the manner in which they specify a categorical representation. 1985
181. Lindsay, D.; Ainsworth, W. A. Two models of nuclear intonation. Journal of Phonetics, 1985 Apr, v13 (n2):163-173.
Abstract: Evaluated 2 models of nuclear intonation in British English. Identification results were obtained using synthetic stimuli and semantic labels from each model to predict the number and location of maxima in the discrimination function for the corresponding stimuli. It was found that the 5-tone model (vs the 2-tone model) more accurately predicted the obtained discrimination function. 1986
182. Bornstein, Marc H.; Korda, Nancy O. Identification and adaptation of hue: Parallels in the operation of mechanisms that underlie categorical perception in vision and in audition. Psychological Research, 1985 Apr, v47 (n1):1-17.
Abstract: Results of the 1st of a series of experiments conducted with a total of 38 undergraduates demonstrated an effect of adaptation on identification of blue and green when a hue category center was used as the adaptor and showed that adaptation to 1 hue shifted identification to favor the alternative hue, implicating a single detectory underlying hue categorization. Exp II produced similar effects of adaptation between green and yellow. Exp III compared the magnitudes of shift following adaptation with a category center, a near-boundary hue, and variously graded adaptation series. Results reveal that adaptation was related to the category representativeness of the adaptors and support the view that adaptation, rather than response bias, is responsible for shifts in the position of identification functions following extended stimulus exposure. Exp IV explored the neural loci of adaptation by an interocular transfer test and revealed that hue adaptation occurred at both central and peripheral loci. Reaction times to identify hues in unadapted and adapted states were also analyzed and compared. Subsidiary experiments assessed the effects of stimulus luminance on the magnitude of adaptation. Overall findings provide new data on hue perception that parallels findings in speech perception. 1986 American Psychological
183. Subbotskii, E. V. Preschool children's perception of unusual phenomena. Soviet Psychology, 1985 Spring, v23 (n3):91-114. Pub type: Translation.
Abstract: Hypothesizes that the animistic and the natural science modes are in categorical opposition to one another and that the child's conception of them emerges simultaneously in his/her consciousness. The test of the hypothesis involved 3 cycles of experiments. Exp I studied the behavior of 71 4-6 yr olds in relation to the possibility of magical influence over an object. Exp II studied the behavior of 74 4-6 yr olds in relation to the possibility of a spontaneous coming to life of an object. Exp III studied the behavior of 51 4-6 yr olds in relation to the possibility of direct action of thought over an object. Findings support the hypothesis and are, therefore, in contrast with the position of those who think that the animistic and natural causality approaches to the explication of physical phenomena are 2 successive phases in the development of a child's thought. 1986 all rights reserved).
184. CONFERENCE PAPER Fabre, Jean-Marc. Pour une problematique des repertoires de reponse dans l'etude des jugements absolus. (On the problems presented by the repertoires of responses in the study of absolute judgments.) National... Bulletin de Psychologie, 1985-86 Mar-May, v39 (n375):337-339. Language: French.
Abstract: Reviews theoretical approaches to the anchor effects in the absolute judgments of physical quantities and discusses an orientation in the semantic theories of anchoring perceptual judgments. Topics examined include (1) the effects of context in taste judgments, (2) categorical differentiation, and (3) assimilation vs contrast in anchoring perceptual judgments. 1988
185. Stevenson, Dale C.; Hogan, John T.; Rozsypal, Anton J. Generation of speech continua through monaural fusion. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 1985 Feb, v17 (n1):102-106.
Abstract: Developed a procedure based on monaural fusion of 2 speech stimuli to construct acoustic continua between natural speech sounds to be used in studies of speech perception. Such stimulus continua have several advantages over the synthetic continua commonly used in studies of categorical perception and related phenomena: They are based on real speech stimuli; the endpoint stimuli are unambiguous; and the stimuli are characterized by a well-defined physical variable, the relative intensity of the 2 components. 1986
186. Hoffman, Paul R.; Daniloff, Raymond G.; Bengoa, Deborah; Schuckers, Gordon H. Misarticulating and normally articulating children's identification and discrimination of synthetic (r) and (w). Journal of Speech & Hearing Disorders, 1985 Feb, v50 (n1):46-53.
