Hypertext Conference Submissions 1989 - 2000


Errors, comments, suggestions to Simon Kampa (srk98r@ecs.soton.ac.uk)

A table of keywords with links to the relevant sections of this document is available.

Available Years:

1989    1990    1991    1992    1993    1994    1996    1997    1998    1999    2000   


1989 Hypertext Conference

 

Title

Scripted Documents: a hypermedia path mechanism

Author

Polle T. Zellweger

Affiliation

Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, 3333 Coyote Hill road, Palo Alto, California 94304

Abstract

The concept of a path or ordered traversal of some links in a hypertext has been a part of the hypertext notion from its early formation. Although paths can help to solve two major problems with hypertext systems, namely user disorientation and high cognitive overhead for users, their value has not been recognized. Paths can also provide the backbone for computations over a hypertext, an important issue for the future of hypertext. This paper constructs a framework for understanding path mechanisms for hypertext and explores the basic issues surrounding them. Given this framework, it reviews path mechanisms that have been provided by other hypertext systems. Finally, it describes the scripted documents systems, which has been developed to test the potential of one powerful path mechanism.

Keywords

 

pp

1-14

References


 

Title

Guided tours and on-line presentations: how authors make existing hypertext intelligible for readers

Author

Catherine C. Marshall, Peggy M. Irish

Affiliation

systems Sciences Laboratory, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, 3333 Coyote Hill Road, Palo Alto, California 94304

Abstract

Hypertext systems like NoteCards provide facilities for authoring large networks. But they provide little support for the associated task of making these networks intelligible to future readers. Presentation conventions may be imported from other related media, but because the conventions have not yet been negotiated within a community of hypertext readers and writers, they provide only a partial solution to the problem of guiding a reader through an existing network of information. In this paper we will discuss how a recent facility, Guided Tours, has been used to organize hypertext networks for presentation. The use of Guided Tours in NoteCards has exposed a set of authoring issues, and has provided us with examples of solutions to the problems associated with on-line presentations.

Keywords

 

pp

15-26

References


 

Title

Programmable Browsing Semantics in Trellis

Author

Richard Furuta, P. David Stotts

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD20742

Abstract

In this report we outline a technique by which a hypertext system can offer flexible, programmable browsing behavior, or browsing semantics. Differences in the way documents are to be browsed can be specified by an author on a document-by-document basis, or by a style designer for an entire class of documents. The ability to specify and modify how a browser presents information is an important and useful property in general.

Keywords

 

pp

27-42

References


 

Title

Hypermedia Topologies and User Navigation

Author

H. v.d. Parunak

Affiliation

Industrial Technology Institute, PO Box 1485, Ann Arbor, MI 48106, USA

tel: 313-769-4049
e-mail:van@iti.org

Abstract

One of the major problems confronting users of large hypermedia systems is that of navigation: knowing where one is, where one wants to go, and how to get there from here. This paper contributes to this problem in three steps: first it articulates a number of navigational strategies that people use in physical (geographical) navigation; second, it correlates these with various graph topologies, showing how and why appropriately restricting the connectivity of a hyperbase can improve the ability of users to navigate. Third, it analyses some common hypermedia navigational mechanisms in terms of navigational strategies and graph topology.

Keywords

 

pp

43-50

References


 

Title

Design Issues for Multi-Document Hypertexts

Author

Robert J. Glushko

Affiliation

Search Technology Inc., 4725 Peachtree Corners Circle, Suite 200, Norcross, GA 30092

Abstract

Vannevar Bush conceived of hypertext as the computer glue that binds information from a wide variety of books, documents, communications, and other artifacts to enhance its accessibility and usefulness. However, most of the recent hyper-activity in research labs and in the marketplace falls short of Bush’s vision. Most hypertext software is oriented toward hypertext as a new form of writing via incremental combination of bits and pieces of information. These hypertext programs typically provide little support for converting existing information from its more linear printed form. Where hypertexts have been created from existing text, they generally have been converted from a single encyclopaedia, single reference document, or a single system’s documentation. Hypertexts that integrate the complete contents of more than one book or large document seem non-existent, even though the expected benefits from such multi-document hypertexts were the original motivation for the concept.

Keywords

 

pp

51-60

References


 

Title

Asynchronous Design/Evaluation Methods for Hypertext Technology Development

Author

Gary Perlman

Affiliation

Department of Computer and Information Science, The Ohio State University, 2036 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210-1277, USA

E-mail: perlman@cis.ohio-state.edu

Abstract

A process model used in the design and evaluation of hypertext systems is discussed. The model includes asynchronous processes of task analysis, document analysis, literature survey and systems evaluation, interpretation of data, designing and building systems, and collecting data. For each process, experiences with NaviText SAM, a hypertext interface to a reference source, are discussed. A variety of new methods for evaluation of experimental systems are presented along with several empirical results.

Keywords

 

pp

61-81

References


 

Title

Towards a Design Language for Representing Hypermedia Cues

Author

Shelley Evenson and John Rheinfrank; with Wendie Wulff

Affiliation

Exploratory Design Lab, Fitch RichardsonSmith, Department of English, Carnegie Mellon University.

Abstract

Hypermedia Systems are no longer just interesting experimental software environments. They are common tools in the world of everyday work. People who do not program, but who are computer literate and who want to go beyond the capabilities of word processing, spreadsheet and presentation software packages now use systems like Apple’s Hypercard, Owl’s Guide, Silicon Beach’s Supercard and Xerox’s Notecards not only to communicate, but to perform tasks that involve creating and integrating knowledge. This raises som important issues for designers of hypermedia systems. One of the largest is how to represent which pieces of information are linked and which pieces aren’t, within a give system or task domain. This, in turn, raises the issue of standards. Should representations of hyperness be consistent across systems and work domains, or should there be indicidual standards for representing hyperness within systems and work domains. The advantage of a standard is that it may assist users in discovering or labeling what is or isn’t hyper across a wide variety of systems. The disadvantage is that a standard severely limits the opportunities of creating systems that are closely connected to the content of specific areas of work, work environments and work tools Thus the apparent choice is between adopting a rigid hypermedia cuing standard, or redesigning hypermedia cues for each application.

Keywords

 

pp

83-92

References


 
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Title

Facilitating the development of representations in hypertext with IDE

Author

Daniel S. Jordan, Daniel M. Russell, Anne-Marie S. Jensen, Russell A. Rogers

Affiliation

System Sciences Laboratory, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, 3333 Coyote Hill Road, Palo Alto, CA 94304

Abstract

Hypertext systems are used for a variety of representational tasks, many that involve fairly formalized structures. Because hypertext systems are generally intended for developing informal (unstructured data) and semi-formal (semantic networks) structures, developing more formal structures can be difficult. Regular patterns in structures must often be recreated from primitive elements (individual nodes and links) resulting in a high overhead cost. In this paper we describe the instructional design environment, or IDE, a hypertext system application that facilitates the rapid and accurate creation of regular network patterns in hypertext. IDE focuses on the task of instructional design, but its facilities are general and useful to many representation tasks. IDE features structure accelerators that provide simple menu interfaces to define network structures out of patterns of typed node and link connections, create new node types that contain structured content, and tailor the interface for creating crds, links and structures to focus attention during different stages of the representation task. These mechanisms allow the user to tailor the hypertext environment to better meet his or her representational needs. We also report on the field use of IDE by instructional designers.

Keywords

 

pp

93-104

References


 

Title

JANUS: Integrating hypertext with a knowledge-based design environment

Author

1. Gerhard Fischer, Raymond McCall and 2. Anders Morch

Affiliation

1. University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309;

2. Intelligent Interfaces Group, NYNEX Science and Technology, White Plains, NY 10604

Abstract

Hypertext systems and other complex information stores offer little or no guidance in helping users find information useful for activities they are currently engaged in. Most users are not interested in exploring hypertext information spaces per se but rather in obtaining information to solve problems or accomplish tasks. As a step towards this we have developed the JANUS design environment. JANUS allows designers to construct artifacts in the domain of architectural design and at the same time to be informed about principles of design and the reasoning underlying them. This process integrates two design activities: construction and argumentation. Construction is supported by a hypertext system. Our empirical evaluations of JANUS and its predecessors has shown that integrated support for construction and argumentation is necessary for full support of design.

Keywords

hypertext, knowledge-based systems, construction, argumentation, informed design, human problem-domain communication, construction kits, design environments, issue-based information systems (IBIS), procedural hierarchy of issues (PHI) methodology

pp

105-117

References


 

Title

Towards an Integrated Maintenance Advisor

Author

Phil Hayes and Jeff Pepper

Affiliation

Carnegie Group Inc. 5 PPG Place, Pittsburgh, PA 15222

Abstract

 

Keywords

 

pp

119-127

References


 

Title

Distributed Hypertext for Collaborative Research: The Virtual Notebook System

Author

F. M. Shipman III, R. Jesse Chaney, G. Anthony Gorry

Affiliation

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas

Abstract

 

Keywords

 

pp

129-135

References


 

Title

Sun’s Link Service: A Protocol for Open Linking

Author

Amy Pearl

Affiliation

Sun Microsystems, 2550 Garcia Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043

Abstract

Sun’s Link Service, a product shipped with Sun’s programming in the large software development environment, the Network Software Environment, allows users to make and maintain explicit and persistent bi-directional relationships between autonomous front-end applications. The Link Service defines a protocol for an extensible and loosely coupled, or open, hypertext system. An interesting instance of this is the ability to link to objects in closed hypertext systems if they integrate with the Link Service. The Link Service addresses link maintenance and automated versioning. Link end-points or nodes are defined by the integrating applications, and are not restricted to points, whole documents, or cards.

Keywords

 

pp

137-146

References


 

Title

A Visual Representation for Knowledge Structures

Author

Michael Travers

Affiliation

MIT Media Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 20 Ames Street, Cambridge, MA 02139

e-mail: mt@media-lab.media.mit.edu

Abstract

Knowledge based systems often represent their knowledge as a network of interrelated units. Such networks are commonly presented to the user as a diagram of nodes connected by lines. These diagrams have provided a powerful visual metaphor for knowledge representation. However, their complexity can easily become unmanageable as the knowledge base (KB) grows.

This paper describes an alternate visual representation for navigating knowledge structures based on a virtual museum metaphor. This representation uses nested boxes rather than linked nodes to represent relations. The intricate structure of the knowledge base is conveyed by a combination of position, size, color and font cues. MUE (Museum Unit Editor) was implemented using this representation to provide a graphic front end for the Cyc knowledge base.

Keywords

 

pp

147-158

References


 

Title

Using Hypertext in a Law Firm

Author

1. E. Yoder, 2. T. C. Wettach

Affiliation

1. Knowledge Workshop, 4750 Old William Penn Highway, Murrysville, Pennsylvania 15668

2. Reed Smith Shaw and McClay, James H. Reed Building, Mellon Square, 435 Sixth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 15219-1886

Abstract

 

Keywords

 

pp

159-167

References


 

Title

Hypertext Challenges in the Auditing Domain

Author

Laura DeYoung

Affiliation

Price Waterhouse Technology Centre, 68 Willow Road, Menlo Park, CA94025

e-mail: deyoung@pw.com

Abstract

Auditing is the process by which an opinion is formed on the financial statements of a company by a group of outside professional accountants. Large numbers of documents pertaining to the company’s business are examined and many more are produced during an audit in order to arrive at and provide a basis for this opinion. These documents contain a wide variety of interrelated information. Capturing these interrelationships is essential to performing an effective audit. Currently, this is accomplished by using a highly-structured, manual hypertext system. While quite effective, the system is difficult and time-consuming to maintain, and can become unwieldy when conducting an audit for a very large company.

We are in the process of developing an electronic system to meet the needs of this complex task. The complexity of the referencing system challenges current hypertext and user interface technology. At the same time, the structure of the domain affords an interesting application area within which to explore and more fully develop hypertext techniques. During the course of this project, we are exploring automatic generation of links, automatic generation of documents, hypertext path creation and access, creation of a typed-link topology for the domain, referencing of individual points and regions within documents, linking bodies of hypertext, and many other issues.

Keywords

 

pp

169-180

References


 

Title

Computational Hypertext in Biological Modelling

Author

J. L. Schnase, J. J. Leggett

Affiliation

Hypertext Research Lab, Department of Computer Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, 77843

Abstract

This paper describes an application of hypertext to a biological research problem. An individual energetics model for Cassin’s Sparrow was developed in which the computations and intellectual activities associated with each phase of the research were performed within an integrated hypertext environment. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of computational hypertext in meeting the personal information management requirements of individual researchers in the natural sciences and its ability to speed the dissemination of research results within a community of scholars. Most important, the study shows how hypertext can be "phased in" to support traditional scholarship in disciplines that are otherwise slow to respond to emerging computer technologies.

Keywords

computational hypertext, hypertext publishing, information management, collaboration, simulation modelling, natural sciences

pp

181-197

References


 

Title

Information retrieval from hypertext: update on the dynamic medical handbook project

Author

Mark E. Frisse, Steve B. Cousins

Affiliation

Medical Informatics Group, Department of Internal Medicine, Institute for Biomedical Computing and Department of Computer Science, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid Avenue (Box 8121), St. Louis, Missouri 63130

E-mail: frisse@wucs1.wustl.edu

Abstract

This paper attempts to provide a perspective from which to develop a more complete theory of information retrieval from hypertext documents. Viewing hypertexts as large information spaces, we compare two general classes of navigation methods, classes we call local and global. We argue that global methods necessitate some form of index space conceptually separate from the hypertext document space. We note that the architectures of both spaces effect the ease with which one can apply various information retrieval algorithms. We identify a number of different index space and document space architectures and we discuss some of the associated trade offs between hypertext functionality and computational complexity. We show how some index space architectures can be exploited for enhanced information retrieval, query refinement, and automated reasoning. Through analysis of a number of prototype systems, we discuss current limitations and future potentials for various hypertext information retrieval structures.

Keywords

 

pp

199-211

References


 

Title

A Retrieval Model for Incorporating Hypertext Links

Author

W. B. Croft, H. Turtle

Affiliation

Computer and Information Science Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003

Abstract

 

Keywords

 

pp

213-224

References


 

Title

The Use of Cluster Hierarchies in Hypertext Information Retrieval

Author

Donald B. Crouch, Carolyn J. Crouch, Glenn Andreas

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, University of Minnesota - Duluth, 320 Heller Hall, Duluth, Minnesota 55812

Abstract

The graph traversal approach to hypertext information retrieval is a conceptualization of hypertext in which the structural aspects of the nodes are emphasized. A user navigates through such hypertext systems by evaluating the semantics associated with links between nodes as well as the information contained in nodes. In this paper we describe a hierarchical structure which effectively supports the graphical traversal of a document collection in a hypertext system. We provide an overview of an interactive browser based on cluster hierarchies. Initial results obtained from the use of the browser in an experimental hypertext retrieval system are presented.

Keywords

 

pp

225-237

References


 

Title

The Matters that Really Matter for Hypertext Usability

Author

Jakob Nielsen

Affiliation

Technical University of Denmark, Department of Computer Science, Building 344, DK-2800 Lyngby Copenhagen, Denmark.

E-mail: datJN@NEUVM1.bitnet

Abstract

We compare 92 benchmark measurements of various usability issues related to hypertext which have been published in the hypertext literature in order to find which ones have shown the largest effects.

Keywords

 

pp

239-248

References


 

Title

Expanding the Notion of Links

Author

Steven J. DeRosse

Affiliation

Summer Institute of Linguistics, 7500 W. Camp Wisdom Road, Dallas, TX 75236

Abstract

Research in the humanities, particularly in text-oriented fields such as Classics and Religious studies, poses particular challenges to hypertext and hypermedia systems. The complex set of primary and secondary documents form an intricate, highly interconnected network, for the representation of which hypertext is ideal. The variety and quantity of links which are needed pose challenges especially for data structures and for display and navigation tools. The specific needs arise in other contexts as well, particularly those with very large or complicated document collections.

In this paper I shall classify and discuss these needs with illustrations from the CD-Word project at Dallas Theological Seminary, the Perseus Project at Harvard University, and a variety of other hypermedia systems.

Keywords

 

pp

249-257

References


 

Title

Hypertext and the Hyperreal

Author

Stuart Moulthrop

Affiliation

Department of English, Yale University, PO Box 7355, Yale Station, New Haven, Connectivut, 06520

Abstract

 

Keywords

 

pp

259-267

References


 

Title

Expressing Structural Hypertext Queries in GraphLog

Author

M. P. Consens, A. O. Mendelzon

Affiliation

Computer Systems Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, M5S 1A4

Abstract

GraphLog is a visual query language in which queries are formulated by drawing graph patterns. The hyperdocument graph is searched for all occurrences of these patterns. The language is powerful enough to allow the specification and manipulation of arbitrary subsets of the network and supports the computation of aggregate functions on subgraphs of the hyperdocument. It can support dynamically defined structures as well as inference capabilities, going beyond current static and passive hypertext systems.

The expressive power of the language is a fundamental issue: too little power limits the applications of the language, while too much makes efficient implementation difficult and probably affects ease of use. The complexity and expressive power of GraphLog can be characterized precisely by using notions from deductive database theory and descriptive complexity. In this paper, from a practical point of view, we present examples of GraphLog queries applied to several different hypertext systems, providing evidence for the expressive power of the language, as well as for the convenience and naturalness of its graphical representation. We also describe an ongoing implementation of the language.

Keywords

 

pp

269-292

References


 

Title

VISAR: A System for Inference and Navigation in Hypertext

Author

Peter Clitherow, Doug Riecken, Michael Muller

Affiliation

Bellcore, 444 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.

Abstract

Hypertext systems have traditionally been constructed by hand. This process can stand improvement in several aspects: it is laborious; requires a human to understand the text and infer all the relationships between the concepts/topics; and while the resulting hypertext may be traversed by a reader in an arbitrary fashion, s/he may still find it difficult to understand the concepts as expressed by the builder of the hypertext.

We present a knowledge-intensive assistant for building hypertext fragments from a knowledge base customised both explicitly and implicitly by a user. Such a presentation may clarify relationships between concepts that were present implicitly in multiple sources of information. In the domain of an intelligent information retrieval system, we show how such an assistant may render customised views of knowledge extracted in a manageable form.

While the presentation medium of the original system is graphic, we also speculate that presentation of the information in alternative hypermedia appears to be straightforward.

Keywords

 

pp

293-304

References


 

Title

What to do when there’s too much information

Author

Michael Lesk

Affiliation

Bellcore, 445 South Street, Morristown, NJ 07960-1910

Abstract

Hypertext systems with small units of text are likely to drown the user with information, in the same way that online catalogs or bibliographic retrieval systems often do. Experiments with a catalog of 800,000 book citations have shown two useful ways of dealing with the too many hits problem. One is a display of phrases containing the excessively frequent words; another is a display of titles by hierarchical category. The same techniques should apply to other text-based retrieval systems. In general, interactive solutions seem more promising than attempts to do detailed query analysis and get things right first time.

Keywords

 

pp

305-318

References


 

Title

The Role of External Representations in the Writing Process: implications for the design of hypertext-based writing tools

Author

Christine M. Neuwirth, David S. Kaufer

Affiliation

English Department, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213

Abstract

The long-range goal of the research reported here is to study the role of hypertext-based external representations in augmenting performance on a cognitively complex task, in particular, on a synthesis writing task. The production of a written synthesis is a challenging task that requires managing large amounts of information over an extended period of time. Thus, synthesis writing is a task that is well-suited for testing the potential of hypertext technologies to support work on complex tasks.