Abstract: 22 Subjects (aged 6 yrs to 6 yrs 11 mo) who misarticulated word-initial (r) as (w) were compared to 13 age-matched normally articulating Subjects for their ability to identify and discriminate 7 synthetic stimuli representing an acoustic continuum between (we) and (re). Discrimination was tested among 3-step continuum stimulus pairs using the 4-interval AX-discrimination paradigm. All controls demonstrated a single, sharp phonemic boundary during identification and higher between-phoneme than within-phoneme discrimination ability. Most of the misarticulating Subjects demonstrated abnormal identification functions, with many showing only chance-level responses. Discrimination ability of the misarticulating Subjects was generally poorer than that of the normally articulating Subjects. Furthermore, discrimination ability of Subjects in both groups was largely predictable from their identification performance, assuming categorical perception of these stimuli. Results indicate that a majority of the 6-yr-old (r)-misarticulating Subjects failed to phonemically distinguish /r/ from /w/. These results call into question the use of the liquid gliding process as a psychological processing description of the misarticulation of these Subjects. 1985
187. Clark, N. K.; Rutter, D. R. Social categorization, visual cues, and social judgements. European Journal of Social Psychology, 1985 Jan-Mar, v15 (n1):105-119.
Abstract: Examined the effect of visual cues on social judgments when Subjects (48 college students) possess prior social categorical knowledge varying in salience to the experimental task. Videotaped target interviews were monitored by Subjects in either sound and vision or sound only, and measures were taken of the targets' perceived personality, their actual and predicted social performance, and social acceptance by Subjects. Although salience of categorization strongly influenced the quality of judgments, visual cues had little if any effect. However, visual cues strongly influenced Subjects' confidence in all 3 sets of judgments, with sound and vision Subjects consistently more confident than their sound-only counterparts. (French & German abstracts) 1986
188. Wandell, Brian A. Color measurement and discrimination. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 1985 Jan, v2 (n1):62-71.
Abstract: Discusses the vector-difference hypothesis of color discrimination, which is based on an interpretation of line-element theory that supposes that nonlinearities in representation are due entirely to the observer's state of adaptation, and reports results of the testing of this hypothesis using test lights with slow temporal modulations. It was found that, in the absence of a luminance component in the difference stimulus, the vector-difference hypothesis was supported. In the presence of a luminance component, the theory was clearly false. When a luminance component was present, discrimination judgments depended largely on whether the 2 lights were in separate, categorical regions of color space. 1985
189. Hoppe, Frank. Zur Faktorenstruktur von Schmerzerleben und Schmerzverhalten bei chronischen Schmerzpatienten. (Factor structure of pain experience and pain responsivity in chronic pain patients.). Diagnostica, 1985, v31 (n1):70-78. Language: German.
Abstract: Performed a principle component factor analysis of 40 pain-descriptive adjectives reported by 85 chronic pain patients (aged 24-77 yrs). Results reveal a categorical breakdown of pain language in 2 affective (suffering, anxiety) and 2 sensory dimensions (sharpness, rhythmic). Subscales developed according to this 4-factor solution showed high test-retest reliabilities. Principle component analysis of self ratings of pain behavior in an additional 99 chronic pain patients suggested 4 dimensions, including avoidance, social control, distraction, and motor behavior, that could be interpreted in terms of strategies for coping with painful situations. These dimensions showed only low correlations with the factors of pain language. The relationship between the present findings and previously reported results concerning pain language is discussed. 1986 all rights reserved).
190. Molfese, Dennis L.; Linnville, Steven E.; Wetzel, W. Frederick; Leicht, David. Electrophysiological correlates of handedness and speech perception contrasts. Neuropsychologia, 1985, v23 (n1):77-86.
Abstract: Auditory-evoked responses (AERs) were recorded from 18 left- and right-handed undergraduates, who listened to consonant sounds from different phonetic categories. AERs recorded at parietal scalp regions indicated that both groups differentiated categorical differences between speech sounds. However, hand preferences did not affect hemisphere responses to speech sounds. 1985
191. McKenna, Frank P. Modifying the gestalt factor of proximity: Theories compared. Perception, 1985, v14 (n3):359-366.
Abstract: Examined a theoretical controversy between R. A. Bell and W. Bevan's (see PA, Vol 43:4690) adaptation-level (AL) theory and A. Erlebacher and R. Sekuler's (see PA, Vol 46:2029) response-frequency-equalization (RFE) theory in an experiment with 16 undergraduates. The stimulus presented for judgment was a matrix of dots that varied in appearance as the relative horizontal and vertical separation between the dots was altered. The matrix appeared to be columns of dots (larger horizontal separation), rows of dots (larger vertical separation), or neither rowlike nor columnlike (when the 2 separations were equal). A stimulus with an extreme row organization was presented on alternate trials and resulted in more vertical judgments. Both AL theory and RFE theory were inadequate on 2 counts. They both predict that the response latencies to the vertical stimuli should be affected, whereas these were unaffected. They both predict that in terms of the categorical decision, "horizontal" or "vertical," the responses to both horizontal and vertical stimuli should be affected. Findings show that the context effect was almost entirely on the horizontal stimuli. Results are consistent with a spatial-adaptation model that predicts that an adapting pattern of one orientation has a minimal effect on the judgment of an orthogonal orientation. 1987
192. Cordier, Francoise. Formal and locative categories: Are there typical instances? Psychologica Belgica, 1985, v25 (n2):115-125.
Abstract: Studied, in 2 experiments, locative categories in relation to their natural context (i.e., shapes) using 30 children (mean age 4.1 yrs) and 30 children (mean age 5.6 yrs) who attended a nursery school. Exp I dealt with formal categories, and Subjects were presented 2 series of geometrical figures (triangles and quadrilaterals). Exp I showed that representativity is not uniform. Some shapes were selected as typical, whereas others were considered atypical. There was a lack of age-linked variation, which suggests that mastery of focal stimuli discrimination occurs in children at an early age. Exp II analyzed the locative categories "in," "above," "below," and "between" in relation to the typical and atypical shapes defined in Exp I. Results of Exp II reveal that localization shows greater typicality (general consensus among the Subjects) as the shape itself became typical. Both experiments indicate the importance of a joint investigation of categorical structuring and context in children. 1987
193. CONFERENCE PAPER Bhargava, Gura. Professional identification: A study of female students at a medical college in India. 10th World Congress of Sociology (1982, Mexico City, Mexico). Social Science & Medicine, 1985, v20 (n11):1169-1175.
Abstract: Compared 145 male and 125 female Indian medical students' identification with their profession. Professional identification was conceptualized as having 3 elements: career commitment, career satisfaction, and professional self-image. Compared to males, females were found to perceive medicine as more satisfying, but they were less sure than males of pursuing a medical career throughout their lives. Females' commitment to their career was basically conditional, whereas for the males, it was primarily categorical. Females expressed less professional ambition than males and preferred different specialities. It is concluded that the professional identification of males and females is qualitatively different. Reasons for these differences are discussed in relation to sex-role socialization, cultural norms, and informal social pressures at home and at college. 1986
194. Zimmer, Alf C. There is more than one level in color naming: A reply to Zollinger (1984). Psychological Research, 1984 Dec, v46 (n4):411-416.
Abstract: Contends that the structure of the Munsell solid is not sufficient to explain the evolution of color terms, as asserted by H. Zollinger (see PA, Vol 72:30345). A manifold model of color perception with a local metric structure of discriminability and a global categorical structure is described. It is argued that this model elucidates the interdependency of the different levels of constraints on color naming and permits the integration of experimental results that cannot be explained in the model underlying Zollinger's color-metric argument for the emergence of the color category turquoise. 1985
195. Kornbrot, Diana E. Mechanisms for categorization: Decision criteria and the form of the psychophysical function. British Journal of Mathematical & Statistical Psychology, 1984 Nov, v37 (n2):184-198.
Abstract: Discusses the essential features of any satisfactory model of categorical judgment and the implications of the strong evidence for L. L. Thurstone's (1927) case V model. Evidence for a linear learning model of criterion setting is presented, including new data for isobias functions with either response-speed deadlines or physical stimulus difference manipulated. A method for extending linear learning models to encompass joint setting of several criteria is suggested. It is shown that an arcsinh transformation of the Thurstone scale produces a scale that is a linear function of stimulus intensity in decibels. The scale parameter of this transformation remains constant for stimulus ranges greater than 18 db, while changing systematically when sequential presentation is manipulated to improve discrimination. 1985
196. Bowen, Richard W. Temporal brightness enhancement: Studies of individual differences. Perception & Psychophysics, 1984 Nov, v36 (n5):401-408.