From a case study of experts and novices, we have developed a theory of the cognitive processes involved in producing written synthesis. We have also developed a preliminary theory of the role of external representations in the writing process. We have drawn upon these two theories to design several hypertext-based external representations that we believe will augment writers’ performance on a written synthesis task. The hypertext-based applications include a general graph object and a table object. These objects form the foundation for a set of specialized tools to support synthesis writing, namely, a summary graph, synthesis grid and synthesis tree.

Keywords

 

pp

319-340

References


 

Title

From Ideas and Arguments to Hyperdocuments: travelling through activity spaces

Author

Norbert A. Streitz, Jorg Hannemann, Manfred Thuring

Affiliation

Integrated Publication and Information Systems Institute, Gesellschaft fur Mathematik und Datenverarbeitung mbH, Dolivostrasse 15, D-6100 Darmstadt, F. R. Germany

Abstract

 

Keywords

 

pp

343-364

References


 

Title

InterNote: Extending a hypermedia framework to support annotative collaboration

Author

Timothy Catlin, Paulette Bush, Nicole Yankelovich

Affiliation

Institute for Research In Infromation and Scholarship (IRIS), Brown University, Box 1946, Providence, RI 02912

Abstract

Based on three years of user feedback, a design team at IRIS embarked on a project to enhance intermedia to better support small groups of collaborators, particularly those involved with document review and revision. Towards this end, we defined user-level requirements for the new functionality. The result of this procees was the design and implementation of InterNote. One aspect of InterNote involves a fundamental extension to Intermedia’s navigational linking paradigm. Instead of simply being able to traverse links, users are now also able to transfer data across the links using a technique we call warm linking. In this paper we describe extensions to our hypermedia framework to support annotative collaboration, including the user interface of the new linking functionality and the InterNote extension. Finally, we discuss our plans for future work.

Keywords

 

pp

365-378

References


1990 Hypertext Conference

 

Title

Assessing the Quality of hypertext documents

Year1990

Author

P. J. Brown

Affiliation

Computing Laboratory, The University, Canterbury, CT2 7NF

E-mail: pjb@ukc.ac.uk

Abstract

The greatest need in hypertext today is not for further technical wizardry, but for authors who can exploit the medium successfully.

The paper discusses how we can help novices to become effective hypertext authors. Being effective not only means producing a hyperdocument of immediate appeal to readers; it also means ensuring that hyperdocuments have a potentially long lifetime, and can be maintained and enhanced by other authors over the years. Furthermore, it means ensuring that the structure of a hyperdocument is "correct" according to certain rules.

In discussing these issues, the paper tries to draw lessons not only for authors but also for hypertext developers and researchers.

Keywords

hypertext authorship, hypertext refereeing, virus, testing, integration, maintenance

pp

1-12

References


 

Title

Building Hypertext on a multimedia toolkit: an overview of Andrew Toolkit Hypermedia Facilities

Year1990

Author

M. Sherman, W. J. Hansen, M. McInerny, T. Neuendorgger

Affiliation

Information Technology Center, Carnegie Mellon University, 4910 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA

E-mail: mss+echt90@andrew.cmu.edu

Abstract

This paper discusses several hypermedia facilities built on top of the Andrew Toolkit (ATK) and their use in ATK applications. As a general-purpose, multimedia, application-development system, ATK permits many kinds of links, references and other connections to be made within pieces of content and between pieces of content, regardless of the content’s medum. We argue that starting with a multimedia architecture facilitates the construction of all forms of hypermedia Four specific hypermedia facilities implemented with ATK are discussed: an integrated web and indexing system (help), a simple multimedia link facility (link), a cross reference (Textref) capability, and a link-supporting embedded object language (Ness). As a toolkit, ATK is used to build other applications which inherit ATK’s hypermedia facilities. Therefore we consider briefly the way that hypermedia facilities are used in conventional applications, such as mail systems.

Keywords

hypertext, implementation, multimedia

pp

13-24

References


 

Title

The Toolkit Approach to Hypermedia

Year1990

Author

1. J. J. Puttress; 2. N. M. Guimaraes

Affiliation

1. AT&T Bell Laboratories, 600 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, NJ 07974-2070, USA

2. INESC, R. Alves Redol, 9, 60, 1000Lisboa, Portugal

Abstract

Hypermedia systems are usually developed as a single, self-contained application making the system specialized and difficult to retool for other applications. Thus each system requires the redevelopment of hypermedia storage and display capabilities. As long as developers need to write underlying hypermedia mechanisms, it remains impractical to extend hypermedia to many new domains.

Our effort focuses on developing a toolkit that can be used by developers to add hypermedia functionality to their tools, independent of their particular application or environment. By doing this, we gain flexibility and provide a common framework allowing applications to share information and user interface capabilities.

The toolkit provides a simply hypermedia data model and an object-oriented user interface. The data model stores the underlying hypermedia structure and the application’s data. The user interface model separates the data and the view components of the objects, which permits the construction of interfaces independent of the final display platform. The combination of these two components provides a powerful toolkit capable of either adding a touch of hypermedia to an application or constructing a monolithic hypermedia system.

We describe the constraints of our development environments, our toolkit, and some typical applications of the toolkit, as well as our future plans.

Keywords

hypermedia, user interfaces, CASE

pp

25-37

References


 

Title

Scenario-Based Hypermedia: a model and a system

Year1990

Author

Ryuichi Ogawa, Hiroaki Harada, Asao Kaneko

Affiliation

NEC Corporation, C&C Information Technology Research Laboratories, 4-1`-1 Miyazaki, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213, Japan

Abstract

This paper discusses an extended hypermedia model which presents data according to timed scripts. The model is intended to expand the notion of nodes and lins, so that hypermedia systems can easily handle time-based, media-composite data objects, including audio and video. It provides script-based nodes to present text-graphic and audio visual data synchronously and buttons to control the data sequence. Based on this model, a prototype hypermedia system Videobook has been implemented and used experimentally. This paper also discusses the authoring issues and educational applications developed on Videobook.

Keywords

multimedia. Scene node, trigger button, script, videobook

pp

38-51

References


 

Title

A hypertext model supporting query mechanisms

Year1990

Author

Foto Afrati, Constantinos D. Koutras

Affiliation

National Technical University of Athens, Division of Computer Science, Department of Electrical Engineering, 157073 Zographou, Athens, Greece.

E-mail: afrati@theseas.ntua.gr; koutras@theseas.ntus.gr

Abstract

A formal model of hypertext is described in this paper. The purpose is two-fold: building on Garg’s work to enhance his model so as to express advanced features of hypertesxt systems (such as structured nodes, scripts, typed and attributed links); and to demonstrate the expressive power of the model by showing that several problems concerning knowledge organization, browsing and navigation in the hyperspace, may have a simple solution in the framework of the model, as a result of a powerful query mechanism. The principles and fundamentals of the model are defined in detail, while its power and simplicity is illustrated by presenting some simple examples of information organization in hypertext fashion.

Keywords

hypertext, node, link, script, button, region

pp

52-66

References


 

Title

A logical query language for hypertext systems

Year1990

Author

Catriel Beeri, Yoram Knoratzky

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science/Leibniz Center for Research in Computer Science, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904, Israel.

E-mail: {beeri, yoramk}@hujics

Abstract

The search capabilities of hypertext systems are currently limited to retrieving collections of nodes and links based on predicates on their attributes and contents. To support sophisticated applications and user-tailored views of a hypertext document, we need a query language able to retrieve parts of a hypertext based on a specification of their structure. We present a logical query language permitting the formulation of such structural queries over hypertext. While the language is propositional, it includes a general notion of quatifier of the form appropriate for hypertext networks. Quantifiers are used for expressing formulas of the form: for most paths from the current node, claim X holds. In particular, most quantified assertions in natural language are directly represented in our logic. Formulas in the language are used for a declarative definition of sophisticated user-tailored views of a hypertext document.

Keywords

query languages, views, generalized quantifiers

pp

67-80

References


 

Title

A Model for Hypertext-based Information Retrieval

Year1990

Author

Dario Lucarella

Affiliation

Dipartimento di Scienze dell’Informazione, Universita degli studi di Milano, via Moretto da Brescia 9, 1-20133 Milano, Italy;

Centro Ricerca di Automatica, Enel, Via Volta 1, 1-20093 ColognoM (Mi) Italy.

Abstract

This paper approaches the problem of information retrieval from hyeprtext. Int his context, the retrieval process is regarded as a process of inference that can be carried out either by the user exploring the hypertext network (browsing_ or by the system, exploiting the hypertext network as a knowledge base (searching). That is the reason why a comprehensive model should take into account both of the perspectives, combining effectively browsing and searching in a unified framework. In the following, such a model is defined and implementation issues are outlined for a hypertext-based information retrieval system.

Keywords

hypertext models, information retrieval, knowledge-based systems, intelligent searching, plausible reasoning

pp

81-94

References


 

Title

HyperBase: a hypermedia engine based on a relational database management system

Year1990

Author

Helge A Schutt, Norbert A. Streitz

Affiliation

Integrated Publication and Information Systems Institute, GMD-IPSI, PO Box 104326, D-6100 Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany

E-mail: schuett@darmstadt.gmd.dbp.de

Abstract

Hypertext systems are valuable tools for creating, restructuring, and presenting information bases. Until now, little has been done with respect to the underlying data model and even less with respect to system support for such a model. This leads to a significant mismatch between sophisticated organizational structures at the user interface level and the actual storage of persistent objects in simple file systems. Therefore, we have developed a general data model for hypertext data and implemented that model with the help of a database system. Here we exploit the fairly complex functionality of a commercially available relational database management system to implement a general purpose hypermedia engine which we call HyperBase

Keywords

datamodels of hypertext, hypertext abstract machines, DBMS support for hypertext systems

pp

95-108

References


 

Title

Hyperindices: a novel aid for searching in hypermedia

Year1990

Author

P. D. Bruza

Affiliation

Department of Information Systems, University of Nijmegen, Toernooiveld, 6525ED Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

E-mail: peterb@cs.kun.nl

Abstract

In this article the formal basis of hyperindices is given. Hyperindices are a new means for supporting effective search in hypermedia. The basis of the hyperindex, the so-called index expression, is treated in detail. It is shown how the hyperindex can be constructed using the structural properties of the index expression. The hyperindex is placed in a general framework for indexes which features quantitative and qualitative criteria with which index effectiveness can be judged.

Keywords

hypertext, information retrieval, indexing

pp

109-122

References


 

Title

Intelligent Hypertext for normative knowledge in engineering

Year1990

Author

D. Schwabe, B. Feijo, W. G. Krause

Affiliation

Departamental de Informatica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica - RJ, R. Marques de S. Vicente, 225, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22453, Brasil

Abstract

We present a system that combines hypertext with a semantic representation of engineering norms. Since the representation is done via a Prolog encoding of an And/Or graph, it is possibleto discuss the relation between the execution of the representation of the norm and navigation in the hypertext. The system incorporates an interpretation of the norm by experts, and it is shown how this interpretation can be regarded also as an hyperview onto the hypertext.

Keywords

norms, prolog, knowledge based systems

pp

123-136

References


 

Title

Author’s Argumentation Assistant: A hypertext based authoring tool for argumentative texts

Year1990

Author

1. Wolfgang Schuler; 2. John B. Smith

Affiliation

1. Integrated publication and information systems institute, PO Box 104326, D-6100 Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany.

E-mail: schuler@darmstadt.gmd.dbp.de

2. Department of Computer Science, University of North Carolina, CB#3175 Sitterson Hall, Chapel Hill, NC27599-3175, USA.

E-mail: jbs@cs.unc.edu

Abstract

We present the conceptualization and implementation of AAA, a prototype authoring tool for creating argumentation based hyperdocuments. AAA is part of a more comprehensive effort of GMD-IPSI, where the hypertext authoring system SEPIA (Structured Elicitation and Processing of Ideas for Authoring) is developed. AAA will be used for writing and design experiments the results of which will be used in the design of SEPIA. It is designed to support the creation of argumentation patterns in accordance with the IBIS/PHI model combined with a micro argumentation structure according to Toulmin. For rapid prototyping purposes it has been implemented as a hypertext system using the Writing Environment WE developed at UNC.

AAA uses a combination of different independent but cooperating modes of operation dedicated to different cognitive tasks of the argumentative writing process. The entire argumentation structure is represented as a layered network of typed nodes and links in which different layers correspond to different levels of abstraction.

Keywords

authoring system, hypertext application, argumentation model

pp

137-151

References


 

Title

PHIDIAS: integrating CAD graphics into dynamic hypertext

Year1990

Author

R. J. McCall, P. R. Bennett, P. S. D’Oronzio, J. L. Ostwald, F. M. Shipman, N. F. Wallace

Affiliation

University of Colorado at Boulder, College of Environmental Design, Boulder, CO80309, USA

Abstract

PHIDIAS is a hypermedia system for supporting environmental design. It embodies a theory of design as continual alteration between two complementary activities: construction of solution form and argumentation about construction. To support theses activities it implements a number of advanced hypermedia concepts. These include an applicative query language providing search by both structure and content, virtual structures, composite graphic nodes, query based graphic clustering, and triggered queries which connect construction acts to relevant sections of the argumentative network. PHIDIAS constitutes a new type of integrated information environment for design.

Keywords

hypermedia, CAD, IRIS, virtual structures

pp

152-165

References


 

Title

An Integrated approach of knowledge acquisition by the hypertext system CONCORDE

Year1990

Author

M. Hofmann, U. Schreiweis, H. Langendorfer

Affiliation

TU Braunschweig, Institut fur Betriebssysteme und Rechnerverbund, Bultenweg 74/75, D-3300 Braunschweig, Federal Republic of Germany

Abstract

Knowledge acquisition is a crucial issue in developing expert systems. We describe a particular prototype of a hypertext system called CONCORDE that is able to support the entire process of knowledge acquisition. Since hypertext can be seen as a special structuring of various information units plus a fitting form of presentation, the data model of CONCORDE is discussed as well as its graphical browser.

Keywords

knowledge acquisition, typed links, CONCORDE

pp

166-179

References


 

Title

Hierarchy, Composition, Scripting Languages, and Translators for Structured Hypertext

Year1990

Author

P. D. Stotts, R. Furuta

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA

Abstract

In this paper we describe a hypertext translator-generator system that uses xted, the visual petri net editor from the xtrellis hypertext system, to specify the semantic component of a string to graph translation. XTed specified parsers convert general authoring notations into structured xTrellis documents for browsing. The operative mechanism is termed a pair grammar, in which a string grammar and a graph grammar are paired in a one-to-one correspondence, When an xTed-specified parser reduces by one of its string grammar productions, the corresponding production in its graph grammar is used to generate a portion of the Petri net that implements that syntax. The use of pair grammars in conjunction with the Trellis model results in a general method of defining hypertext strucutre that is both hierarchical and compositional.

Keywords

hierarchy, graph grammar, translation, trellis, petri nets

pp

180-193

References


 

Title

Links and Structures in hypertext databases for law

Year1990

Author

E. Wilson

Affiliation

Computing Laboratory, University of Kent at Canterbury, Canterbury, Kent, CT2 7NF, UK

Abstract

This paper considers the need to automate the conversion of traditional legal documents into an integrated hypertext database. It describes how this has been done at the University of Kent at Canterbury by the Justus suite of programs, which converts legal documents of diverse structures to run under the Guide hypertext system. It discusses the types of links the system uses to cater for linear and hierarchical structures; directed graphs; annotational or associative links; index or concept links. It then discusses how these links can create different virtual structures for the document collection to give flexibility of access and navigation. Some of these mirror structures which exist in traditional paper systems; others are unique to computerised systems. Next it considers the use of embedded expert systems to steer variable paths through the documents. Finally it summarises the achievements so far, and the goals ahead.

Keywords

hypertext links, hypertext structures, information retrieval, law

pp

194-210

References


 

Title

An Apprentice that discovers hypertext links

Year1990

Author

M. Bernstein

Affiliation

Eastgate Systems Inc. PO Box 1307, Cambridge, MA 02238 USA

+1 617 924-9044

Abstract

A simple apprentice that proposes new content links in hypertexts has been added to the Hypergate hypertext environment, and its behavior and performance are evaluated under realistic conditions. Despite a fundamentally lexical approach, the link apprentice finds a significant number of intriguing and meaningful links very quickly and without substantial overhead.

Keywords

indexing, authoring systems, apprentices, tours, information retrieval

pp

212-223

References


 

Title

Towards an aesthetics of hypertext systems. A semiotic approach

Year1990

Author

Peter Bogh Andersen

Affiliation

Department of Information and Media Science, University of Aarhus, Niels Juelsgade 84, DK-8200 Arhus, Denmark

E-mail: pba@daimi.dk

Abstract

In hypertext the reader can choose between several reading paths, and this is an essential characteristic of the medium. Composing paths that give meaningful readings is an important task for the hypertext author, but so far very little is known of the rhetorics of paths. Based on the practical work of evaluating hypertext exercises written by students, the paper gives examples of errors of composition and sets up a conceptual framework, borrowed from semiotics, for discussing aesthetic issues of hypertext design. The concepts are intended to make it easier for the author to design the product from a reader’s point of view, and an authoring tool supporting these concepts is sketched. Finally, the paper illustrates how insights from text stylistics and film aesthetics can be usefully exploited in the field of hypertext.

Keywords

models of hypertext, authoring systems, models of reading and writing, aesthetics, semiotics

pp

224-237

References


 

Title

Linking considered harmful

Year1990

Author

L. De Young

Affiliation

Price Waterhouse Technology Centre, 68 Willow Road, Menlo Park, CA 94303

E-mail: deyoung@pw.com

Abstract

Arbitrary linking of data in hypertext allows for great flexibility, but the result is often hypertext in which users readily become disoriented. Where possible, it is desirable to provide support for structuring hypertext in a way that makes it easier to organize and understand. This can be done by identifying the underlying structure of the ways specific sets of data are related. Providing support for use of such structures in a hypertext system may yield benefits similar to those found in using higher-level programming constructs in programs.

Keywords

hypermedia, structure, disorientation

pp

238-249

References


 

Title

Interactive text processing by inexperienced (hyper-) readers

Year1990

Author

J. F. Rouet

Affiliation

Universite de Poitiers, Laboratoire de Psychologie du Langage -URA CNRS 666, 95avenue du Recteur Pineau, F-86022 Poitiers-Cedex, France

Abstract

This paper focuses on the development of cognitive strategies in secondary school students, when learning to use electronic non-linear documents. We study the costs and benefits of learning through nonlinear texts, from a psycholinguistic point of view. In the course of two experimental sessions, 148 11-12 and 13-14 year old secondary school students were trained to use an interactive text-presentation software. Parameters such as the expression of relationships, selection marking, and pagination influenced both local and global aspects of nonlinear reading. Training improved orientation strategies at both academic levels. Implications of these results for the design of instructional nonlinear documents are discussed.

Keywords

cognitive strategy, instructional text, interface organization, orientation, training

pp

250-260

References


 

Title

Non-Intrusive Hypertext Anchors and individual colour markings

Year1990

Author

W. J. Irler, G. Barbieri

Affiliation

Istituto di informatica, Universita di Trento, via Rosmini, 42, I-38100 Trento, Italy.

E-mail: IRLER@IRST.UUCP

Abstract

One interface feature of hypertext systems is the visualization of the link anchors, often in form of buttons which invite to click on. This functional information increases the cognitive load while reading a text on the computer. Comprehension of the presented material competes with the orientation in the hypertext. The paper treats the cognitive arguments, and explores interface and back-end questions related to this problem. A browsing model is developed which proposes a button-less screen, a click-anywhere suggestion, and pop-up local maps as a selection and preview mechanism. Links are finally activated by mouse movements towards a destination area, rather than by still button pressing. As a way to individualize and restructure the visual aspect of the pages, the reader can permanently mark selected words with colour, marked words may be added to a keyword index which is linked back to the text. An experimental implementation uses ToolBook, a scripted construction set in MS-Windows 3.0. The design issues and some results are described for an educational application concerning pendulums.