Abstract: Categorical individual differences in the occurrence of temporal brightness enhancement (TBE) were found in a previous study by the present author and K. A. Markell (see PA, Vol 65:11783) by using a simultaneous brightness discrimination paradigm. TBE is a nonmonotonic relation between brightness and pulse duration. Three classes of observers can be defined based on whether they perceive TBE under 1 of 2 conditions of temporal asynchrony between a short test pulse and a longer (500 msec) comparison pulse: simultaneous onset of the pulses or simultaneous offset. Type A observers show TBE for both asynchrony conditions; Type B observers show the effect for simultaneous offset but not simultaneous onset; Type C observers do not show TBE for either asynchrony. In the present set of 3 experiments involving a total of 94 undergraduates as Subjects, it was shown that Type A and Type C observers maintain a constant brightness-duration relation as the asynchrony between test and comparison pulses is varied from simultaneous onset to simultaneous offset. Type B observers show a gradual shift in the brightness-duration relation as asynchrony changes. It was also found that practice has little effect on Type A and Type B observers, but Type C observers may change in classification to Types A and B over as few as 5 experimental sessions. The hypothesis that individual differences are due to differential weighting of chromatic (sustained) and achromatic (transient) visual channels is discussed. 1986
197. McCabe, Viki. A comparison of three ways of knowing: Categorical, structural, and affirmative. Journal of Mind & Behavior, 1984 Fall, v5 (n4):433-447.
Abstract: Compares 3 ways of knowing: categorical, from a phenomenalist perspective involving abstraction of and classification by criterial attributes; structural, from J. J. Gibson's (1966, 1979) critical realist perspective involving the direct perception of reciprocal compatibilities (affordance structures); and affirmative, from M. Buber's (1958) existential perspective involving the direct affirmation of unique existences (I-Thou relationships). The view expressed here is that knowledge is not acquired through categorical analysis but rather through the unmediated affordance and affirmation relationships provided by structural and affirmative perspectives; categorical knowing, in contrast, may come after knowledge acquisition and modulate processes such as communication and analysis. A comparison is made between knowledge pertinent to the category of, the affordance structure for, and the affirmation of love. 1986
198. Schroeder, Herbert W. Environmental perception rating scales: A case for simple methods of analysis. Environment & Behavior, 1984 Sep, v16 (n5):573-598.
Abstract: Compared rating scale values and intergroup reliability obtained by 4 different scaling methods to measure perceptions of environments, using environment perception data from 14 groups of individuals who rated attributes of environments represented in color slides. Scaling methods involved comparisons of (1) mean ratings with the law of categorical judgment, (2) mean ratings with true-score model, (3) mean ratings with signal detection theory, and (4) group size and interrater reliability. Results indicate that the particular method used to combine ratings influenced neither the scale values nor the reliability of the scale--a simple mean rating produced results almost identical to more complicated scaling methods. Results also show that, for a wide range of subjective rating tasks, acceptable intergroup reliability was achieved with small groups. It is concluded that findings may help researchers design more cost-effective studies of environmental perception. 1985
199. Zentall, Thomas R.; Edwards, Charles A. Categorical color coding by pigeons. Animal Learning & Behavior, 1984 Aug, v12 (n3):249-255.
Abstract: 16 female White Carneaux pigeons were trained on 2 independent tasks: one involving red and yellow hues, the other blue and green hues. For half of the Subjects, the 2 tasks were the same (i.e., both tasks were either matching-to-sample or oddity-from-sample). For the remaining Subjects, the 2 tasks were different (i.e., one task was matching-to-sample, the other task was oddity-from-sample). Following acquisition, Subjects were exposed to test trials on which either the correct or the incorrect comparison hue was replaced with one of the hues from the other task. On yellow-sample trials and on green-sample trials, Subjects performed as if they had a common code for yellow and green. When there was 1 comparison available that was appropriate to the yellow/green code, performance remained high; but when either both comparisons or neither comparison was appropriate to the yellow/green code, performance dropped. Subjects also tended to code red samples as green and to code blue samples as yellow. Results indicate that pigeons can categorically code colors under conditions that rule out a failure to discriminate among the colors. 1985
200. Strange, Winifred; Dittmann, Sibylla. Effects of discrimination training on the perception of /r-l/ by Japanese adults learning English. Perception & Psychophysics, 1984 Aug, v36 (n2):131-145.
Abstract: Native Japanese speakers learning English have difficulty perceptually differentiating the liquid consonants /r/ and /l/, even after extensive conversational instruction. The present study compared pretraining vs posttraining tests of natural speech minimal pairs contrasting /r/ and /l/ in several contexts, and categorical perception tests with 2 synthetic speech series contrasting /r/ and /l/ in word initial position. Eight Japanese females (aged 25-33 yrs) served as Subjects. Using a same-different discrimination task with immediate feedback, Subjects were given extensive training in a synthetic "rock"-"lock" stimulus series. Performance improved gradually for all Subjects over the 14-18 training sessions. Comparisons or pretraining and posttraining categorical perception tests with the training stimuli indicated transfer of training to the more demanding identification and oddity discrimination tasks for 7 of the 8 Subjects. Five of 7 Subjects also improved in identification and oddity discrimination of an acoustically dissimilar "rake"-"lake" synthetic series. However, transfer did not extend to natural speech words contrasting initial /r/ and /l/. It is concluded that modification of perception of some phonetic contrasts in adulthood is slow and effortful, but improved laboratory training tasks may be useful in establishing categorical perception of these contrasts. 1985
201. Bornstein, M. H.; Korda, N. O. Discrimination and matching within and between hues measured by reaction times: Some implications for categorical perception and levels of information processing. Psychological Research, 1984 Aug, v46 (n3):207-222.
Abstract: Same-different RTs were obtained for pairs of color samples ranging perceptually from blue to green. In Exp I, 9 observers (mean age 20 yrs) responded with "same" if both stimuli in a pair were from the same hue category or "different" if the 2 stimuli were from different hue categories. RT for same responses was faster for pairs of physically identical stimuli than for pairs of physically different stimuli belonging to the same hue. RT for different responses was faster for larger physical differences across a boundary between hues than for smaller physical differences. Exp II replicated and extended these findings: In 1 phase 6 observers matched pairs of stimuli as same or different by categorical similarity as in Exp I, and in a 2nd phase Subjects matched the same stimulus pairs by physical similarity. Matching by categorical similarity replicated the pattern of results found in Exp I. Results of matching by physical similarity suggest that Subjects discriminated between hues more easily than within hues even when the amount of physical difference of the pairs was equivalent. Matching identity was faster under categorical match instructions than under physical match instructions. Results support a model of parallel processing of physical and categorical stimulus information in color perception. RT data and their implications in color perception (for hues) parallel RT data and their implications in speech perception (for phonemes). 1985
202. Bomba, Paul C. The development of orientation categories between 2 and 4 months of age. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1984 Jun, v37 (n3):609-636.
Abstract: Examined infant perception of orientation within a framework of categorization. In Exp I, conducted with 288 2-4 mo old Subjects, it was shown that 4-mo-old Subjects generalized habituation from one range of oblique grating stimuli to another, consistent with the interpretation that any 2 oblique stimuli were perceived as more similar than a vertical and an oblique. Exp II, conducted with 120 2-4 mo old Subjects, found that 4-mo-olds' generalization was not due to a simple inability to discriminate between obliques, so the results of Exp I reflect in large part true categorization behavior and not categorical perception. Results for 2- and 3-mo-old Subjects suggest that verticalness serves as a reference stimulus in infant orientation perception such that gross distinctions between vertical and nonvertical precede the development of the oblique category. The category boundary between oblique and vertical did not successfully predict better between- than within-category discrimination in 4-mo-old Subjects (Exp III) under the conditions of these experiments. 1984
203. Pastore, Richard E.; and others. Categorical perception, category boundary effects, and continuous perception: A reply to Hary and Massaro. Perception & Psychophysics, 1984 Jun, v35 (n6):583-585.
Abstract: Argues that J. M. Hary and D. W. Massaro (see PA, Vol 69:11845) demonstrated a category boundary effect, but no categorical perception, only for the case of stimuli that are noncontinuous in their physical characteristics. Although these results may be relevant to modeling listeners' behavior in the context of distinct anchors and changing stimulus ranges, they are largely tangential to issues concerning the nature of categorical perception. 1985
204. Massaro, Dominic W.; Hary, Joseph M. Categorical results, categorical perception, and hindsight. Perception & Psychophysics, 1984 Jun, v35 (n6):586-588.
Abstract: Responds to comments by R. E. Pastore et al (see PA, Vol 72:19242) concerning the present authors' (see PA, Vol 69:11845) argument for maintaining a distinction between the phenomenon of categorical perception and the occurrence of categorical results in the identification/discrimination task. Areas discussed include categorical perception criteria, the number of physical continua present in an ordered set of stimuli, and earlier theories of categorical perception. 1985
205. Gottfried, Terry L. Effects of consonant context on the perception of French vowels. Journal of Phonetics, 1984 Apr, v12 (n2):91-114.