Keywords

invisible anchors, text marking, browsing model

pp

261-273

References


 

Title

Satellite: hypermedia navigation by affinity

Year1990

Author

X. Pintado, D. Tsichritzis

Affiliation

Centre Universitaire d’Informatique, Universite de Geneve, 12 rue du Lac, CH-1207 Geneve, Switzerland

Abstract

Satellite is an exploration tool for a hypermedia environment. Navigation support is based on the concept of affinity between objects; that is, a relationship with an associated intensity. The user is presented with a two dimensional representation that provides a view of the hypermedia environment where objects lying close together have some affinity in the sense defined by a chosen measure. The system provides for multiple views by modifying the underlying measure of affinity. Satellite promotes hypermedia navigation by context-dependent proximity.

Based on the affinity concept, we develop a dynamic layout algorithm for the display of views. Because the views are based on affinity information, the links of the hypergraph do not appear explicitly.

Keywords

 

pp

274-287

References


 

Title

Browsing in Hyperdocuments with the Assistance of Neural Network

Year1990

Author

F. Biennier, M. Guivarch, J-M. Pinon

Affiliation

Laboratoire d’Informatique Appliquee, INSA de Lyon, Batiment 502, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex, France

Tel: 33-72-43-83-83 ext. 5504

Fax: 33-72-44-08-00

Abstract

The high degree of freedom a user has to browse through a hyperdocument often makes him puzzled. His main problems are first the expression of his informal need, sometimes using ideas associations, then finding the path in the hyperspace to reach relevant information. The guiding system proposed in this paper enriches the hyperdocument structure with undirect semantic links, ie associations between nodes according to their contents. Nodes contents are connected to multimedia keywords called tags; direct and reverse associations between nodes and tags are embedded in a bidirectional neural network which allows inductive retrieval. One user controls the process thanks to some simple parameters: specialisation level for selected nodes, prevision of tags, inertia selector, tolerance functions for specialization and precision spreads.

Upon request, the system dynamically raises a path that organizes the results of a query, contextual or not, adaptively taking into account users profile and special needs. Weights in the neural network may also be slightly corrected from experience, adapting the association capability to users on their average.

Keywords

semantic browsing, neural network, dynamic path

pp

288-297

References


 

Title

Microcosm: an open model for hypermedia with dynamic linking

Year1990

Author

A. M. Fountain, W. Hall, I. Heath, H. C. Davis

Affiliation

Department of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO9 5NH

Abstract

There are currently a number of commercially available hypertext and hypermedia systems, of varying levels of sophistication and usability, but there are still many problems to be resolved in the design of such systems. In this paper, we itemise some of the major problems that we have identified as possibly causing a barrier to growth and development of hypermedia applications outside the research community. A model of an open hypermedia architecture with dynamic linking features is proposed that moves some way to resolving these problems, and the first implementation of the system, Microcosm, is presented and discussed.

Keywords

hypertext, multimedia, dynamic linking

pp

298-311

References


 

Title

Inside Macintosh as Hypertext

Year1990

Author

Brian Bechtel

Affiliation

Apple Computer, Inc. 20525 Mariani Avenue, Cupertino, CA 95014 USA

Internet: blob@apple.com

Abstract

SpInside Macintosh is a hypertext compact disc version of Inside Macintosh, the multi-volume programmer’s reference work for the Macintosh family of computers. SpInside Macintosh is implemented in HyperCard and distributed on CD-ROM. We describe the design decisions and principles we followed in creating SpInside Macintosh. We also give user feedback and a retrospective critique of the design.

Keywords

inside Macintosh, CD-ROM, hypertext

pp

312-323

References


 

Title

Hypertext from the Data Point of View: Paths and Links in the Perseus Project

Year1990

Author

E. Mylonas, S. Heath

Affiliation

Department of the Classics, 319 Boylston Hall, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138

Abstract

The Perseus Project is building a system for studying classical Greece, incorporating into it several different types of source material. In order to minimize system development time, and to make it accessible to the users of the system faster, it is being developed on Macintosh computers, using HyperCard. This paper describes two navigational methods that have been created in Perseus: generalized linking, and paths. They were chosen because they could provide the most flexibility and the most functionality. Their implementation is briefly described, as well.

Keywords

linking, navigation, paths, Perseus Project

pp

324-336

References


1991 Hypertext Conference

 

Title

Cognitive overheads and prostheses: some issues in evaluating hypertexts

Year1991

Author

Patricia Wright

Affiliation

Medical Research Council Applied Psychology Unit, 15 Chaucer Road, Cambridge, CV2 2EF

Abstract

There are many criteria for evaluating hypertexts. Adequacy and cost effectiveness are perhaps the most important from the producer’s perspective; additional criteria are important for users. Examination of the limitations of various assessment criteria highlights the twin issues of the cognitive costs and benefits experienced by people using hypertexts as par of some other task. Many interface characteristics can contribute to readers’ cognitive overheads. There is evidence that even changing screens to access information only a click away can impair memory processes. Fortunately, because hypertexts are computer-based, readers can call upon a variety of aids to support their cognitive activities, particularly memory and planning processes. The novelty of some of these prostheses raises questions about the literacy skills that hypertext readers may need. Studies of factors influencing readers’ strategic decisions about using memory aids are discussed, together with their implications for hypertext design. It is concluded that hypertext evaluation requires a richer understanding of the cognitive entailments of working with information. But hypertexts, having highlighted the problems of cognitive costs, have the potential for offering readers the means of reducing these overheads not just for hypertext use but for many tasks that involve working with information.

Keywords

cognition, design, memory, planning, reading, tools

pp

1-12

References , Full text


 

Title

Industrial Strength Hypermedia: Requirements for a Large Engineering Enterprise

Year1991

Author

1. K. C. Malcolm, 2. S. E. Poltrock, D. Schuler

Affiliation

1. Applied Media Technologies, Boeing Computer Services, PO Box 24346, MS6C-98, Seattle, WA, 98124-0346

E-mail: malcolm@atc.boeing.com

2. Computer Science, Computer Services, PO Box 24346, MS7L-64, Seattle, WA, 98124-0346

E-mail: {poltrock, douglas}@atc.boeing.com

Abstract

Current hypermedia tools do not support the needs of collaborative work groups in distributed heterogeneous environments and cannot be integrated into the existing and planned computing environments at large enterprises like Boeing. It is in meeting these needs, however, that hypermedia could make its greatest impact. Hypermedia systems must evolve beyond their current standalone status into a technology that is truly integrative. We use a description of some current hypermedia projects and a representative future scenario to help identify technical requirements and strategies for developing and deploying hypermedia that is of sufficient "industrial strength" to support a large engineering enterprise. This paper is addressed to hypermedia researchers and developers as well as to our colleagues in other business and engineering organizations. The intent of this paper is to remind both the research and development communities of the urgent "real-world" needs that exist and to encourage dialogue between the two worlds.

Keywords

Engineering applications, requirements, interoperability, deployment

pp

13-24

References , Full text


 

Title

Using Hypertext in Selecting Reusable Software Components

Year1991

Author

M . L. Creech, D. F. Freeze, M. L. Griss

Affiliation

Software and Systems Laboratory, Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, 1501 Page Mill Road, Building 1U, Palo Alto, California 94304.

E-mail: freeze@hplabs.hp.com

Abstract

Recently, there has been increasing interest in software reuse as a way to improve software quality and productivitiy. One of the major problems with reusing libraries of software components is helping users effectively select (find and understand) components of interest. This paper explores the use of hypertext to enhance the process of component selection through a prototype system called Kiosk. Included are discussions of the selection process, why hypertext is well suited for supporting selection, and important characteristics of hypertext systems intended to support reuse. Also discussed are how reusable libraries can be structured using hypertext, how such libraries can be mechanically built, and how their use enhances the component selection process.

Kiosk consists of an open set of tools that can create, browse and modify nodes and links in a software library. One of these tools, Cost++, can automatically generate a linked structure for libraries by clustering workproducts into components, and then placing components into multiple classification hierarchies. The Kiosk browsing tools allow users to peruse the components in libraries, examine library structures from multiple perspectives, and add new links and nodes to enhance the standard library structure.

Keywords

software reuse, software libraries, component selection, hypertext, Kiosk

pp

25-38

References , Full text


 

Title

Intellectural Property Rights for Digital Library and Hypertext Publishing Systems: an analysis of Xanadu

Year1991

Author

1. Pamela Samuelson, 2. Robert J. Glushko

Affiliation

1. University of Pittsburgh School of Law

2. Hypertext Engineering, Pittsburgh, PA

Abstract

Copyright law is being applied to works in digital form. The special character of digital media will inevitably require some adjustments in the copyright model if digital libraries and hypertext publishing environments are to become as commercially viable as the print industries have been. An intellectual property system works only when it embodies a reasonably accurate model of how people are likely to behave, but it is hard to predict author and reader behavior in an environment that has yet to be built. By far the most ambitious proposal for a digital library and hypertext publishing environment is Ted Nelson’s Xanadu system. This paper reviews the intellectual property scheme in Xanadu, and contrasts it with current copyright law. Xanadu’s predictions about reader and author behavior are examined in light of how people currently behave in computer conferencing, electronic mail, and similar existing systems. These analyses identify some respects in which intellectual property systems might have to be changed to make digital libraries and hypertext publishing systems viable.

Keywords

 

pp

39-50

References , Full text


 

Title

Indexing Hypertext Documents in Context

Year1991

Author

Guy A. Boy

Affiliation

NASA Ames Research Center, Mail Stop 244-17, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA

Tel: 415-604-3369

E-mail: boy@ptolemy.arc.nasa.gov

Abstract

To generate intelligent indexing that allows context-sensitive information retrieval, a system must be able to acquire knowledge directly through interaction with users. In this paper, we present the architecture for CID (Computer Integrated Documentation), a system that enables integration of various technical documents in a hypertext framework and includes an intelligent browsing system that incorporates indexing in context. CID’s knowledge-based indexing mechanism allows case-based knowledge acquisition by experimentation. It utilizes on-line user information requirements and suggestions either to reinforce current indexing in case of success or to generate new knowledge in case of failure. This allows CID’s intelligent interface system to provide helpful responses, even when no a priori user model is available. Our system in fact learns how to exploit a user model based on experience (from user feedback). We describe CID’s current capabilities and provide an overview of our plans for extending the system..

Keywords

contextual indexing, information retrieval, tailorable system, context acquisition, hypertext

pp

51-61

References , Full text


 

Title

Identifying Aggregates in Hypertext Structures

Year1991

Author

R. A. Botafogo and B. Shneiderman

Affiliation

Human-computer Interaction Laboratory and Department of Computer Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA

Abstract

Hypertext systems are being used in many applications because of their flexible structure and the great browsing freedom they give to diverse communities of users. However, this same freedom and flexibility is the cause of one of its main problems: the "lost in hyperspace" problem. One reason for the complexity of hypertext databases is the large number of nodes and links that compose them. To simplify this structure we propose that nodes and links be clustered forming more abstract structures. An abstraction is the concealment of all but relevant properties from an object or concept.

One type of abstraction is called an aggregate. An aggregate is a set of distinct concepts that taken together form a more abstract concept. For example, two legs, a trunk, two arms and a head can be aggregated together in a single higher level object called a body. In this paper we will study the hypertext structure, ie the way nodes are linked to each other in order to find aggregates in hypertext databases. Two graph theoretical algorithms will be used: biconnected components and strongly connected components.

Keywords

hypertext, structural analysis, graph theory, abstraction, aggregation, generalization

pp

63-74

References , Full text


 

 

Title

Implementing Hypertext Database Relationships through Aggregations and Exceptions

Year1991

Author

1. Y. Hara; 2. A. M. Keller; 3. G. Widerhold

Affiliation

1. NEC Corporation and Stanford University; 2. Advanced Decision Systems and Stanford University; 3. Stanford University.

Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, Stanford, CA94305-2140, USA

Abstract

In order to combine hypertext with database facilities, we show how to extract an effective storage structure from given instance relationships. The schema of the structure recognizes clusters and exceptions. Extracting high-level structures is useful for providing a high performance browsing environment as well as efficient phsyical database design, especially when handling large amounts of data.

This paper focuses on a clustering method, ACE, which generates aggregations and exceptions from the original graph structure in order to capture high-level relationships. The problem of minimizing the cost function is NP-complete. We use a heuristic approach based on an extended Kernighan-Lin algorithm.

We demonstrate our method on a hypertext application and on a standard random graph, compared with its analytical model. The storage reductions of input database size in main memory were 77.2% and 12.3% respectively. It was also useful for secondary storage organization for efficient retrieval.

Keywords

hypertext database, physical database design, database clustering, overview diagram, aggregation, exception

pp

75-90

References , Full text


 

Title

Screen management in hypertext systems with rubber sheet layouts

Year1991

Author

1. Marc Kaltenbach; 2. Francois Robillard, Claude Frasson

Affiliation

1. Department of Management and Information Sciences, Bishops University, Lennoxville, Quebec, Canada, J1M 1Z7

2. Departement Informatique et Recherche Operationnelle, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128 succursale A, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3J7

Abstract

This paper addresses the issue of screen management in hypertext systems. It presents a new way of placing windows, or any graphical object delimited by rectangular boundaries, in the context of an existing set of windows. The heart of the technique presented is a particular re-scaling of the display which changes the locations of objects while maintaining their sizes and avoiding object overlapping. This functionality has uses both for authoring and browsing hypertext documents. In particular it enables the display of hierarchically structured information at various levels of detail and complements other visual graph management functions. More generally, the objective is to attenuate the feeling of disorientation users experience when related informations obtained through hypertext browsing are stacked upon a display screen. This work suggests extending hypertext systems by enabling users to create well structured information "collages" and to program animated presentations on the basis of browsing through ill or differently structured collections of documents.

Keywords

collage, graph, hypertext, motion picture, rubber sheet layout, scale factor, tack point

pp

91-105

References , Full text


 

Title

Cybermap: yet another way of navigating in hyperspace

Year1991

Author

Peter A. Gloor

Affiliation

Laboratory for Computer Science, MIT, 545 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139

Abstract

By integrating dynamic linking and automatic link generation in to the automatic generation of an overview map we get a unique tool for navigation in hyperspace. We introduce the concept of Hyperdrawers to get a means for the partitioning of nodes in ordered sequences. Cybermap either complements existing navigational aids for hyperdocuments or provides a self-sufficient navigation tool for browsing in a document. In addition, Cybermap offers the capability of horizontal growth and easy hypertextualization of non-hypertextual documents without restricting the use of already installed browsing mechanisms besides Cybermap

Keywords

overview map, automatic link generation, dynamic linking, fisheye views, hypertext conversion, navigation in hyperspace

pp

107-122

References , Full text


 

Title

Flying through Hypertext

Year1991

Author

Patrick Lai, Udi Manber

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ85721

Abstract

Hypertext systems provide links between different pieces of information (text, figures, pictures, etc.) so that the reader can follow many different paths corresponding to lines of thoughts, levels of description, levels of details and so on. One of the main problems in using hypertext systems is the navigation problem. Users tend to get lost partly because the information they are reading can have a complicated structure which is usually unknown to them. We study in this paper a technique to help users orient themselves by a quick browsing, which we can flying, through hypertext. …

Our tool is analogous to flipping the pages of a book with one notable exception: the flipping is not necessarily in a linear order. The availability of the links and the structure that they provide enable flexible flipping in many different orders controlled by the reader. The key to any flipping is speed. The goal is not to digest the contents of the pages, but rather to gain some insight to features such as organization, size, depth, level, detail, and so on. Another analogy is to seeing a movie, or better yet a videodisk, in fast forward. There are certain characteristics of the movie that can be studied better that way. Flying can also be used to move fast from one place to another in the hypertext following a certain order of traversal. Flying is not intended to replace any of the other navigation tools: it is an additional tool.

Keywords

 

pp

123-132

References , Full text


 

Title

Hyperspeech: Navigating in speech-only hypermedia

Year1991

Author

B. Arons

Affiliation

MIT Media Laboratory, 20 Ames Street, E15-353, Cambridge, MA 02139

E-mail: barons@media-lab.mit.edu

Abstract

Most hypermedia systems emphasize the integration of graphics, images, video and audio into a traditional hypertext framework. The hyperspeech system described in this paper, a speech-only hypermedia application, explores issues of navigation and system architecture ina n audio environment without a visual display. The system under development uses speech recognition to manoeuver in a database of digitally recorded speech segments; synthetic speech is used for control information and user feedback.

In this research prototype, recorded audio interviews were segmented by topic, and hypertext-style links were added to connect logically related comments and ideas. The software architecture is data driven, with all knowledge embedded in the links and nodes, allowing the software that traverses through the network to be straightforward and concise. Several user interfaces were prototyped, emphasizing different styles of speech interaction and feedback between the user and machine. In addition to the issues of navigation in a speech-only database, areas of continuing research include dynamically extending the database, use of audio and voice cues to indicate landmarks, and the simultaneous presentation of multiple channels of speech information.

Keywords

 

pp

133-146

References , Full text


 

Title

Hypermedia Templates: an author’s tool

Year1991

Author

1.Karen Smith Catlin, L. Nancy Garrett; 2. Julie Launhardt

Affiliation

1. Institute for Information and Scholarship, Brown University, Box 1946 Providence, RI02912, USA

2. Boeing Commercial Airplanes Group, PO Box 3707, Mail Stop OF-HA Seattle, WA 98124-2207, USA

Abstract

Recently Brown University’s Institute for research in information and Scholarship extended Intermedia to allow authors to define Hypermedia Templates - sets of pre-linked documents which can be duplicated. Templates facilitate the creation of consistent hypermedia collections by automating what can be a laborious task, making documents and forging links manually.

In this paper we discuss the Hypermedia Templates project. We first describe a collection of Intermedia materials that has been electronically published and explain the information design principles that were applied to it. We point out some general principles for building consistent hypermedia collections and discuss how these were reflected in the list of features for Hypermedia Templates. We then describe a user’s interaction with a prototypical Hypermedia Template, as well as details of the user interface that we have built to provide template functionality in Intermedia. Finally, we identify some key features that would be important compoinents of any next-generation template software.

Keywords

hypermedia templates, hypermedia design principles, intermedia

pp

147-160

References , Full text


 

Title

What’s Eliza doing in the Chinese Room? Incoherent hyperdocuments - and how to avoid them

Year1991

Author

M. Thuring, J. M. Haake, J. Hanneman

Affiliation

Integrated Publication and Information Systems Institute, Gesellschaft fur Mathematik und Datenverarbeitung, PO Box 104326, Dolivostrasse 15, D-610 Darmstadt, F. R. Germany

e-mail: thuering@darmstadt.gmd.de

Abstract

Research on understanding linear texts has shown that comprehension and navigation mainly depend on the reader’s ability to construct a coherent mental representation. While the author of a traditional document can use a variety of structural cues to support his readers in building up such a representation, the author of a hyperdocument faces a new problem. If he wants to ensure that his readers understand the entire hyperdocument as a coherent entity, he needs means to indicate its structure in a comprehensible way. In this paper, we propose a construction kit which provides dedicated design objects for this purpose The design objects can be characterized as building blocks for three functionally different components of a hyperdocument: its content part, organizational part, and presentational part. In addition to the design objects, we propose some design rules which should guide the construction of coherent hyperdocuments.