Abstract: Conducted 2 experiments to determine whether differences in phonological and phonetic characteristics of native French speaker (NFSs) would show differences in the pattern of identification accuracy from that exhibited by native speakers of American English (NSAEs). In Exp I, 16 15-17 yr old NFSs and 8 NSAEs (mostly university students) who had extensive experience speaking French completed a key word task of vowel identification ability. In Exp II, 8 pairs of vowels were included on a categorical discrimination task that was administered to 10 NSAEs who were high school and college teachers of French, 10 NFSs (aged 21+ yrs), and 20 university students who did not speak French. Results argue against phonological appropriateness as the determinant of context effect differences between languages. All Americans were significantly less accurate than NFSs in identification and discrimination of French vowels in all contexts. 1985 American Psychological
206. Treisman, Michel; Faulkner, Andrew. The setting and maintenance of criteria representing levels of confidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 1984 Feb, v10 (n1):119-139.
Abstract: The theory of criterion setting developed by the 1st author and T. C. Williams (see PA, Vol 71:8523), which postulates control of decision criteria by a long- and 2 short-term mechanisms, can provide an account of sequential dependencies. The theory is applied to the question of whether criteria are all set and maintained in the same way or whether they fall into 2 groups, controlled in accordance with different rules. Evidence from 2 experiments, with 6 18-32 yr old Subjects, using an auditory detection task indicates that (1) the short-term (tracking) mechanism that responds to momentary change in the probability of the signal primarily controls the (categorical) criterion that determines the category of response ( yes or no ) and (2) the criteria that determine levels of confidence are maintained at constant separations from the categorical criterion. A new sequential dependency, the criterion divergence effect, is reported. It is shown that this is mediated by sequentially determined changes in sensitivity, and a model for this is derived. 1984
207. Summerfield, Quentin; McGrath, Matthew. Detection and resolution of audio-visual incompatibility in the perception of vowels. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Experimental Psychology, 1984 Feb, v36 (n1-A):51-74.
Abstract: Conducted 2 experiments to determine whether the pattern of identification of the members of an acoustical series of audio-visual stimuli would change systematically as a function of the nature of the visual component of the stimuli and whether observers could assess the degree of incompatibility between the acoustical and visual components. 24 normal-hearing adults (aged 18-50 yrs) were shown 3 11-member series of 5-format CVC syllables on a video tape accompanied by a soundtrack in a series of identification and incompatibility assessment tasks. In one of the identification sessions, the soundtrack was played without the picture. It was found that vision biased the identity of an acoustical vowel to be more like the vowel presented visually, even when observers detected conflict and were instructed to report only what they heard. The size of the effect was positively related to the size of the physical difference between the visible configuration of the lips and the configuration that would naturally accompany the acoustical vowel. In demonstrating these and other phenomena in audio-visual speech perception, Subjects computed a continuous estimate of the filter function of the vocal tract from both visual and acoustical evidence. If the visual evidence was potent, observers interpreted the acoustical evidence in novel ways. These compromises can be predicted from known patterns of acoustical similarity and visual distinctiveness and do not require ad hoc explanations involving categorical levels of perceptual process. 1984
208. Oostdam, E. M.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J. Description of pain and the degree to which the complaints fit the organic diagnosis of low back pain. Pain, 1984 Jan, v18 (n1):71-82.
Abstract: Administered a pain questionnaire to 142 18-78 yr old Subjects with low back complaints. Analysis of categorical data showed that pain words could be grouped into 6 dimensions: evaluation, evaluation-intensity, constancy, sensory-pressing, sensory-pricking, and sensory-cutting. A relationship was found between the description of pain and the degree to which the complaints fit the organic diagnosis of low back pain. The nature and magnitude of this relation differed among the 5 centers from which the Subjects were drawn; it is suggested that the research procedures used at the centers differed from each other. Since the relation found between pain description and the degree to which low back pain could be explained by an organic diagnosis varied from center to center, caution is advised in interpretation. 1984 American Psychological
209. CONFERENCE PAPER Perier, Olivier; and others. Consequences of auditory deprivation in animals and humans. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium: Cochlear implants (1983, Paris, France). Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 1984 Suppl, v411:60-70.
Abstract: Investigated whether structural changes occur in the auditory cortex of mice with uncomplicated inner-ear degeneration. 12 mutant deaf mice and 6 normally hearing mice were sacrificed at 105-210 days of age so that their brains could be examined. An electron microscopic study of the cerebral cortex of deaf Subjects showed differences in synaptic organization between these Subjects and normally hearing Subjects. In the auditory cortex of the deaf Subjects there were fewer, and larger, synapses than in the normally hearing, whereas there was no difference between those 2 categories in the visual cortex. Results are the reverse of these observed by other authors in the occipital cortex of rats raised in an enriched or impoverished environment. The functional consequences of early hearing loss were investigated in 23 12-23 yr old humans with moderate to severe hearing loss (60-80 db). Subjects' capacities in categorical perception, auditory discrimination, and production of significant contrasts between stop consonants were tested. Findings show that categorical perception was absent in all but 1 S. Auditory discrimination was poor for both the voiced-voiceless contrast and the place of articulation contrast. Subjects had greater difficulty in producing the voiced-voiceless than the place of articulation contrasts. It is suggested that if the loss of perceptual abilities observed in the human Subjects was due to changes in brain structure (as observed in the mice), their capacity to make use of the new information brought by cochlear prosthesis should also be reduced or lost. 1986
210. Ostrom, Thomas M.; Pryor, John B. Person organization in small groups. Representative Research in Social Psychology, 1984, v14 (n2):52-64.
Abstract: Examines cognitive factors that influence the organization of social information and person perception in small-group social situations and discusses preliminary findings by the present authors and collaborators regarding the observation and measurement of naturally occurring social experience. Research was conducted in the areas of person familiarity and the antecedents and consequences of person organization. Findings on person organization indicate that social information appeared to be more organized by Subjects when it was about familiar others than when it was about unfamiliar persons, suggesting the viability of person organization as a theoretical construct. Results regarding familiarity in person perception suggest that discriminability, interfeature association, and nodal association components contribute to the general organizational influence of familiar personal schemata. Results on the nature of interaction or blocking patterns that lead to information acquisition indicate that the environment often provides structure for cognitions in a straightforward manner and that the natural sequence of experience may enhance or detract from the use of any a priori categorical structure. 1986
211. Jusczyk, Peter W.; and others. Infants' discrimination of the duration of a rapid spectrum change in nonspeech signals. Science, 1983 Oct, v222 (n4620):175-177.
Abstract: 100 2-mo-old infants discriminated complex sinusoidal patterns that varied in the duration of their initial frequency transitions. Discrimination of these nonspeech sinusoidal patterns was a function of both the duration of the transitions and the total duration of the stimulus pattern. This contextual effect was observed even though the information specifying stimulus duration occurred after the transitional information. These findings parallel those observed with infants for perception of synthetic speech stimuli. Specialized speech processing capacities are thus not required to account for infants' sensitivity to contextual effects in acoustic signals, whether speech or nonspeech. Relational and categorical discrimination appear to be general auditory capacities that are recruited for use in speech perception. 1984
212. Mann, Virginia A.; Liberman, Alvin M. Some differences between phonetic and auditory modes of perception. Cognition, 1983 Sep, v14 (n2):211-235.
Abstract: When 3rd-formant transitions are appropriately incorporated into an acoustic syllable, they provide critical support for the phonetic percepts ( d ) and ( g ), but when presented in isolation they are perceived as time-varying "chirps." In the present experiment with 8 female undergraduates, both modes of perception were made available simultaneously by presenting the 3rd-formant transitions to one ear and the remainder of the acoustic syllable to the other. On the speech side of this duplex percept, where the transitions supported the perception of stop-vowel syllables, perception was categorical and influenced by the presence of a preposed ( al ) or ( ar ). On the nonspeech side, where the same transitions were heard as chirps, perception was continuous and free of influence from the preposed syllables. Because both differences occurred under conditions in which the acoustic input was constant, it is suggested that they reflect the different properties of auditory and phonetic modes of perception. (French abstract) 1984
213. Lingle, John H. Tracing memory-structure activation during person judgments. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 1983 Sep, v19 (n5):480-496.