Keywords

design of hyperdocuments, coherent hyperdocuments, rhetorics of hypertext, hyperdocument construction kit, labelled links, composite nodes, navigation, comprehension of hyperdocuments

pp

161-177

References , Full text


 

Title

ABC: A hypermedia system for artifact-based collaboration

Year1991

Author

John B. Smith, F. Donelson Smith

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, CB#3175, Sitterson Hall, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC27599-3175, USA

e-mail: jbs@cs.unc.edu or smithfd@cs.unc.edu

Abstract

Our project is studying the process by which groups of individuals work together to build large, complex structures of ideas, and we are developing a distributed hypermedia system to support that process. This description includes a brief overview of the system, but emphasizes three components: a hypermedia data management system or graph server, a set of browsers for working with graph objects, and a set of applications for working with data contents of graph nodes. A number of research issues are raised and discussed in context, including composite objects, anchored links, scaling up for large applications, partitioning the hypermedia graph, consistency and completeness across subgraphs and an open, extensible architecture for applications.

Keywords

 

pp

179-191

References , Full text


 

Title

The nested context model for hyperdocuments

Year1991

Author

1. M. A. Casanova, L. Tucherman; 2. M. J. D. Lima, J. L. Rangel Netto, N. Rodriguez, L. F. G. Soares

Affiliation

1. Centro Cientifico Rio, IBM Brasil, PO Box 4624, 20.001 Rio de Janeiro, RJ - Brasil

e-mail casanova@riovmsc.vnet.ibm.com

2. Departamento de Informatica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do RJ, R. Marques de S. Vicente, 225, 22.453 Rio de Janeiro, RJ-Brasil

Abstract

This paper describes the nested context model, a conceptual framework for the definition, presentation and browsing of documents. The model carefully combines hypertext links with the concept of context nodes, used to group together sets of nodes. Context nodes can be nested to any depth and thus generalize the classical hierarchical organization of documents. The nested context model also defines an abstract and flexible application program interface that captures the idea that different applications may observe the same node in different ways. Finally, the model offers a rich set of operations to explore the double structure of a hyperdocument - that defined by the links and that induced by the nesting of context nodes.

Keywords

 

pp

193-201

References , Full text


 

Title

Issues for Modeling a "Dynamic" hypertext interface for non-hypertext systems

Year1991

Author

Michael Bieber

Affiliation

Boston College, Computer Science Department, Fulton 430, Chestnut Hill, MA02167-3808

Tel. 617-552-3964; Fax 617-552-2097

e-mail: bieberm@bcvms.bitnet; bieberm@bcvms.bs.edu

Abstract

Many hypertext systems are primarily static systems that were designed specifically to apply a hypertext interface to a particular domain. For us, hypertext is a tool for augmenting "dynamic" non-hypertext information systems such as decision support systems and expert systems. Many information systems require a dynamic implementation of hypertext, one that relies primarily on virtual structures and computation to generate a hypertext network in real time. This paper explores the demands our dynamic view of hypertext makes on hypertext standards from two angles. First, what coordination is necessary to establish a dynamic hypertext interface to an arbitrary front-end or back-end information system? Here we introduce the concept of bridge laws to map application components to hypertext structures. Second, how does a dynamic view of hypertext affect document interchange among hypertext systems and between a hypertext and non-hypertext system?

Keywords

hypertext computation, hypertext virtual structures, bridge laws, decision sypport systems, information systems, document interchange, knowledge-based system shell architecture

pp

203-217

References , Full text


 

Title

Dynamic Adaptation of Hypertext Structure

Year1991

Author

1. P. D. Stotts; 2. R. Furuta

Affiliation

1. Department of Computer and Information Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL32611

2. Department of Computer Science and Institute for Advanced Computer Studies, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742

Abstract

A technique is described for adapting the apparent structure of a hypertext to the bahavior and preferences exhibited by its users while browsing. Examples are given an implementation of this technique using the timing mechanism in Trellis. In the technique, event durations in a document are altered without actually changing the links in the underlying Petri net. The two extrema of instantaneous events and infinite delays can be used to create apparent node and link deletions and additions, as well as to insert new tokens (loci of activity) into the document. Adaptation of these times is accomplished using a simple data state in which the event timings (and other document properties) are variables, called attributes. As a reader traverses hypertext links, author-supplied adaptation agents are invoked to collect information and possibly change the values of the attributes. Agents encapsulate and effect the criteria for deciding when, and specifically how, a structure should be adapted. Several practical examples illustrate the conclusion of this report: sophisticated alterations do not require a complicated adaptation mechanism, that changing document constants into document variables provides flexibility to this mechanism, and that using a limited simple mechanism is the only hope for retaining analysis of the static and dynamic net properties.

Keywords

hypertext, trellis, petri nets, place/transition nets, browsing semantics, adaptation, parallel computation model, timing

pp

219-231

References , Full text


 

Title

Don’t link me in: set based hypermedia for taxonomic reasoning

Year1991

Author

H. van dyke Parunak

Affiliation

Industrial Technology Institute, PO Box 1485, Ann Arbor, MI 48106.

Tel. 313-769-4049; Fax 313-769-4064

e-mail: van@iti.org

Abstract

Hypermedia is often described as nodes of information with links between them, suggesting the conceptual model of a graph. A broader definition is a system of nodes of information through which people can move non-linearly. Such a definition, while including graph-based hypermedia, also allows alternative implementations. This paper illustrates the need for alternative models by exhibiting a particular reasoning task for which navigating among nodes by way of explicit links is less effective than an alternative model of intersecting sets of nodes. The task is taxonomic reasoning, a particular kind of reasoning task that deals with the comparison and classification of highly similar nodes, in which an analyst viewing one node thinks not in terms of linking it to another node, but of including it in or excluding it from a set of related nodes.

This paper discusses this kind of reasoning and describes HyperSet, a set-based hypermedia system designed to support it. It compares HyperSet with other tools that support taxonomic reasoning, discusses the formal and implementational relationships between graph-based and set-based hypermedia, and defines the features that are required in a hybrid system that can concurrently support both set and graph manipulations.

Keywords

user models, taxonomic reasoning, interfaces, system architectures

pp

233-242

References , Full text


 

Title

Architectures for Volatile Hypertext

Year1991

Author

1. M. Bernstein; 2. J. D. Bolter; 3. M. Joyce; 4. E. Mylonas

Affiliation

1. Eastgate Systems Inc. 134 Main Street, Watertown, MA 02172 USA

2. Department of Literature, Communication and Culture, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-1065, USA

3. Jackson Community College, 2111 Emmons Road, Jackson, MI49201, USA

4. Project Perseus, Harvard University, 319 Boylston Hall, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

Abstract

 

Keywords

 

pp

243-260

References , Full text


 

Title

Aquanet: a hypertext tool to hold your knowledge in place

Year1991

Author

C. C. Marshall, F. G. Halasz, R. A. Rogers, W. C. Janssen

Affiliation

Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, 3333 Coyote Hill Road, Palo Alto, CA94304

Abstract

Hypertext systems have traditionally focused on information management and presentation. In contrast, the Aquanet hypertext system described in this paper is designed to support knowledge structuring tasks. Aquanet is a browser-based tool that allows users to graphically represent information in order to explore its structure. In this paper, we discuss our motivations for developing Aquanet. We then describe the basic concepts underlying the tool and give an overview of the user interface. We close with some brief comments about our initial experiences with the tool in use and some of the directions we see the Aquanet research moving in the near future.

Keywords

 

pp

261-275

References , Full text


 

Title

The Pedagogy of Computing: Hypermedia in the Classroom

Year1991

Author

Dr. Charles Ess

Affiliation

Philosophy and Religion Deparment, Drury College, 900 N Benton Avenue, Springfield, MO USA 65802. BITNET: dru001d@SMSVMA

Abstract

I describe how I have used IRIS intermedia, a sophisticated hypermedia program, in teaching an upper-level class on the emergence of philosophy and science in the context of religious story and material culture. I first describe the program and summarize the pedagogical results of using the program as documented at Brown University. I then describe various uses of the program in the Drury class and the observed impacts of these uses. Our experience with hypermedia at Drury College both corroborates and extends the pedagogical impacts of hypermedia already documented at Brown University, especially in terms of dramatically increasing student mastery of difficult material, and student involvement in the course through collaborative learning strategies supported by hypermedia resources distributed across a network. These pedagogically desirable benefits, however, are accompanied by concerns regarding fragmentation and decentering in student work in hypermedia and regarding ethical irresponsibility towards shared and thus vulnerable resources.

These results are especially significant as they demonstrate that instructors with relatively limited resources can nonetheless reap dramatic pedagogical benefits from hypermedia technologies in the classroom. This also means relatively exotic hypermedia technologies may successfully migrate to the resource-limited classrooms of smaller colleges and universities.

Keywords

hypertext, hypermedia, IRIS intermedia, history of philosophy, history of science, pedagogy, collaborative learning, electronic conferencing, electronic journaling, computer ethics, Postmodernism

pp

277-289

References , Full text


 

Title

Beyond the Electronic Book: A critique of hypertext rhetoric

Year1991

Author

S. Moulthrop

Affiliation

School of Literature,Communication and Culture, The Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332

Abstract

 

Keywords

 

pp

290-298

References , Full text


 

Title

Hypertext for the Electronic Library? CORE sample results

Year1991

Author

D. E. Egan, M. E. Lesk, R. D. Ketchum, C. C. Lochbaum, J. R. Remde, M. Littman, T. K. Landauer

Affiliation

Belcore, Morristown, New Jersey

Abstract

The Chemistry Online Retrieval Experiment, or CORE project, is studying the possibility of creating a useful, usable electronic library for chemistry researchers. In a preliminary study, chemists were observed performing five different tasks representative of typical uses of the scientific journal literature. The tasks simulated browsing journals, answering specific questions given a citation to an article, answering specific questions given no citation, writing essays to summarize and integrate information, and finding "analogous transformations" for chemical reactions. Chemists carried out these tasks using one of three systems: (a) the printed journals supplemented with a widely used printed index system, (b) hypertext system (the SuperBook document browser), or (c) a new electronic system (Pixlook) that incorporates traditional document retrieval methods plus full text indexing and delivers bitmap images of journal pages. Both electronic systems had a large advantage over the printed system for search and essay tasks. SuperBook users were faster and more accurate than Pixlook users at finding information relevant to browsing and search topics. Certain SuperBook hypertext features, hwoever, did not work as well as Pixlook for displaying target articles. The patterns of data and log files of subjects suggests how SuperBook, Pixlook and related systems might be improved.

Keywords

evaluation, information retrieval, hypertext design

pp

299-312

References , Full text


 

Title

HDM - a model for the design of hypertext applications

Year1991

Author

1. Franca Garzotto, Paolo Paolini; 2. Daniel Schwabe

Affiliation

1. Dipartimento di Elettronica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, Milano 20133, Italy; E-nmail: relett34@imipoli.bitnet

2, Department of Informatics, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, R. M. de S. Vicente, 225, 22453 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Abstract

We present the latest developments of HDM a design model for hypertext applciations. The basic features of HDM are the representation of applications through several design primitives: typed entities composed of hierarchies of components; different perspectives for each component; units corresponding to component-perspective pairs; bodies representing the actual content of the units; structural links, binding together components or sub-entities of the same entity; typed application links, interconnecting components belonging to different entities; and a specific browsing semantics based on anchors, as a way to activate many different link types from within a unit.

The development of HDM is part of the HYTEA project, carried on by a European consortium, aiming at the development of a set of authoring tools for an engineered development of hypertext/hypermedia applications. A hYTEA application is made by an HDM schema and an HDM Hyperbase (i.e. a set of instances). The basic HDM has already been shown to be translatable, either mannually or through a compiler, into a node-and-link model (a la DEXTER model); the translated application can be targeted on several implementation tools (i.e., standard hypertext tools already available on the market.) HDM has already been used to develop a small number of applications, and to describe pre-existing applications. These experiments have shown the need for improvements that are discussed in the paper: aggregate entities; sharing of components; is-a relationships and inheritance between entity types; sharing of bodies; structured access and guided tours; use of active media (animations and video-clips).

Keywords

 

pp

313-328

References , Full text


 

Title

Using structured types to incorporate knowledge in hypertext

Year1991

Author

J. Nanard, M. Nanard

Affiliation

Department of Knowledge Acquisition and Representation, Laboratoire d’Informatique de Robotique et de Microelectronique de Montpellier, University of Montpellier, 860 rue de Saint Priest, 34090 Montpellier, Fran ce. E-mail: nanard@crim.fr

Abstract

It has been shown that the famous problem of user disorientation in hypertext is not due to the concept of hypertext itself but rather generally results from the lack of a conceptual model for hypertext application . Unfortunately, in most hypertext systems, the weakness of structure specification mechanisms discourages the development and use of such a model since it is difficult to reinforce hypertext structure and to really incorporate knowledge. A lot of works provide intelligent mechanisms to help navigation but either they use external knowledge or automatically synthesize links from information included in nodes which tehreby hav eno sufficient conceptual value.

The present paper focuses on an object -oriented hypertext model (implemented in the MacWeb system) using structured types to incorporate knowledge in hypertexts. Concepts and their relationships as well as their instances and their own relationships may be represented. Such a model makes th e capture of knowledge at source easier, thus allowing a more conceptual navigation. Furthermore, active behaviors may be associated, as methods, to types. This provides a powerful mechanism to help develop structured hypertext as well as task centered a pplications, by taking advantage of knowledge representation.

Keywords

structured types, knowledge representation, object-oriented, hypertext model, document synthesis

pp

51-62

References , Full text


 

Title

Hypertext and Structured Object Representation: a unifying view

Year1991

Author

1. Hermann Kaindl; 2. Mikael Snaprud

Affiliation

1. Siemens AG Osterreich, Programm-und Systementwicklung, Gudrunstrasse 11, A-1100 Vienna, Austria

2. Technische Universitat Wien, Inst. Fur Machinen und Prozessautomatisierung, Gusshausstrasse 27-29, A-1040, Vienna, Austria

Abstract

This paper addresses combining hypertext with knowledge representation as used in knowledge-based systems. Hypertext imposes explicit structure on text, whereas certain knowledge representation formalisms of A1 are designed for strucutring knowledge. We propose a way of tightly integrating hypertext and structured object representation, using AI frames for the basic representation of hypertext nodes. Moreover, we allow for the additional option of explicit representation of structure using partitions of hypertet nodes, which are realized as slots. In order to make the text more dynamic, our approach facilitates some aspects of object-oriented programming using message passing from the text in the browser.

The proposed tight integration is useful for design tasks, in particular for building knowledge-based systems. According to our experience, hypertext provides a useful intermediary representation of knowledge between informal and formal. Based on a level of basic hypertext functionality, we provide several features useful for supporting knowledge acquisition. As an example of our results of using this method of knowledge acquisition, we illustrate the strategic knowledge in our application domain. In addition, tight integration supports important aspects of software engineering and the user interface. Moreover we discuss several advantages from a hypertext point of view. In particular, the partitions of hypertext nodes can be useful for selective inheritance of text. In summary, both AI and hypertext will benefit from such a tight integration

Keywords

hypertext, frames, knowledge representation, knowledge-based systems, knowledge acquisition

pp

345-358

References , Full text


1992 Hypertext Conference

 

Title

The future of Electronic Literacy: Will hypertext ever find acceptance?

Year1992

Author

Ian Ritchie

Affiliation

OWL International Inc., Bellevue, Washington, USA

Abstract

The vision of the technologies that will lead to practical interactive electronic literature was clearly expressed by Bush, Engelbart, Nelson and others several decades ago. The practical application of such technologies have been established during the last decade. Despite the fact that such hypertext technologies are now largely effective in operation we find that: (a) hypertext technology suppliers have not, in general, found a ready and profitable market for their wares. Many suppliers have stumbled and several have failed. (b) Outside the limited area of arcane technical and procedural documentation it is still very difficult to identify a hypertext product which has experienced any substantial measure of success. (c) non-hypertext solutions, such as Document Image Processing, and Full-Text Retrieval, continue to grow despite their low effectiveness in many practical applications.

So what has gone wrong? Were we all over-ambitious about the efficacy of interactive documentation? Are we still waiting for the "killer product" to kick-start the market? Can literature and electronic delivery ever mix; or will society look to the electronic device solely to deliver picture and voice? Will the public ever accept text from other than the printed page?

Keywords

 

pp

1

References , Full text


 

Title

Virtual Reality and the Future of Hypertext

Year1992

Author

Jay David Bolter

Affiliation

School of Literature, Communication and Culture, Georgia Institute for Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, USA

Abstract

Virtual Reality has been largely conceived in terms of the visual. Other senses, sound and touch, although given roles, are clearly quite secondary. What VR presents to the user is images, not texts. What role might text play in Virtual Reality? This is particularly important for exponents of hypertext, because VR threatens to become the hot new topic, and perhaps to diminish interest and research in hypertext. One could convincingly argue that there is no real direct competition: VR and hypertext can evolve side by side for different purposes. VR is useful for simulation and training, for medical imaging, for telepresence, and so on. Hypertext serves for databases of text materials, pedagogy, and interactive fiction and non-fiction. But even if VR and hypertext continue to evolve side by side, it remains interesting to consider how the two might merge.

Keywords

 

pp

2

References , Full text


 

Title

Video Nodes and Video Webs: Uses of Video in Hypermedia

Year1992

Author

Simon Gibbs

Affiliation

Centre Universitaire d’Informatique, Universite de Geneve, 24 rue du General-Dufour, Geneva 1211, Switzerland.

Abstract

Digital video consists of temporally correlated audio and visual data elements. Audio elements are basically sequences of digitized audio samples, while visual elements are sequences of raster frames. In either case the sequences may not be stored explicitly, but instead stored in a compressed representation, or an alternate representative from which the sequences are produced (as when audio is synthesized from a symbolic representation, such as musical notation, or video frames are rendered from animation data).

Keywords

 

pp

3

References , Full text


 

Title

Multicard: An Open Hypermedia System

Year1992

Author

Antoine Rizk, Louis Sauter

Affiliation

Euroclid, 12 Ave des Pres, 78180 Montigny le Bretonneux, France

Bull LPAM, 7 rue Ampere, Massy 91343, France

Abstract

This paper describes the Multicard hypermedia system which has been developed following an open systems approach. Multicard provides a hypermedia toolkit that allows programmers to create and manipulate distributed basic hypermedia structures; an interactive authoring/navigation tool which is itself based on the toolkit; an advanced scripting language; a multimedia composition editor, as well as a communication protocol that allows the integration of various editors and applications into a single hypermedia network.

One of Multicard’s features is that it does not itself handle the contents of the nodes. Instead, it communicates with different editors, running as separate processes, using a set of messages called the M2000 protocol. Multicard has so far been connected in this way to around five different M2000 compliant editors and applications ranging from a basic text editor and data shett to sophisticated desktop publishing and multimedia composition systems. M2000 compliant editors automatically benefit of the Multicard linking facilities and composite structures. Using the Multicard scripting language, M2000 compliant editors can also annotate their contents with scripts and communicate with each other using event and message transmission.

Keywords

Multicard, M2000, hypermedia toolkit

pp

4-10

References , Full text


 

Title

SEPIA: a cooperative hypermedia authoring environment

Year1992

Author

Norbert Streitz, Jorg Haake, Jorg Hannemann, Andreas Lemke, Wolfgang Schuler, Helge Schutt, Manfred Thuring

Affiliation

Integrated Publication and Information Systems Institute (IPSI), Gessellschat fur Mathematik und Datenverarbeitung (GMD), Dolivostr. 15 D - 6100 Darmstadt, Germany.

E-mail: streitz@darmstadt.gmd.de

Abstract

In this paper we report about the design, development, and implementation of the SEPIA cooperative hypermedia authoring environment. It provides results on the following aspects of SEPIA: persistent and shared data storage, hypermedia data model with composites, sophisticated and comprehensive authoring functionality, support for a new rhetoric and for cooperative work. We start by identifying the challenge of hypermedia authoring and production which serves as the driving force for our development. Using interacting problem spaces as the vehicle for modelling the dynamic aspects of authoring, we arrive at a set of requirements answered by the concept of "activity spaces". The design of coherent hyperdocuments is facilitated by our "construction kit". Furthermore, we describe the extensions and modifications necessary to support multiple authors with the cooperative version of SEPIA. The central issue of the paper is the system architecture and its implementation. We describe the basis for access to shared hyperdocuments, the activity space browsers, the integration of multimedia functionality (audio, graphics, pictures), and the integration of a video conferencing system.

Keywords

 

pp

13-22

References , Full text


 

Title

Combining Hypertext and Structured Documents in Grif

Year1992

Author

Vincent Quint, Irene Vatton (CNRS)

Affiliation

IMAG-INRIA, 2 rue de Vignate, F-38610, Gieres, France

Abstract

This paper presents the experience gained in developing and using the hypertext functions of the Grif system. Grif is a structured document editor based on the generic structure concept: each document is represented in the system by its logical structure which is an instance of a generic structure. This notion of logical structures encompasses both hierarchical structures (as is usual in structured documents) and non-hierarchical links (as is usual in hypertext).

The document model on which Grif is based is presented, focusing on the different types of links. Various applications using these links are also described. It is shown that the approaches of electronic documents and hypertext, wich are often opposed to each other, can be combined for building more powerful integrated systems.

Keywords

 

pp

23-32

References , Full text


 

Title

Structural and Cognitive Problems in Providing Version Control for Hypertext

Year1992

Author

Kasper Osterbye

Affiliation

Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Aalborg University

Abstract

This paper discusses issues related to providing version control in hypertext systems. Many of the software engineering issues in versioning also apply to hypertext, but the emphasis on linking and structure in hypertext raises some new problems. The issues can roughly be divided into two categories. Datamodel issues, which will be referred to as structural issues, and user interface issues, which will be referred to as cognitive issues. Both structural and cognitive issues will be described and divided into simpler problems which will be named and described, and it will be shown that composites serve as a good starting point for solving both structural and cognitive problems of versioning.

Keywords

hypertext, version control, data models

pp

33-42

References , Full text


 

Title

CoVer: A Contextual Version Server for Hypertext Applications

Year1992

Author

A. Haake

Affiliation

Integrated Publication and Information Systems Institute (IPSI), Gesellschaft fur Mathematik und Datenverarbeitung (GMI), Dolivostr. 15, D-6100 Darmstadt, F. R. Germany

e-mail: ahaake@darmstadt.gmd.de

Abstract

Key problems of version support for hypertext systems arise from the fine-grained, heavily interlinked structure of hyperdocuments. Integration of version support aggravates cognitive overhead problems during version creation and disorientation during version selection. Starting from the need to support versioning in our hypermedia publishing environment, we designed the CoVer hypermedia version server. CoVer maintains context information with the versions that guides version creation and in particular helps in version identification.

The key concept is task tracking: Users change their network in order to perform a task. These tasks can guide meaningful, automatic versions creation. Being stored persistently as contextual version information, they serve version identification. Moreover, CoVer maintains the derivation history of hyperdocuments across document boundaries and tracks the influence of annotations on the creation of new versions and the start-up of new tasks.

Keywords

 

pp

43-52

References , Full text


 

Title

Two Years before the Mist: Experiences with Aquanet

Year1992

Author

1. Catherine C. Marshall, 2. Russell A. Rogers

Affiliation

1. Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, 3333 Coyote Hill Road, Palo Alto, CA94304, USA

E-mail: marshall@parc.xerox.com

2. DownEast Technology, 15 Lower Main Street, Belfast, ME04915, USA

Abstract

Aquanet is a collaborative hypertext tool that combines elements of frame-based knowledge representation and graphical presentation. In this paper, we examine the first major application of the tool in an analysis task, a two-year long technology assessment that resulted in almost 2000 nodes and more than 20 representational types. First, we cover the implications of the representational resources provided and representational decisions that were made. Then we discuss how spatial layout was used in lieu of the complext relations Aquanet'’ data model supports. Finally, we show how distinct regions emerged to reflect particular activities and how they were subsequently used as the basis for a later collaboration on a similar task.

Keywords

 

pp

53-62

References , Full text


 

Title

UNIX Guide: lessons from ten years’ development

Year1992

Author

P. J. Brown

Affiliation

University of Kent at Canterbury, Computing Laboratory, The University, Canterbury, Kent, CT2 7NF

E-mail: pjb@ukc.ac.uk

Abstract

Development of the Guide hypertext system has been progressing at the University of Kent since 1982. The paper looks back over the mistakes and successes of the last ten years, with a view of drawing some lessons for the future development of hypertext. The reader is not assumed to be a Guide user, and the lessons learned apply to hypertext systems in general.

Keywords

 

pp

63-70

References , Full text


 

Title

An Object-Oriented Scripting Environment for the WEBSs Electronic Book System

Year1992

Author

J. Monnard, J. Pasquier-Boltuck

Affiliation

Institute for Automation and Operations Research, University of Fribourg, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland

monnardj@cfruni51.bitnet; pasquier@cfruni51.bitnet

Abstract

This paper presents the scripting facilities built on top of WEBSs, an interactive system for the creation and consultation of electronic books. The scripting environment relies on the same object-oriented software architecture used in the design of the #WEBSs application, rendering it consistently integrated with the other components of the system.

Scripts enhance the application in two ways: first, the ability to combine basic WEBSs actions allows users to easily define new high-level functions like, for example, the automatic creation of tables of contents and indexes. Secondly, the behavior of the objects that constitute an electronic book can be enriched by writing scripts that will be automatically executed each time a triggering object performs a specific action. The main originality of our scripting model resides in the fact that a script may be attached not only to an individual object, but also to all objects of a specific class, or to all objects in a certain set.

Keywords

 

pp

81-90

References , Full text


 

Title

Matching hypertext models to Hypertext systems: a compilative Approach

Year1992

Author

Andrea Caloini

Affiliation

Departimento di Elettronica - Politecnico di Milano, and NEC C&C Applied Information Technology Research Laboratory, 4-1-1 Miyazaki, Miuamae-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa ken 216, Japan.

Tel: +81 44 856 2363; Fax: +81-44-8562239

E-mail: caloini%joke.cl.nec.co.jp@uunet.uu.net

Abstract

Many authors have proposed sophisticated models to describe hypertexts at different levels and for different purposes and have provided in-house developed systems implementing their models. However, hypertext-hypermedia application development is often carried on using commercial hypertext systems based on a very simple model.

This paper presents HCT (hypertext compiling tools), a set of tools to translate hypertext-hypermedia applications designed using a high-level model (HDM, Hypermedia Design Model) into applications implemented by a commercial hypertext system (ToolBook). Although each single tool is specific to either HDM or ToolBook, the approach is presented in a more general way. Results obtained in application development are summarized.

Keywords

hypertext models, hypertext systems, HDM, hypertext engine, compilation

pp

91-101

References , Full text


 

Title

Making Use of Hypertext Links when retrieving information

Year1992

Author

H. P. Frei, D. Steiger

Affiliation

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich, Department of Computer Science, 8092, Zurich, Switzerland

Abstract

Hypermedia links were invented to support the manual browsing through large hypertext or hypermedia collections. However, retrieving specific portions of information in such a collection cannot be achieved by browsing only; retrieval mechanisms are necessary. In this paper we show how to use the semantic content of hypertext links for retrieval. We present special purpose indexing and retrieval algorithms that exploit the node and link content. First retrieval results in a hypertext test collection are presented: the results are clearly better than those obtained when the links are ignored. The hope is that these results can be extended to hypermedia information and that they can be improved by more sophisticated indexing algorithms.

Keywords

 

pp

102-111

References , Full text


 

Title

Hypertext Paradigm in the Field of information retrieval: a neural approach

Year1992

Author

1. Alain Lelu, 2. Claire Francois

Affiliation

1. ENST/Economie et Management, 46 rue Barrault 75013 Paris, France

2. Institut de L’Information Scientifique et Technique, Departement Recherche et Produits Nouveaux, 2 allee du Parc de Brabois, 54514 Vandoeuvre les Nancy, Cedex, France

Abstract

Application of the hypertext paradigm to information retrieval requires: (1) an automatic generation of hypertext links; (2) a compact graphical representation of the data. After a brief review of the family of neural algorithms required for deriving a compact and relevant representation of a documentary database, as well as links between synthetic "topics" and documents, we present a user interface based on these grounds. This representation is two-step: (1) global topics map; (2) local topic axes, ranking both terms and documents according to the values of their centrality index. A prototype running in a Macintosh environment and implementing a basic version of this browser, is then described and commented.

Keywords

Hypertext, information retrieval, graphic user interface, neural networks, cluster analysis

pp

112-122

References , Full text


 

Title

Information Retrieval from Hypertext Using Dynamically Planned Guided Tours

Year1992

Author

Catherine Guinan and Alan F. Smeaton

Affiliation

School of Computer Applications, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Ireland

E-mail: smeaton@dcu.ie

Abstract

In using any hypertext system a user will encounter many technical problems which have been well-documented in the literature. Two of the more serious problems with using hypertext are user disorientation and the retrieval of information. Another less often addressed problem is that of the logical sequencing of nodes. In the work reported in this paper we address these three problems by combining Hammond and Allinson’s guided tour metaphor and Frisse’s information retrieval techniques to dynamically create guided tours for users in direct response to a user’s query. One of the features of our method is that we take advantage of typing of information links in the hypertext to generate a tour which has a judicious sequencing of nodes rather than a simple presentation of hypertext nodes in order of similarity to the user’s query. Our method was empirically tested on a population of 125 users who generated a total of 973 individual tours and all user actions and responses to questions were logged. The results of this evaluation are presented in this paper.

Keywords

 

pp

122-130

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Title

Cognitive Processing of Hyperdocuments: When does nonlinearity help?

Year1992

Author

Jean-Francois Rouet

Affiliation

Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh, 3939 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA

Abstract

This paper presents a review of empirical research on the cognitive processing of nonlinear documents, with the purpose of understanding when and how hypertext presentation might facilitate text comprehension and learning activities. Empirical studies conducted so far have used various methods, and focused on a wide range of populations, types of documents, and reading or learning tasks. Although hypertext is generally associated with information networks, a few interesting studies address the issues of computer assistance to linear text comprehension. A second group of studies investigate the use of nonlinear documents for general learning purposes. Although these studies are mainly concerned with linear-nonlinear comparisons, some of them address the effects of different design options. Finally, a third group of studies compare information retrieval in linear versus nonlinear documents. Overall, there is no consistent evidence for the advantage of hypertext over linear presentation formats. Instead, the efficiency of nonlinear documents varies according to subjects’ expertise, interface features, and task requirements. In an attempt to provide an interpretative framework for these empirical findings, the notion of cognitive monitoring is briefly outlined. I conclude with a few implications for future hypertext research.

Keywords

 

pp

131-140

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Title

Imagined Conversations: The relevance of hypertext, pragmatism, and cognitive flexibility theory to the interpretation of classic texts in intellectual history

Year1992

Author

1. Robert Alun Jones; 2. Rand Spiro

Affiliation

1. Professor of Sociology, History and Religious Studies, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; 2. Professor of Educational Psychology and Psychology, Unviersity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Abstract

What does it mean to understand a classic text in the history of social thought? Recent pragmatist arguments in intellectual history suggest that it is a matter of placing the text within some larger context, viewing it from a variety of perspectives, and using it to satisfy one’s own interests and purposes. What is the best means to advanced knowledge acquisition? Recent theories of learning in cognitive psychology suggest that we view ill-structured knowledge domains as landscapes, to be criss-crossed in a variety of directions, from multiple perspectives. Hypertext is a technology for doing both of these things. Quite independently, but sharing a foundation of pragmatism and the later Wittgenstein, each of these disciplines thus encourages further research in the development and implementation of hypertext systems for learning. Such research is being carried out in the Hypermedia Laboratory and the Cognitive Flexibility Laboratory at the University of Illinois, with implications for the way hypertext systems are designed and implemented, and the pedagogical problems to which they are applied.

Keywords

 

pp

141-148

References , Full text


 

Title

Where’s the Hypertext? The Dickens Web as a System-Independent Hypertext

Year1992

Author

G. Landow, P. Kahn

Affiliation

Institute for Research in Information and Scholarship, Brown University, Providence, RI02912, USA

Abstract

This paper reports the comparative evaluations by fifteen experienced hypertext users of three hypertext systems (Intermedia, Interleaf WorldView, and Storyspace) to carry out both simple information retrieval and more complex cognitive tasks. In contrast to approaches that compare hypertext versions of print documents to print documents, our research began with materials originally created for an electronic environment - the award winning Dickens Web. The evaluators’ detailed narratives, which show that hypertext documents can exist independently of specific hypertext systems also suggest points that designers of hypertext systems and hypertext authors musttake into account. These points include the value of full-text search vs link following, and the importance of content expertise. Finally, we report on the importance of single vs bi-directional thinking, multiple linking from a single point, and web views.

Keywords

 

pp

149-160

References , Full text


 

Title

Contours of Constructive Hypertexts

Year1992

Author

1. Mark Bernstein; 2. Michael Joyce; 3. David Levine

Affiliation

1. Eastgate Systems Inc., 134 Main Street, Watertown MA02172 USA

2. Jackson Community College, Vassar College

3. Gettysburg College

Abstract

Discussion of hypertext rhetoric and criticism has focused on small, fixed hypertexts that are typically used by casual readers for comparatively short periods. Here we explore complex, constructive hypertexts, intended to inform and to influence dedicated and thoughtful readers. Recurrence and multivalence, both deplored in small hypertexts, prove from study of more complex texts to be very valuable. While static, graph-theoretic measures facilitate understanding of local hypertext structure, the structures of meaning or contours we observe in current hypertext fiction and scholarship do not appear to reside in static structures, but rather in the complex and dynamic perceptions of the engaged reader.

Keywords

 

pp

161-171

References , Full text


 

Title

Toward a Rhetoric of Informating Texts

Year1992

Author

S. Moulthrop

Affiliation

School of Literature, Communication and Culture, The Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0165 USA

Abstract

this paper begins by asking why hypertext researchers publish their work in print and compose their hypertexts from previously printed sources. It argues that these practices limit the development of hypertext rhetoric by privileging a discrete or granular model of discourse; nodes as stable units connected by purely transitional links. The paper explores the limits of the node/link model, suggesting that links can take on certain properties of nodes and vice versa. Drawing on the phenomenological critique of rationalist mechanism developed by Winograd and Flores, the paper presents an alternative discourse model for hypertext which regards nodes and links in complementarity, as contingent structures subject to conceptual breakdown. Applying this model to actual communication practices, thepaper invokes Zuboff’s distinction between automating and informating applications of technology, outlining a rhetoric based on a constantly evolving textual structure in which object relations remain fluid. A new term is proposed, the informand, to designate the communa, interactive discursive space created by informating systems like hypertexts and artificial realities. The paper concludes by urging experimentation with informating practices in hypertext, a move away from print models and toward all-electronic composition.

Keywords

 

pp

171-180

References , Full text


 

Title

Towards an integrated information environment with open hypermedia systems

Year1992

Author

Hugh Davis, Wendy Hall, Ian Heath, Gary Hill, Rob Wilkins

Affiliation

The Department of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ

Abstract

This paper examines open hypermedia systems, and presents the case that such systems provide a step forward for dealing with large, dynamic data sets in distributed, heterogeneous environments by allowing users to access and integrate information and processes in richer and more diverse ways than has previously been possible. In particular, the enhanced Microcosm model for open hypermedia is examined, and the ways in which it provides such an environment are discussed. The paper continues by investigating the advantages and the shortcomings of this model and identifies the areas in which further work must be completed before such systems can become widely adopted, such as the granularity of source and destination anchors, editing and version control. Some attempts to provide solutions to these problems are presented and discussed.

Keywords

open, hypermedia, integration, microcosm

pp

181-190

References , Full text


 

Title

Design Issues for a Dexter-based Hypermedia System

Year1992

Author

1. K. Gronbaek, 2. Randall H. Trigg

Affiliation

1. Computer Science Department, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 116, DK 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark

2. Xerox PARC, 3333 Coyote Hill Road, Palo Alto, CA94304, USA

Abstract

This paper discusses experiences and lessons learned from the design of an open hypermedia system, one that integrates applications and data not owned by the hypermedia. The Dexter Hypertext Reference Model was used as the basis for the design. Though our experiences were generally positive, we found the model constraining in certain ways and underdeveloped in others. For instance, Dexter argues against dangling links, but we found several situations where permitting and supporting dangling links was advisable. In Dexter, the data objects making up a component’s contents are encapsulated in the component; in practice, references to objects stored apart from the hypermedia structure should be allowed. We elaborate Dexter’s notion of composite component to include composites that "contain" other components and composites with structured contents, among others. The paper also includes a critique of Dexter’s notion of link directionality, proposes a distinction between marked and unmarked anchors, and discusses anchoring within a composite.

Keywords

 

pp

191-201

References , Full text


 

Title

Gram: A Graph Data Model and Query Language

Year1992

Author

1. Bernd Amann, 2. Michel Scholl

Affiliation

1. INRIA, F-78153 Le Chesnay Cedex, France; 2. Cedric/CNAM, 292 rue St. Martin, F-75141 Paris Cedex 03, France.

Abstract

We present a model for data organised as graphs. Regular expressions over the types of the node and edge labels are used to qualify connected sub-graphs. An algebraic language based on these regular expressions and supporting a restricted form of recursion is introduced. A natural application of this model and its query language is hypertext querying.

Keywords

 

pp

201-211

References , Full text


 

Title

Fishing for Clarity in Hyperdocuments with Enhanced Fisheye Views

Year1992

Author

K. Tochtermann, G. Dittrich

Affiliation

University of Dortmund, Department of Computer Science, LS1, PO Box 500 500, D-4600 Dortmund 50; Germany

E-mail: tochterm@jupiter.informatik.uni-dortmund.de

Phone: ++ 49-231-7556326

Abstract

It is known that fisheye views prove beneficial to users who get lost in hyperspace. Until now, the fisheye view strategy, introduced by Furnas, is only applicable in structures where the necessary components of the fisheye view function can be defined. Unfortunately, directed graphs are structures where the fisheye view function of Furnas cannot be applied. Therefore the fisheye-view concept was of limited value in hyperdocuments represented by such graphs. To overcome this lack, this paper proposes an enhancement of Furnas’ function to allow its application in hyperdocuments of that kind.

We will begin with a short review of Furnas’ well-known fisheye view concept. Thereafter we will discuss the problems that arise when one attempts to apply the concept in so-called "unstructured" hyperdocuments. The results of this discussion lead to the development of a function which satisfies the requirements of the concept, and allows its use in hyperdocuments of almost any structure. To show that the fisheye-view concept of Furnas remains fulfilled, an appropriate theorem is formulated. The result is that the benefits o the fisheye view concept can now be appreciated in unstructured hyperdocuments. In closing, we offer a detailed example, which illustrates the behavior of the enhanced fisheye view function.