Abstract: A procedure that relies on probe recognition speed as a measure of concept activation was used to examine alternative models of how Subjects activate categorical and event memory when making contemplative impression judgments (i.e., judgments that they have to justify). 64 undergraduates made a series of rapid trait categorizations and occupation-suitability judgments in which type of probe (inference, relevant or irrelevant descriptors, or control trait) and the timing of probe presentation were manipulated. Results favor a dependent memory-activation model that hypothesizes that Subjects activate both facts and earlier categorizations that they have made about a person when making subsequent memory-based judgments. Memory-structure activation was dependent in that facts relevant to forming the early categorizations were more likely to be activated in the service of a judgment than category-irrelevant facts. Advantages and limitations of the probe procedure as a measure of memory-structure activation during decisions are discussed. 1984
214. Rosen, Stuart; Howell, Peter. Sinusoidal plucks and bows are not categorically perceived, either. Perception & Psychophysics, 1983 Sep, v34 (n3):233-236.
Abstract: Tested the nonspeech continuum that used a sinusoidal carrier that varied in rise time and was reported by J. E. Cutting and B. S. Rossner (see PA, Vol 53:10801) to be categorically perceived. Five female college students heard the 0- and 80-msec stimuli 3 times alternately as exemplars while the buttons on the response box (marked "pluck" or "bow") lit appropriately. Subjects were then asked to label stimuli appropriately. After 95% correct categorization, Subjects moved on to a 2-step ABX discrimination task. Data show no evidence of categorical perception. The present authors (see PA, Vol 67:8999) previously found for sawtooth stimuli, discrimination is best at the short rise-time end of the continuum and decreases monotonically with increasing rise time. 1984
215. DISSERTATION Streitfeld, Barbara D. Categorical perception and the role of the right hemisphere in discrimination of visual and tactual-kinesthetic stimuli. Dissertation Abstracts International, 1983 Jun, v43 (n12-B):4182-4183.
216. Pastore, Richard E.; Schmuckler, Mark A.; Rosenblum, Lawrence; Szczesiul, Rosemary. Duplex perception with musical stimuli. Perception & Psychophysics, 1983 May, v33 (n5):469-474.
Abstract: Duplex perception, a phenomenon previously demonstrated for speech stimuli, was demonstrated for musical stimuli in 2 experiments with 27 undergraduates who had had musical training. In Exp I, major and minor chords were produced by dichotic fusion of 2 simultaneous piano notes presented to one ear (perfect fifth) with a "natural" or "flat" single note presented to the opposite ear. Subjects simultaneously perceived both the single tone and a fused (major or minor) chord. Chords were labeled more consistently than the single notes, even though the fused chords differed solely in terms of the contralateral notes. In Exp II, using pure tones in place of piano notes, Subjects individually exhibited categorical perception for either the fused chord or the single tones but never for both types of stimuli. The duplex phenomenon is discussed in terms of its implications for its specific component modes of perception. 1984
217. Massaro, Dominic W.; Cohen, Michael M. Categorical or continuous speech perception: A new test. Speech Communication, 1983 May, v2 (n1):15-35.
Abstract: Investigated whether listeners have continuous or categorical information about the acoustic signal in speech, based on an approach that uses continuous rather than discrete perceptual judgments. 36 undergraduates were asked to rate speech sounds according to where they fell on a particular speech continuum. The continua consisted of stop consonants varying in place (/bae/ to /dae/) or voicing (/bae/ to /pae/) or a vowel continuum varying from /i/ to /I/. Distributions of rating responses of individual Subjects were used to test quantitative models of categorical and continuous perception of acoustic features in speech. Findings indicate that continuous changes along some speech dimension produced relatively continuous and not discrete perceptual changes and that Subjects had continuous information about speech sounds. Results provide evidence against the categorical perception of speech contrasts and support the role of continuous acoustic feature information in speech processing. (French & German abstracts) 1985
218. Sutherland, John H.; Algozzine, Bob; Ysseldyke, James E.; Freeman, Sheryl. Changing peer perceptions: Effects of labels and assigned attributes. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1983 Apr, v16 (n4):217-220.
Abstract: A variety of factors have been shown to be influential in teacher-student relationships; both labels and behaviors have been investigated with regard to their biasing effects within special education. The present study attempted to ascertain the extent to which 40 4th-grade children's ratings of a peer would be differentially affected by categorical labels and assigned attributes. Each Subject viewed 2 behavioral sequences in which a child was shown participating in several brief assessment tasks and then engaging in free-play activities. Subjects were then administered a 13-item scale that requested opinions about the child in the videotape. Results show that positive attributes produced favorable peer ratings when compared with neutral ones. The results are discussed with regard to implications for altering the differential effects often observed in teacher-pupil relationships. 1983
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