Keywords

 

pp

212-221

References , Full text


 

Title

An Extensible Data Model for Hyperdocuments

Year1992

Author

1. Paul De Bra, Geert-Jan Houben; 2. Yoram Kornatzky

Affiliation

1. Dept. of Mathematics and Computing Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

E-mail: {debra, houben}@win.tue.nl

2. Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel

E-mail: yoramk@bengus.bgu.ac.il

Abstract

We present an extensible data model for hyperdocuments. It is intended to serve as the basis for integrating hypermedia systems with other information sources, such as object-oriented database management systems, information retrieval systems, and engineering CAD tools. Hyperdocuments are described by means of a small number of powerful constructs that integrate their structural and behavioral aspects. The different instantiations and combinations of these constructs yield an open class of hyperdocuments. Nodes, anchors, and links are all considered first-class objects and modelling constructs are applicable to all of them. These constructs permit a description of the multiple levels of functionality of an object within a hyperdocument, and the packaging of the different views of an object. Composite objects range over an extensible collection of structures including networks, sets, time-lines, and three-dimensional space CAD models.

Keywords

 

pp

222-231

References , Full text


 

Title

Towards a Better Support for Hypermedia Structuring: the HyDesign Model

Year1992

Author

Michale Marmann, Gunter Schlageter

Affiliation

University of Hagen, Practical Computer Science 1, PO Box 940, D-5800 Hagen, Germany

Abstract

Hypermedia systems are becoming an important information system class for a wide range of new and fascinating applications. But current systems still have some unpleasant restrictions. For example, only few hypermedia systems support the design of higher level hypermedia objects beyond the basic node-link paradigm. There are further restrictions concerning the modularization of the overall design and the reuse of complex hypermedia resources. HyDesign is the prototype of an extensible hypertext/hypermedia system which addresses these restrictions. The crucial part of the development is the data management component, the HyDesign-engine, which has been built on top of the GemStone object-oriented database management system. A first prototype of a graphical user interface, the HyDesign GUI, has been developed in Smalltalk-80.

This paper focuses on central features of the HyDesign data model representing the conceptual basis of the HyDesign-engine. Aggregate links of different types are introduced which allow for the creation of higher level hypermedia networks. SBL-nodes represent particular composite nodes offering the capability of defining (nested) local environments with particular behaviour. Also different options for the sharing of hypermedia resources are proposed. HyDesign further supports navigation as well as query based access in an integrated approach. As a whole, HyDesign aims at a better support for the hypermedia design process by the provision of powerful structuring facilities.

Keywords

 

pp

232-241

References , Full text


 

Title

Using Statecharts to Model Hypertext

Year1992

Author

Y. Zheng, M-C Pong

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

E-mail: {zhengyi, mcpong} @uxmail.ust.hk

Abstract

This paper describes how to use statecharts to model hypertext. Statechart is a formal graphical model based on state transition diagram and hypergraph. The statechart model is compared with other models for hypertext based on simple node-and-link graph, first order logic formulae, hypergraph, and petri net. The features of statecharts relevant to the modeling of hypertext are described. Statecharts for the common features in frame-based and scrolling-based hypertext are given. Then statecharts are used to model the various buttons supported in a real-life production hypertext system, Guide (both the Unix version and the version marketed by Owl International Inc. These examples illustrate that statecharts can be used to abstract the structure from the content of hypertext, and to model the structure and the browsing semantics of hypertext clearly and vividly.

Keywords

 

pp

242-250

References , Full text


 

Title

Hyperform: using extensibility to develop dynamic, open and distributed hypertext systems

Year1992

Author

1. U. K. Wiil, 2. J. J. Leggett

Affiliation

1. Department of Computer Science, University of Aalborg, Fr. Bajers Vej 7E, 93220 Aalborg O, Denmark

2. Hypermedia Research Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA

Abstract

An approach to flexible hyperbase (hypertext database) support predicated on the notion of extensibility is presented. The extensible hypertext platform implements basic hyperbase services that can be tailored to provide specialized hyperbase support. Hyperform is based on an internal computational engine that provides an object-oriented extension language which allows new data model objects and operations to be added at run-time.

Hyperform has a number of built-in classes to provide basic hyperbase features such as concurrency control, notification control, access control, version control and search and query. Each of these classes can be specialized using multiple inheritance to form virtually any tupe of hyperbase support needed in next generation hypertext systems.

This approach greatly reduces the effort required to provide high quality customized hyperbase support for distributed hypertext applications. Hyperform is implemented and operational in Unix environments. This paper describes the Hyperform approach, discusses its advantages and disadvantages, and gives examples of simulating the HAM and the Danish HyperBase in Hyperform. Hyperform is compared with related work from the HAM generation of hyperbase systems and the current status of the project is reviewed.

Keywords

Extensible hyperbase, hypertext platform, object-oriented extension language

pp

251-261

References , Full text


 

Title

Specifying Temporal Behavior in Hypermedia Documents

Year1992

Author

M. Cecelia Buchanan, Polle T. Zellweger

Affiliation

Information Sciences and Technologies Laboratory, Xerox PARC, 3333 Coyote Hill Road, Palo Alto, CA 94304

E-mail: {buchanan, zellweger} @parc.xerox.com

Abstract

We have designed and implemented a system for creating, editing and displaying hypermedia documents. This system uses an improved document model with two major features. First it allows authors to specify temporal synchronization constraints among events of interest within media segments. Second, it allows asynchronous material, such as user interaction, links or programs, to be combined with richly coordinated synchronous material in a single hypermedia document. The system incorporates a linear programming algorithm to solve the temporal constraints. This process automatically constructs a schedule for displaying a document and may involve stretching or shrinking media segments. Because synchronization constraints record the author’s intentions and because the system creates schedules automatically, both creating documents and maintaining them throughout their life cycles should be easier.

Keywords

 

pp

262-271

References , Full text


 

Title

Hyperdocuments as Automata: Trace-based Browsing Property Verification

Year1992

Author

1. P. David Stotts; 2. Richard Furuta; 3. J. Cyrano Ruiz

Affiliation

1. Computer Science Dept., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC27599-3175, USA’

2. Computer Science Dept., University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA;

3. Reliability Engineering Dept., University of Maryland, College Park, MD20742, USA.

Abstract

In many hypertext systems, meaningfully traversing a document depends on capabilities, features and navigational aids that are part of the browser implementation. For example if a reader browses to a node that has no out links, then backing up, or warping to the table of contents can allow the browsing session to continue.

If hyperdocuments are to become interchangeable among hypertext systems, rather than being readable only on the systems from which they are authored, one obvious but complex approach is to try and standardize on most likely, very many, browsing features an behaviors, forming some standard union of the capabilities of current major implementations. This approach molds or perhaps restricts future systems, since new browsing features must then be worked into such a standard. An alternate approach, used in this paper, is to de-emphasise browser features and emphasize inherent document structure with browsing semantics. An author should be able to create document structure so that the desired meaningful access patterns are inherently allowed by links rather than by browser capabilities.

We present a method of analyzing the browsing properties of a hypertext document by examining the links alone. This method is not specific to any particular hypertext system or document authoring format. With it, an author can be certain that a document will allow particular access patterns when read on any browser implementation that has a single navigation operation: direct link following. The method requires a mental shift in how a hyperdocument is conceived abstractly. Instead of treating the links of a document as defining a static directed graph, they are thought of as defining an abstract program, termed the links-automaton of the document. A branching temporal logic notation, termed HTL is introduced for specifying properties a document should exhibit duirng browsing. An automated program verification technique called model checking is then used to verify that these specifications are met by the behavior of links-automaton. We illustrate the generality of our technique by applying it first to a Trellis document, and then to a Hyperties document.

Keywords

hypertext, place/transition nets, petri nets, browsing semantics, synchronization, security, temporal logic, verification, access control, versions, model checking

pp

272-281

References , Full text


1993 Hypertext Conference

 

Title

The Architecture and Implementation of a Distributed Hypermedia Storage System

Year1993

Author

Douglas E. Shackleford, John B. Smith, F. Donelson Smith

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3175
E-mail: {shackelf, jbs, smithfd} @cs.unc.edu

Abstract

Our project is studying the process by which groups of individuals work together to build large, complex structures of ideas and is developing a distributed hypermedia collaboration environment (called ABC) to support that process. This paper focuses on the architecture and implementation of the Distributed Graph Storage (DGS) component of ABC. The DGS supports a graph-based data model, conservatively extended to meet hypermedia requirements. Some important issues addressed in the system include scale, performance, concurrency semantics, access protection, location independence, and replication (for fault tolerance).

Keywords

distributed data, computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW), distributed file systems, performance scalability, hypertext

pp

1-13

References , Full text


 

Title

Concurrency Control in Collaborative Hypertext Systems

Year1993

Author

1. Uffe Kock Wiil; 2. John J. Leggett

Affiliation

1. Programming Systems Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, Aalborg University, Fr. Bajers Veg 7E, 9220 Aalborg O, Denmark.
Tel: + 4598154211-5055; Fax +4598158129
E-mail: kock@iesd.auc.dk

2. Hypermedia Research Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA, 77843-3112.
Tel: 409-845-0298; Fax: 409-847-8578
E-mail: leggett @bush.cs.tamu.edu

Abstract

Traditional concurrency control techniques for database systems (transaction management based on locking protocols) have been successful in many multiuser settings, but these techniques are inadequate in open, extensible and distributed hypertext systems supporting multiple collaborating users. The term "multiple collaborating users" covers a group setting in which two or more users are engaged in a shared task. Group members can work simultaneously in the same computing environment, use the same set of tools, and share a network of hypertext objects. Hyperbase (hypertext database) systems must provide special support for collaborative work, requiring adjustments and extensions to normal concurrency control techniques. Based on the experiences of two collaborative hypertext authoring systems, this paper identifies and discusses six concurrency control requirements that distinguish collaborative hypertext systems from multiuser hypertext systems. Approaches to the major issues (locking, notification control and transaction management) are examined from a supporting technologies point of view. Finally, we discuss how existing hyperbase systems fare with respect to the identified set of requirements. Many of the issues discussed in the paper are not limited to hypertext systems and apply to other collaborative systems as well.

Keywords

collaborative work, distributed hypertext systems, concurrency control, hyperbases, open architectures, extensibility, supporting technologies, user-controlled locking, events, transaction management, version control

pp

14-22

References , Full text


 

Title

Designing Dexter-based Cooperative Hypermedia Systems

Year1993

Author

Kaj Groenbaek, Jens A. Hem, Ole L. Madsen, Lennert Sloth

Affiliation

Computer Science Department, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 116, Bldg. 540, DK-8000, Arhus C, Denmark

E-mail: {kgronbak, nold, olmadsen, les} @daimi.aau.dk

Abstract

This paper discusses issues for the design of a Dexter-based cooperative hypermedia architecture and a specific system, DeVise Hypermedia (DHM), developed from this architecture. The Dexter Hypertext Reference Model was used as basis for designing the architecture. The Dexter model provides a general and solid foundation for designing a general hypermedia architecture. However, to handle cooperative work aspects, such as sharing material and cooperative authoring, we have to go beyond te Dexter model concepts. To deal with such aspects, we have extended our implementation of the Dexter concepts with support for long-term transactions, locking and event notification as called for by Halasz. The result is a platform independent architecture for developing cooperative hypermedia systems. The architecture consists of a portable kernel that constitutes an object oriented framework for developing Dexter compliant hypermedia systems. It is a client/server architecture including an object oriented database (OODB) to store the objects implementing the Dexter Storage Layer. We use a general OODB being co-developed to support long term transactions, flexible locking, and event notification. The transaction and locking mechanism support several modes of cooperation on shared hypermedia materials, and the notification mechanism supports the users in maintaining awareness of each others’ activity. The portable kernel was used to implement the DHM system on two quite different platforms: UNIX/X-windows and Apple Macintosh.

Keywords

Dexter model, open hypermedia, CSCW, shared materials, object oriented database

pp

25-38

References , Full text


 

Title

MORE: Multimedia Object Retrieval Environment

Year1993

Author

1. Dario Lucarella; 2. Stefano Parisotto; 3. Antonella Zanzi

Affiliation

1. Centro Ricerca di Automatica, ENEL, Via Volta 1, I-20093 Cologno M. (Milano), Italy;
and Dipartimento Scienze dell’Informazione, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Comelico 39, I-20135, Milano, Italy.

2. Dipartimento Scienze dell’Informazione, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Comelico 39, I-20135, Milano, Italy.

3. Centro Ricerca di Automatica, ENEL, Via Volta 1, I-20093 Cologno M. (Milano), Italy

Abstract

In this paper, we present a graph-based object model that will be used as a uniform framework for direct manipulation of multimedia information.

Essentially, we propose a graph representation of the conceptual schema, the object instances, and the user queries. The resulting uniform approach is well suited to a visual interface in which the user, supported by appropriate tools, manipulates directly on the screen object graphs for different purposes as schema definition, querying, browsing and viewing. Next we give formal definitions of such operations along with examples concerning a real multimedia application we have developed in order to experiment with the proposed approach.

Finally, design and implementation issues are discussed for MORE, a prototype system that, combining effectively browsing and querying techniques, provides a visual environment for multimedia information retrieval.

Keywords

graph-oriented models, hypertext querying, information retrieval, visual interface, direct object manipulation, multimedia databases

pp

39-50

References , Full text


 

Title

Should Anchors be typed too? An experiment with MacWeb

Year1993

Author

Jocelyne Nanard, Marc Nanard

Affiliation

LIRMM, 161 Rue Ada, 34392 Montpellier, Cedex 5, France.
Tel: 33-67 41 85 17
Fax: 33-67 41 85 00
E-mail: jnanard@lirmm.fr; mnanard@lirmm.fr

Abstract

Macweb is a hypertext system that uses types to incorporate knowledge in hypertext. In this paper, we examine an application developed with the system for accessing a technical document base in the context of a task. This application gives us the opportunity to discuss the extension of typing to anchors. We show that attaching knowledge to anchors through types must take into account the context of use of the anchored text. Thus, we introduce the notion of semantic anchoring of concepts within documents. We show how Macweb makes it possible to implement this approach without adding any new features and how it provides an answer to the famous sentence "Don’t link me in". Beyond the experiment itself, the foundations of the approach and its connection with hypertext systems modeling is presented.

Keywords

knowledge-based hypertext, anchoring, dynamic links, virtual documents

pp

51-62

References , Full text


 

 

Title

Another Dimension to Hypermedia Access

Year1993

Author

Satoshi Ichimura, Yutaka Matsushita

Affiliation

matsushita Lab, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yakohama 223, Japan.

E-mail: ichimura@myo.inst.keio.ac.jp; on@inst.keio.ac.jp

Abstract

The OpenBook system using a book metaphor allows a user to leaf through a set of nodes retrieved from a hypermedia just like a book. While leafing through the book, the reader does not need to pay attention to the detailed description written in pages, but impressive information such as chapter titles and figures catch the reader’s eyes. In other words, leafing through an electronic book takes advantage of a cognitive capability to skim the outlines of the contents. Moreover, the system supports a query-based access mechanism which supports a structure search mechanism for the purpose of finding potentially useful nodes. Furthermore, this paper describes a method of linearizing complex hyper-networked nodes to facilitate high speed browsing, which is a unique aspect of OpenBook.

Keywords

hypermedia, information retrieval, book metaphor, ISM-CAS

pp

63-72

References , Full text


 

Title

Hypercubes Grow on Trees (and other observations from the land of hypersets)

Year1993

Author

H. Van Dyke Parunak

Affiliation

Industrial Technology Institute, PO Box 1485, Ann Arbor, MI 48106, USA
Tel. 313-769-4049; Fax: 313-769-4064
E-mail: van@iti.org

Abstract

Much of the power of hypermedia comes from the development of techniques for information management that closely match natural cognitive processes. HyperSet, a hypermedia environment tailored for taxonomic reasoning, is an example of this philosophy. People perform taxonomic reasoning when they classify, store, and retrieve a number of similar information objects (such as biological specimens, or linguistic constructions, or research projects). The process is essentially set-based. The user sorts objects into sets based on their characteristics; looks together at members of a single set to search for correlations or discernible subsets among them; and generates new sets from old ones.

Two years of experience in using HyperSet has led to a deeper understanding of the patterns and processes of taxonomic reasoning and the kind of computer methods that can effectively support it. This paper reports on three of these insights:

1. The set of sets that develops as classification takes place is not flat, but hierarchical. Analysis of this hierarchy yields a representation that combines the flexibility of a directed acyclic graph with the navigational properties of strict trees.

2. It is useful for a taxonomic information system to support a simple dualism between sets and their elements, permitting one to do set operations on artifacts as well as on sets.

3. Similarity measures among different sets are most usefully computed for a hypercube of such sets, a hypercube that emerges naturally from the hierarchical structure of sets.

Keywords

information structures, taxonomic reasoning, classification, authoring, retrieval

pp

73-81

References , Full text


 

Title

Dynamic Hypertext and Knowledge Agent Systems for Multimedia Information Networks

Year1993

Author

Yoshitaka Shibata, Michiaki Katsumoto

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, Toyo University 2100 Kujirai, Nakano-Dai, Kawagoe, Japan 350
Tel: +81 492 31 1135, ext. 5661
E-mail: {shibata, Katsu}@yosemite.cc.toyo.ac.jp

Abstract

In this paper, a new intelligent human interface which can provide simple and flexible user access capabilities, based on the concept of dynamic hypertext System is introduced for multimedia information networks. In this dynamic hypertext system, Metanodes and Metalinks are defined as abstract nodes and flexible links, and organize a dynamic information space where user can easily retrieve the desired information objects by asking to the knowledge agent. The knowledge agent based on the knowledge base can decide the link from the current reference point to the suitable Metanodes among the multimedia databases distributed over the network. The knowledge agent also performs media format conversion of the original information units to adjust to the users workstation capabilities and temporal synchronization among different media. In order to evaluate the functions of the suggested human interface, two applications are introduced and developed on the prototyped multimedia information network.

Keywords

multimedia, hypermedia, human interface, agent, knowledge-base

pp

82-93

References , Full text


 

Title

Applying AI Models to the Design of Exploratory Hypermedia Systems

Year1993

Author

Ray Bareiss, Richard Osgood

Affiliation

Institute for the Learning Sciences, Northwestern University, 1890 Maple Avenue, Evanston, IL60201, USA
E-mail: {bareiss, osgood}@ils. nwu.edu

Abstract

Hypermedia systems offer great promise for capturing expertise and subsequently providing multifaceted access in support of a user engaged in a complex task. A primary issue in building such systems is how to structure the knowledge contained in them such that a user with a problem can find the most appropriate knowledge easily and naturally. Our artificial intelligence-based research has produced two approaches to structuring knowledge that show promise for organizing hypermedia knowledge bases. The first is the use of abstract models of a user’s problem solving task to provide a global structure for the knowledge base and to reflect that structure in a meaningful human interface to the system. The second is the use of a conversational model to provide local coherence of the links among pieces of information in the knowledge base. These two types of models have been applied in the construction of Trans-ASK, a large hypermedia system in the domain of military transportation planning. This paper discusses the theory underlying the models, their application within Trans-ASK, and finally provides a preliminary evaluation of the resulting system.

Keywords

hypermedia, task models, indexing, exploratory systems

pp

94-105

References , Full text


 

Title

The Knowledge Weasel Hypermedia Annotation System

Year1993

Author

Daryl T. Lawton, Ian E. Smith

Affiliation

College of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 30332-0280
E-mail: {lawton, iansmith}@cc.gatech.edu

Abstract

We describe the organization and implementation of the Knowledge Weasel (KW) Hypermedia Annotation System which we are using to explore knowledge structuring by collaborative annotation. Knowledge Weasel incorporates many useful features: a common record format for representing annotations in different media for uniform access; dynamic user control of the presentation of annotations as a navigational aid; global navigation using queries and local navigation using link following; support for collecting related sets of annotations into groups for contextual reference and communication. KW purposely leverages off of free, publicly available software so it doesn’t require building specialized tools and also so it can be freely available. We discuss some of the issues involved with annotating non-textual material such as images and sound and conclude with a brief discussion of ongoing and future work.

Keywords

hypermedia, collaborative annotation, query-based navigation, link-based navigation

pp

106-117

References , Full text


 

Title

Hypertext by Link-Resolving Components

Year1993

Author

Frank Wm. Tompa, G. Elizabeth Blake, Darrell R. Raymond

Affiliation

Centre for the New OED and Text Research, Department of Computer Science, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, N2L 3GI

E-mail: {fwtompa, geblake, drraymond}@uwaterloo.ca

Abstract

In conventional hypertexts, links are explicit connections between specific regions of a text. We describe an architecture that treats links as the outcome of responses to user pokes. In this architecture, a hypertext is a collection of link-resolving components, each interpreting a user’s request according to its own resolution algorithm. Each link-resolving component is a set of cooperative processes, communicating with a central network manager. When a user points at some location within a window, each link-resolving component is given a key derived according to a previously stored algorithm; the link-resolving components concurrently update their displays according to their algorithms for resolving the keys. Multiple applications can easily share a common source and be invoked simultaneously, providing a concurrent browsing mechanism. Two example hypertexts employing this architecture are described.

Keywords

hypertext system architecture, dynamic linking, link resolution, database keys

pp

118-130

References , Full text


 

Title

Selective Text Utilization and Text Traversal

Year1993

Author

1. Gerard Salton, 2. James Allen

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY14853-7501, USA
1. Tel: 607-255-4117; Fax 607-255-4428
E-mail: {gs, allan}@cs.cornell.edu

Abstract

Many large collections of full-text documents are currently stored in machine-readable form and processed automatically in various ways. These collections may include different types of documents, such as messages, research articles, and books, and the subject matter may vary widely. To process such collections, robust text analysis methods must be used, capable of handling materials in arbitrary subject areas, and flexible access must be provided to texts and text excerpts of varying size.

In this study, global text comparison methods are used to identify similarities between text elements, followed by local context-checking operations that resolve ambiguities and distinguish superficially similar texts from texts that actually cover identical topics. A linked text structure is then created that relates similar texts at various levels of detail. In particular, text links are available for full texts, as well as text sections, paragraphs, and sentence groups. The linked structures are usable to identify important text passages, to traverse texts selectively both within particular documents and between documents, and to provide flexible text access to large text collections in response to various kinds of user needs. An automated 29-volume encyclopedia is used as an example to illustrate the text accessing and traversal operations.

Keywords

full-text access, information retrieval, passage retrieval, text analysis, global text comparisons, local context checking, automatic text linking, selective text reading, text summarization

pp

131-144

References , Full text


 

Title

HieNet: A User-Centred Approach for Automatic Link Generation

Year1993

Author

Daniel T. Chang

Affiliation

Passage Systems Inc., 465 Fairchild Drive, Suite 201, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA
E-mail: daniel@passage.com

Abstract

Most hypertext systems facilitate one-at-a-time link creation, but only a few support automatic link generation. In systems that do support automatic link generation, user interests are either ignored or explicit user actions are required to enter a set of keywords and queries.

In this paper, we present a new linking mechanism called HieNet, implemented on top of a commercial hypertext system, that generates new links based on previously-created user links. Our approach allows users direct control over similarity thresholds, node granularity, and the extent of linking in composite nodes. Our work derives from Salton’s work on automatic generation of links using term vectors, and extends the ideas incorporated in Bernstein’s Link Apprentice and Lotus SamrText. Preliminary tests show that HieNet generates plausible links with acceptable performance and that users can learn to control the link generation parameters.

Keywords

links, link generation, vector space model, link apprentice, SGML

pp

145-158

References , Full text


 

Title

Media-based Navigation for Hypermedia Systems

Year1993

Author

1. Kyoji Hirata, 2. Yoshinori Hara, 3. Naoki Shibata, 4. Fusako Hirabyashi

Affiliation

1., 2. C&C Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, 4-1-1 Miyazaki, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan.
E-mail: {hirata, hara} @mmp.cl.nec.co.jp

3., 4. Information Technology Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, 4-1-1 Miyazaki, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan.

E-mail: {shibata, hira} @joke.cl.nec.co.jp

Abstract

In this paper we present the concept and the general framework of a new navigation style for hypermedia systems, the media-based navigation. The user browses through a hypermedia system using the specific clues such as shape, color, construction for still image, motion for moveie, and tone or melody for auditory data. In this navigation, the user and the system interact with each other without translating the textual representation. We describe the visual-based navigation and show its algorithms. The algorithms are implemented on an experimental hypermedia database system called Miyabi. We show some experimental results and our current evaluation. We also describe the implementation of the algorithms for large scale hypermedia systems and show that these algorithms can effectively apply to the system which have more than 10,000 images. We also describe the auditory media-based navigation. The media-based navigation is a useful interface for hypermedia systems to improve human-machine interactive interfaces.

Keywords

hypermedia database, media-based navigation, pattern matching, information retrieval, indexing

pp

159-173

References , Full text


 

Title

Hypertext and the Author-Reader Dialogue

Year1993

Author

Susan Michalak, Mary Coney

Affiliation

Department of Technical Communication, University of Washington, FH-40, Seattle, Washington, 98195, USA

Abstract

Hypertext theorists tend to approach the hypertext concept from radically different philosophical positions. Some theorists stress hypertext’s utility as an information storage and retrieval device; others praise hypertext’s ability to free the reader from linear media; still others applaud hypertext’s connectivity and its ability to create a basis for the communal creation of knowledge. The hypertext documents that these theorists envision (and create) are quite different from one another because they are based on each theorist’s particular perspective on hypertext. Recently, many hypertext theorists have acknowledged a need for hypertext authors to develop a better rhetorical understanding of their readers; however, the reader roles that most hypertext theorists have thus far anticipated do not encompass all of the reader roles that hypertext can accommodate. Coney has offered a comprehensive "taxonomy of readers" that - although it was originally conceived as a taxonomy of readers of conventional print - provides deeper insight into hypertext reader roles. In this paper, we will discuss the philosophical traditions invoked by various hypertext theorists, and the reader roles that are accommodated or required by those traditions. Finally, we will discuss the hypertext author’s virtual presence, the implied author, as a corollary of reader role.

Keywords

hypertext, literary theory, implied author, rhetoric, reader roles, reader-response criticism

pp

174-182

References , Full text


 

Title

Links in Hypermedia: The Requirement for Context

Year1993

Author

Lynda Hardman, Dick C. A. Bulterman, Guido van Rossum

Affiliation

CWI, PO Box 4079, 1009 AB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
E-mail:{lynda, dcab, guido} @cwi.nl

Abstract

Taking the concept of a link from hypertext and adding to it the rich collection of information formats found in multimedia systems provides an extension to hypertext that is often called hypermedia. Unfortunately, the implicit assumptions under which hypertext links work do not extend well to time-based presentations that consist of a number of simultaneously active media items. It is not obvious where links should lead and there are no standard rules that indicate what should happen to other parts o the presentation that are active.

This paper addresses the problems associated with links in hypermedia. In order to provide a solution, we introduce the notion of context for the source and the destination of a link. A context makes explicit which part of a presentation is affected when a link is followed from an anchor in the presentation. Given explicit source and destination contexts for a link, an author is able to state the desired presentation characteristics for following a link, including whether the presentation currently playing should continue playing or be replaced.

We first give an intuitive description of contexts for links, then present a structure-based approach. We go on to describe the implementation of contexts in our hypermedia authoring system CMIFed.

Keywords

hypermedia links, context for links, structured multimedia, hypermedia presentation

pp

183-191

References , Full text


 

Title

Exploring Large Hyperdocuments: Fisheye Views of Nested Networks

Year1993

Author

Emanuel G. Noik

Affiliation

CSRI, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A1
E-mail: noik@db.toronto.edu

Abstract

Browsing large hypertexts by following links can be difficult and confusing, especially if links span distant nodes. Often a user would like to explore several regions of a network simultaneously, when studying the end points of one or more links, for example. Although this can be achieved by displaying each area of interest in a separate zoomed-in window, the union of such views is not always meaningful. In particular, valuable context showing the relationships between the views is lost. By balancing local detail and global context, fisheye views display information at several levels of abstraction simultaneously. We have devised a novel technique for generating fisheye views of hierarchically nested graphs with multiple variable magnification focal points. In this paper we demonstrate its feasibility as a tool for exploring large nested hypertext networks.

Keywords

nested hypertext networks, graphs, navigation, overviews, fisheye views

pp

192-199

References , Full text


 

Title

Browsing through Querying: Designing for Electronic Books

Year1993

Author

Nipon Charoenkitkarn, Jim Tam, Mark H. Chignell, Gene Golovchinsky

Affiliation

Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 4 Taddle Creek Road, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A4, Canada.
E-mail: {charoen, tam, chignel, golovch} @ie.utoronto.ca

Abstract

The emerging technologies of pen-based navigation and hand-held computing pose a number of challenges for hypertext and the development of electronic books. In this paper we explore methods of query-based browsing that meet some of these challenges. We describe an existing prototype (Queries-R-Links) that we have developed and we then discuss an enhanced version of query-based browsing that uses methods of text analysis and related approaches to provide a more focused set of hits (links) during browsing.

Keywords

information retrieval, pen-based navigation, electronic books, hand-held computing, relevance feedback, text analysis

pp

206-216

References , Full text


 

Title

Searching for the Missing Link: Discovering Implicit Structure in Spatial Hypertext

Year1993

Author

Catherine C. Marshall, Frank M. Shipman III

Affiliation

Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, 3333 Coyote Hill Road, Palo Alto, CA 94304
Tel: 415-812-4740; Fax: 415-812-4777
E-mail: {marshall, shipman}@parc.xerox.com

Abstract

Hypertexts may be implicitly structured, based on either node content or context. In this paper, we examine implicit structures that rely on the interpretation of node’s spatial context. Hypertext authors and readers can perceive and understand these idiosyncratic structures, but, because they are implicit, they cannot be used by the system to suppot users’ activities. We have explored spatially structured hypertext authored in three different systems, and have developed heuristic recognition algorithms based on the results of our analyses of the kinds of structures that people build. Our results indicate that (1) recognition of implicit structures in spatial hypertext is feasible; (2) interaction will be important in guiding such recognition, and (3) the hypertext system can provide layout facilities that will render later systematic interpretation much easier. Found structures can be used as a basis for supporting information management, as a straightforward way of promoting knowledge-base evolution, as a way of solving representational problems endemic to many hypertext systems, or as a basis for collaboration or interaction.

Keywords

implicit structure, spatial hypertext, link automation

pp

217-230

References , Full text


 

Title

VIDEO: The Microcosm Link Service with Integrating Technology

Year1993

Author

Wendy Hall, Hugh Davis, Adrian Pickering, Gerard Hutchings

Affiliation

Department of Electronics and Computer Science,University of Southampton, Southampton, Hants, SO17 1BJ

E-mail: wh@acs.soton.ac.uk

Abstract

The Microcosm hypermedia system is currently implemented in C under Microsoft Windows. Macintosh and Unix/Xversions have been prototyped. The video shows the MS Windows version which is the most fully developed and has been integrated with several Windows applications.

Microcosm consists of a number of viewers which allow the user to view and interact with many different formats of information. The viewers communicate with Microcosm which then sends messages through a filter chain. Important filters are the link databases, or linkbases. In Microcosm, documents are not marked up internally: the link data is held in these separate link bases, and the viewers communicate with the linkbases to establish what buttons and links exist relevant to a particular document.

The Microcosm model allows a spectrum of link types. At one end of this spectrum are specific links or buttons which are manually authored links from a fixed source point to a destination point. Generic links are links that have a fixed destination but which may be followed from any point in any document where the appropriate object (such as a text selection) occurs. At the other end of the spectrum are computed links. These links are generated dynamically using information retrieval techniques, for example.

An important feature of Microcosm is the facility to dynamically install filters, particularly linkbases. It is common for a user to have at least two linkbases in the filter chain. One will be the application’s linkbase which will contain links made by the original author. Another will belong to the user, and will contain personal link information and annotations. It is thus possible to have one set of multimedia documents, with a number of different linkbases that might contain completely separate views on the same set of information. If required, a user could install more than one such linkbase at a time and use the union of these set of links.

The Microcosm model provides a link service using which it is possible to follow links into and out of applications that are not part of Microcosm. Many Windows application packages have facilities that permit programmable communication with the Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) and in this case it is possible to treat such an application as a Microcosm viewer. When it is not possible to communicate via the DDE, links can be followed by simply cutting and pasting a selection to the clipboard. The openness of the model allows selections to be any data objects.

This has been used to full effect in the integration of Microcosm with Autocad, where the selection of an Autocad object is used as the basis of link retrieval, and with the SPANS GIS system, where the selection of a coordinate in a SPANS map is used similarly. The video shows examples of all these techniques based on material taken from some of the many applications that have been developed using Microcosm, including a historical archive, medical education and urban planning applications.

Keywords

 

pp

231-232

References , Full text


 

Title

VIDEO: Myabi: A Hypermedia Database with Media-based Navigation

Year1993

Author

Kyoji Hirata, Hajime Takano, Yoshinori Hara

Affiliation

C&C Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, 4-1-1 Miyazaki, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, 216, Japan
E-mail: {hirata, takano, hara} @mmp.cl’nec.co.jp

Abstract

Each medium has its own information clues which can hardly be described by alphanumeric representations (we call them media information clues). They are, for example, shape, color, construction for still image, motion for movie, and tone, melody for auditory data. However, Hypermedia system designers sofar have been forced to assign many keywords or many links among objects in order to provide flexible and user-customized navigation. As a result, costs for organizing such systems rise accordingly, and it is difficult to apply this kind of alphanumeric approach directly to large-scale systems.

The translation from media information clues to alphanumeric representation is clearly a barrier for the interaction between the system and its users. Instead, users should be able to directly make a query to the hypermedia using the same representation as the object they want to retrieve.

Media-based navigation is a new navigation style for hypermedia systems. Users can use media information clues in both browsing and querying phase.

Users retrieve objects using media information such as shape, color, motion, etc. This type of media-based retrieval becomes even more powerful as users can input the queries to the system as objects they perceive in the real world. The system, then, interprets the queries and shows possible candidates that match the query. Users browse these candidates and show interesting objects to the system. The system finds all other objects that might be of interest to the user.

Miyabi is a prototype of a navigation-based hypermedia database system. It is based on an extended Entity-Relationship model and provides a wide variety of navigational tools such as schema browsers and media-based browsing tools. It is designed to lcearly separate conceptual information from media processing so as to simplify its architecture. It is also designed to consider high level semantic structures to handle large amounts of hypermedia data. Miyabi has wide use of database conceptual modeling as well as user-friendly hypermedia operations.

We have developed a Paris guide system and an electronic art museum to demonstrate the usefulness of Miyabi. Both prototypes have approximately 600 instances, 2000 links and 200 images based on six entities. The images in this system are, for example, paintings of art, landscape photographs of Paris, snapshot photographs of Paris, and so on. Users can navigate through the system based on many kinds of information clues including media information clues.

In order to provide media-based browsing, we introduced the concept of the picture index. The picture index is an internal representation of the stored graphical object. The system generates a picture index automatically, by applying edge detection techniques and region divide techniques which are based on human observation of visual perception processes. At the current time, the picture index size is 24x24. It is composed of several regions, each of which has color and textual information. These characteristics are enough to represent the overview of the image. They are suitable to compare the user’s uncertain memory about the image quickly. Users and system designers do not have to assign any keywords or index terms for content retrieval.

Keywords

 

pp

233-234

References , Full text


 

Title

VIDEO: The SEPIA Hypermedia System as part of the POLIKOM Telecooperation Scenario

Year1993

Author

Jorg Haake, Thomas Knopik, Norbert Streitz

Affiliation

GMD-IPSI, Dolivostr. 15, D-64293 Darmstadt, Germany
E-mail: {haake, knopik, streitz} @darmstadt.gmd.de

Abstract

The decision of the German parliament to relocate the seat of parliament and government from Bonn to Berlin represents a major challenge and opportunity for information and communication technology. It is the goal that ministries and parliament must be able to work almost as if they were at the same location. But the Bonn-Berlin problem is not unique. It is only one example of distributed cooperative work, eg in a united Europe or in a multinational company operating at a world-wide level. In order to meet this challenge, the German Federal Ministry of Research and Technology instructed the National Research Center for Computer Science (GMD) to develop a research programme named POLIKOM (POLis+KOMmunikation = communication between cities). This programme is intended to establish a joint effort of leading companies, research institutes and universities with projects starting soon.

Keywords

 

pp

235-237

References , Full text


 

Title

VIDEO: WAX or the discovery of television among the bees

Year1993

Author

David Blair

Affiliation

PO Box 174, Cooper Station, New York, NY 10276, USA
E-mail: artist1@rdrc.rpi.edu

Abstract

EAX or the discovery of television among the bees is set in Alamogordo, New Mexico where the main character, Jacob Maker designs gunsight displays at a flight simulation factory. Jacob also keeps bees. His hives are filled with "Mesopotamian" bees that he has inherited from his grandfather. Through these bees, the dead of the future begin to appear, introducing Jacob to a type of destiny that pushes him away from the normal world, enveloping him in a grotesque miasma of past and synthetic realities. The bees show Jacob the story of his grandfather’s acquisition and fatal association with the "Mesopotamian" bees, in the years following the First World War. The bees also lead Jacob away from his home, out to the Alamogordo desert, slowly revealing to him their synthetic/mechanical world, which exists in a darkness beyond the haze of his own thoughts. Passing through Trinity Site, birthplace of the Plutonium bomb, Jacob arrives at a gigantic cave beneath the desert. There, he enters the odd world of the bees, and fulfils his destiny. Traveling both to the past and the future, Jacob ends at Basra, Iraq, in the year 1991, where he meets a victim that he must kill.

Independently executed over six years, the film combines compelling narrative, in the realistic/fantastic vein of Thomas Pynchon or Salman Rushdie, with the graphic fluidity of video technique. The result is an odd, new type of story experience, where smooth and sudden transpositions of picture and sound can nimbly follow and fuse with fantastical, suddenly changing, and often accelerated narrative. The result resembles story-telling in animated film. Yet location photography and archive research form the backbone of the piece.

WAX or the discovery of television among the bees provides an example of a new type of independent "electronic cinema" that will become more common as the 1990s progress.

Keywords

 

pp

238-239

References , Full text


 

Title

VIDEO: FRESS Hypertext System

Year1993

Author

1. David G. Durand; 2. Steven J. DeRose

Affiliation

1. Computer Science Department, Boston University, 111 Cummington Street, Boston, MA 02215

2. Electronic Book Technologies, 1 Richmond Square, Providence, RI 02906

Abstract

These two videos document the FRESS hypertext system and its application in teaching English poetry - the first use of Hypertext in a classroom. The FRESS educational experiment is described in a paper: Cantano, James V. 1979 "Poetry and Computers: Experimenting with the Communal Text" in Computers and the Humanities 13(9), 269-275.

The first video is a film that was made as part of the final report to the National Endowment for the Humanities on the experimental use of the FRESS hypertext system in teaching poetry.

The second video is a demonstration of the FRESS system (actually running on the data files created by the poetry project). The basic FRESS program, despite being written in 360 assembly language, still runs more than 10 years after it was last compiled. The front end graphics computer (an IMLAC vector-graphic display) no longer exists, so that this demonstration uses a simple emulator of the original display running on a Macintosh computer.

Keywords

 

pp

240

References , Full text


 

 

Title

VIDEO: The Perseus Project

Year1993

Author

Elli Mylonas

Affiliation

Department of the Classics, 319 Boylston Hall, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138

E-mail: elli@ikaros.harvard.edu

Abstract

Perseus is a multimedia, hypertextual database of material pertaining to classical Greece. The project has been underway since 1987, and is funded primarily by The Annenberg/CPB Project and also by Apple Computer. It is a collaborative effort based at Harvard University, with contributors from Pomona College, St. Olaf College, Bowdoin College and the University of Maryland. The main body of the material in Perseus consists of a large collection of primary texts with accompanying translation and notes, descriptions of acheaological objects with accompanying drawings and photographs, an atlas, an encyclopedia and a Greek-English lexicon. In addition, there are specialized tools for searching and navigating within the material as a hypertext. Very little of the data in Perseus was created explicitly for publication in electronic form. Most of it has been converted from traditional, paper originals. The tools in Perseus, however, are designed to provide not only traditional forms of access but also to utilize the potential of digital information. The first version of Perseus, Perseus 1.0, was published by Yale University Press in the spring of 1992 and the second version is being completed and will be ready for distribution in early 1994. Perseus runs under HyperCard and is distributed on CD-ROM.

This video was made as a demonstration of Perseus for situations where it was not possible to show the actual system. It consists of several vignettes that show how Perseus can be used to investigate topics that come up in teaching Classical Greek civilization. It was made in 1991 using Perseus 1.0. Although it was originally intended as a stand-in for the actual Perseus system, the video turned out to be of great value to Perseus users who needed examples illustrating how to use it for teaching, and what a student assignment in Perseus might look like. As evaluation results indicated after Perseus 1.0 had been in use for a semester, it is not easy to incorporate an unfamiliar system like Perseus into traditional forms of teaching. In order to make effective use of Perseus, instructors must learn not only how the program works, they must also learn to perform tasks in new ways. The video has therefore become a useful part of the Perseus documentation.

The video was produced by Video Visuals of Newton, Mass, and was coordinated by Phinney Morrison of the Perseus Project.

Keywords

 

pp

241

References , Full text


 

Title

TECHNICAL BRIEFING: Enactment in Information Farming

Year1993

Author

Mark Bernstein

Affiliation

Eastgate Systems Inc., PO Box 1307, Cambridge MA 02238, USA

Tel: +1 617 924 9044

E-mail: eastgate@world.std.com

Abstract

Information farming views the cultivation of information as a continuing, collaborative activity performed by groups of people working together to achieve changing individual and common goals. Failure to differentiate information farming from related but distinct activities like information mining and data factories has been a fruitful source of misunderstanding and discord in the hypertext literature and in the design of hypertext environments. Dramatic enactment and visual salience - not recall, precision or usability - assume primary roles in design for information gardening. In this technical briefing, we examine how enactment contributes to the success and failure of a variety of Hypergate and Storyspace features.

Keywords

design, rhetoric, enactment, collaboration, information farming

pp

242-249

References , Full text


 

Title

TECHNICAL BRIEFING: The Microcosm Link Service

Year1993

Author

Wendy Hall, Gary Hill, Hugh Davis

Affiliation

Department of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ

E-mail: {wh, gjh, hcd}@ecs.soton.ac.uk

Abstract

As understanding of hypertext concepts has increased, the possibilities they present for the creation of a flexible system able to act as an integrator for a user’s whole environment are growing. This has led to interest in the concept of open hypermedia systems that are able to act as a link service to an existing set of applications. The key to this concept is in the perception of hypertext principles as a method for integration rather than simply as a delivery medium for a clearly defined information set.

A vision of the possibilities such a system might provide in a real world situation is given by Malcolm et al. They paint a convincing picture of an environment where hypertext principles provide a seamless integration of a diverse range of applications. In order to provide such facilities in an efficient manner, a common link service such as described by Pearl and Rizk is essential. This would provide a standard linking protocol that any application can take advantage of in order to become a fully integrated part of its environment. The Microcosm link service which we have been developing at the University of Southampton addresses the need for an integrating technology of this type.

Keywords

open, integrated, link service

pp

256-259

References , Full text


 

Title

TECHNICAL BRIEFING: Information Retrieval Techniques for Hypertext in the Semi-Structured Toolkit

Year1993

Author

Gary Perlman

Affiliation

Computer and Information Science, Ohio State University, 2036 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH43210-1277 USA

E-mail: perlman@cis.ohio-state.edu

Abstract

The Semi-Structured Toolkit (SST) is a C library that provides universal functions based on abstractions for storage format and data type-dependencies of semi-structured/frame-based information units. The SST provides searching, sorting, viewing, and linking operations for data stored in its native formats, without requiring proprietary formats or conversion. Hypertext capabilities such as linking and outlining are implemented in the SST with inverted indices for each of the fields in semi-structured records. This paper describes the implementation of hypertext capabilities in the SST.

Keywords

information retrieval, underlying technologies, hypertext, indexing, linking, outlining, open systems

pp

260-266

References , Full text


 

Title

TECHNICAL BRIEFING: Design of Hypermedia Script Languages: The KMS Experience

Year1993

Author

Robert M. Akscyn, Donald L. McCracken

Affiliation

Knowledge Systems Incorporated, RD2#213A Evans Road, Export, PA 15632, USA

Abstract

This briefing describes the design of the KMS script language and some of the lessons learned from experience using it. The language - the result of over 20 years of ZOG/KMS development - is a procedural, block structured language characterized by a simple command line syntax, a large number of intrinsic commands (approximately 800), and the use of nodes and links as a central aspect of the syntax and semantics of the language. The intrinsic use of nodes and links in the script language provides interesting opportunities, not only for the design of other aspects of the language such as control structures, but also for the use of hypermedia as a programming environment to facilitate development and maintenance of scripts. In addition to designing the language, we have used it extensively to develop many hypermedia based applications. Our experience, and that of end-user organizations, strongly reinforces our general belief that a script language is a valuable adjunct to hypermedia systems and instrumental to the utility of hypermedia for real world task environments.

Keywords

 

pp

268-273

References , Full text


1994 Hypertext Conference

 

Title

Coexistence and Transformation of Informal and Formal Structures: Requirements for More Flexible Hypermedia Systems

Year1994

Author

1. Jorg M. Haake; 2. Christine M. Neuwirth; 3. Norbert A. Streitz

Affiliation

1,3. IPSI - Integrated Publication and Information Systems Institute, GMD - German National Research Centre for Computer Science, Dolivostr. 15, D-64293 Darmstadt, Germany
E-mail: {haake, streitz} @darmstadt.gmd.de

2. Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15223 USA
E-mail: cmn@cmu.edu

Abstract

In this paper we argue that some tasks (eg meeting support) require more flexible hypermedia systems and we describe a prototype hypermedia system, DOLPHIN, that implements more flexibility. As part of the argument, we present a theoretical design space for information structuring systems and locate existing hypertext systems within it. The dimensions of the space highlight a system’s internal representation of structure and the user’s actions in creating structure. Second, we describe an empirically derived range of activities connected to conducting group meetings, including the pre- and post-preparation phases, and argue that hypertext systems need to be more flexible in order to support this range of activities. Finally, we describe a hypermedia prototype, DOLPHIN, which implements this kind of flexible support for meetings. DOLPHIN supports different degrees of formality, (eg handwriting and sketches as well as typed nodes and links are support), coexistence of different structures (eg handwriting and nodes can exist on the same page) and mutual transformations between them (eg handwriting can be turned into nodes and vice versa).

Keywords

hypermedia interface, information structures, meeting support, design space for hypermedia systems, flexibility

pp

1-12

References , Full text


 

Title

VIKI: Spatial Hypertext Supporting Emergent Structure

Year1994

Author

C. C. Marshall, F. M. Shipman, J. H. Coombs

Affiliation

Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, 3333 Coyote Hill Road, Palo Alto CA 94304
Fax: (415) 812-477
E-ail: {marshall, shipman} @parc.xerox.com

Abstract

The emergent nature of structure is a crucial, but often ignored, constraint on authoring hypertexts. VIKI is a spatial hypertext system that supports the emergent qualities of structure and the abstractions that guide its creation. We have found that a visual/spatial metaphor for hypertext allows people to express the nuances of structure, especially ambiguous, partial or emerging structure, more easily. VIKI supports interpretation of a collected body of materials, a task that becomes increasingly important with the availability of on-line information sources. The tool’s data model includes semi-structured objects, collections that provide the basis for spatial navigation, and object composites, all of which may evolve into types. A spatial parser supports this evolution and enhances user interaction with changing, visually apparent organizations.

Keywords

spatial hypertext, emergent structure, interpretation, visual structure recognition, composites

pp

13-23

References , Full text


 

Title

Fixed or Fluid? Document Stability and New Media

Year1994

Author

David M. Levy

Affiliation

Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, 3333 Coyote Hill Road, Palo Alto, CA94304
Fax: 415-812-4334
E-mail: dlevy@parc.xerox.com

Abstract

One of the crucial properties of documents through the ages has been their fixity. The ability to mark surfaces in relatively stable ways has made it possible for people distributed across space and time to see the same images and thereby to have access to the same meanings or communicative intent. Today, however, with the increasing us e of digital technologies, it is often asserted that we are moving from the fixed world of paper documents to the fluid world of digital documents. In this paper I challenge this assertion, arguing instead that all documents, regardless of medium, are fixed and fluid. Thus, although paper documents do fix aspects of communication, they do (and must) also change; and although digital documents are easily changeable, they must also be capable of remaining fixed. I make use of this analysis in two ways: first, to examine the fixity and fluidity of hypertext; and second, to critique Bolter’s argument in Writing Space concerning the movement from fixed to fluid.

Keywords

hypertext, documents, fixity, fluidity

pp

24-30

References , Full text


 

Title

Extending the Microcosm Model to a Distributed Environment

Year1994

Author

Gary Hall, Wendy Hall

Affiliation

University of Southampton, Highfield, Hants, UK, SO17 5BJ
fax: +44 704 592865
E-mail: {gjh, wh}@ecs.soton.ac.uk

Abstract

In recent years, there has been significant growth in the use of computer networks to support electronic delivery of information. As the volume of available information has grown, a need for powerful tools that can manage access has arisen. It has been suggested that hypertext techniques can provide such a facility.

The Microcosm system is a hypertext link service developed at the University of Southampton. The system is based upon a modular architecture which allows the functionality of the system to be easily and dynamically extended. This paper describes the development of a distributed version of Microcosm based upon this modular design.

The distributed system described utilises the find granularity of the Microcosm model to support a wide range of possible configurations. The system also extends the document management facilities of Microcosm to allow information stored by other information services to be incorporated. The result is a system that can apply Microcosm’s open linking services to a wide range of networked information.

Keywords

open, distributed, hypertext, Microcosm

pp

32-40

References , Full text


 

Title

Light Hypermedia Link Services: A study of third party application integration

Year1994

Author

Hugh C. Davis, Simon Knight, Wendy Hall

Affiliation

The Image and Multimedia Research Group, Department of Electronics and Computer Science, The University of Southampton, Southampton, UK, SO17 1BJ
Fax: +44 703 592865
E-mail: {hcd,sjk92r,wh}@ecs.soton.ac.uk

Abstract

Recently there has been a tendency for the research community to move away from closed hypermedia systems, towards open hypermedia link services which allow third parties to produce applications so that they are hypertext-enabled. This paper explores the frontiers of this trend by examining the minimum responsibility of an application to co-operate with the underlying link service, and, in the limiting case where the application has not been enabled in any way, it explores the properties and qualities of hypermedia systems that can be produced. A tool, the Universal Viewer, which allows the Microcosm Hypermedia System to co-operate with applications which have not been enabled is introduced and a case study is presented which demonstrates the functionality that may be achieved using entirely third party applications, most of which have not been enabled.

Keywords

open hypermedia, hypermedia link services, integration, Microcosm

pp

41-50

References , Full text


 

Title

Adding networking to hypertext: can it be done transparently?

Year1994

Author

Peter Brown

Affiliation

Computing Laboratory, The University, Canterbury, Kent, CT2 7NF, UK
Fax: 227-762811
E-mail: pjb@ukc.ac.uk

Abstract

Networks are becoming increasingly available and hypertext systems with networking capabilities are currently enjoying exponential growth. The vast majority of hypertext systems were not, however, designed to cater for networking. This paper examines whether it is possible to add networking to such systems and, if so, whether it can be done without upsetting existing hyperdocuments, existing authors and existing readers. The examination is done using one specific hypertext system, UNIX Guide, but the lessons are, I hope, more general.

Keywords

wide-area network, storage, link, file, active document, distributed hyperdocument, GUIDE

pp

51-58

References , Full text


 

Title

Composites in a Dexter-Based Hypermedia Framework

Year1994

Author

K. Gronbaek

Affiliation

Computer Science Department, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 116, Bldg.540, DK-8000 Arhus C, Denmark
Fax: +45 8942 3255
E-mail:kgronbak@daimi.aau.dk

Abstract

This paper discusses the design and use of a generic composite mechanism in the object oriented DEVISE Hypermedia (DHM) development framework. The DHM framework is based on the Dexter Hypertext Reference Model which introduces a notion of composite to mode editors with complex or multiple types of contents. The original Dexter notion of composites is, however, insufficient to cover structural composites including or referencing other components. Thus the DHM framework has been extended with generic composite classes suited to support structures within the hypermedia network itself. The paper presents and discusses the design of the generic composite classes belonging to the STORAGE and RUNTIME layers of the framework. A central aspect of the design is that the structuring mechanism is a true composite with a collection of components as its contents rather than an atomic component with links to other components as in the classical systems such as NoteCards, Intermedia, and KMS. It is also shown how the powerful generic classes can be used to implement a variety of useful hypermedia concepts such as: hierarchy by inclusion, hierarchy by reference, virtual and computed browsers, TableTops and GuidedTours.

Keywords

composites, structures, hierarchies, GuidedTour, Dexter model object oriented framework

pp

59-69

References , Full text


 

Title

Adding Multimedia Collections to the Dexter Model

Year1994

Author

Franca Garzotto, Luca Mainetti, Paolo Paolini

Affiliation

Politecnico di Milano - Department of Electronics and Information, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32 - 20129 Milano - Italy
Tel. +39-2-2399.3623
Fax: +39-2-2399.3411
E-mail: {garzotto, mainetti, paolini}@elet.polimi.it

Abstract

The Dexter Model defines the notion of atomic components and composite components, but it does not prescribe, nor it suggests, any particular structure for composite components. This paper proposes a specific type of composite component, called "collection".

A collection is a container holding several members. Collections can contain other collections (nested collections). Collections can be regarded as sets, but they can also have an inner structure. Collections can be created in several ways: manually, through queries, by operations on other collections, by exploiting links, etc.

Collections introduce a navigational pattern, based on their structure, that is different from the standard node and link navigation.

If active media are considered, collections allow the design and implementation of complex synchronisation strategies, difficult to obtain otherwise.

The paper describes the motivations for using collections, their structure, their navigational capabilities and a number of possible authoring mechanisms. It also examines the interplay between standard navigation and collection navigation, possible synchronization strategies for collections, as well as the requirements for the definition of a runtime support (which could be used to extend the runtime layer of the Dexter model).

Keywords

Dexter model, composite, hypermedia design, collection, guided tour, active media

pp

70-80

References , Full text


 

Title

Under CoVer: the implementation of a contextual version server for hypertext applications

Year1994

Author

Anja Haake

Affiliation

IPSI - Integrated Publication and Information Systems Institute, GMD - German national Research Organization for Information Technology, Dolivostr. 15, D-64293 Darmstadt, Germany
E-mail: ahaake@darmstadt.gmd.de

Abstract

At GMD-IPSI we are developing CoVer, a contextual version server for hypertext applications. Another characterization of CoVer is the CoVer integrates state-oriented versioning concepts with task-oriented versioning concepts. While other version models in general support only one of these groups of concepts, we argue that the explicit composition of versions of complex hypertext networks has to be complemented by automatic version creation in the context of tasks or jobs performed while manipulating the hypertext network and vice versa. Regarding the implementation of version models, it turns out that the state-oriented implementation approach - representing every legal state of a hyperdocument explicitly - and the task-oriented implementation approach - computing versions of complex hypertext networks due to changes executed during a task or job - are interchangeable. While the separation of state- and task-oriented concepts at the conceptual level of the version model is desirable to support version creation and selection for different hypertext applications, the implementation of such a dual model can be based on a single implementation approach. This paper discusses both types of implementation with an emphasis to cope with alternative versions that are in particular meaningful for hypertext publishing applications.

Keywords

versioning, alternatives, state-oriented versioning, task-oriented versioning, implementation techniques, publishing applications

pp

81-93

References , Full text


 

Title

Chimera: Hypertext for Heterogeneous Software Environments

Year1994

Author

K. M. Anderson, R. N. Taylor, E. J. Whitehead

Affiliation

Department of Information and Computer Science, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California 92717-3425 USA
Fax: +1.714-856-4056
E-mail: {kanderso, taylor, ejw}@ics.uci.edu

Abstract

Emerging software development environments are characterized by heterogeneity: they are composed of diverse object stores, user interfaces, and tools. This paper presents an approach for providing hypertext services in this heterogeneous setting. Central notions of the approach include the following. Anchors are established with respect to interactive views of objects, rather than the objects themselves. Composable, n-ary links can be established between anchors on different view of objects stored in distinct object bases. Viewers (and objects) may be implemented in different programming languages afforded by a client-server architecture. Multiple, concurrently active viewers enable multimedia hypertext services. The paper describes the approach and presents an architecture which supports it. Experience with the Chimera prototype and its relationship to other systems is described.

Keywords

multimedia information systems, software engineering, tools and techniques, document preparation, hypertext, hypermedia, heterogeneous hypertext, hypertext system architectures, link servers, separation of concerns, software development environments

pp

94-106

References , Full text


 

Title

SIROG - a responsive hypertext manual

Year1994

Author

1. Lothar Simon; 2. Jochen Erdmann

Affiliation

1. Eidon, Am Weichselgarten 7, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
Fax: +49 9131 691 111
E-mail: simon@forwiss.uni-erlangen.de

2. Siemens KWU, Power Generation Division, NA-S, Erlangen, Germany

Abstract

Power plant operation and control in modern screen-based control rooms takes place using computer displays which are directly coupled to the plant state. However, operators are provided with operational instructions and background information by means of paper manuals or at best hypertext manuals with fixed structure and contents. Thus, information presentation is independent of the current situation.

To improve information accessibility we developed a situation-dependent information medium: responsive manuals. A responsive manual consists of a "standard" hypertext based operational manual and a task description. It monitors the changing situation and based on this is able to point to relevant information.

To show the advantages of the responsive manual approach in the domain of power plant operation we implemented the SIROG (situation related operational guidance) system in close co-operation with Siemens. It covers all parts of an operational manual for accidents in a Siemens nuclear power plant, and is coupled directly to the plant state. The article discusses the basics of the responsive manuals approach and the role of "responsiveness" in SIROG.

Keywords

hypertext manual, situation-dependence, task model, process monitoring, process control

pp

108-116

References , Full text


 

Title

Repertory Hypergrids: An Application to Clinical Practice Guidelines

Year1994

Author

1. David Madigan, 2. C. Richard Chapman, 3. Jonathan Gavrin, 4. Ole Villumsen, 5. John Boose

Affiliation

1,2,3,4: University of Washington, Seattle, WA98195

1,2,,3,5: Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA98195

4. Aarhus University
1. Department of Statistics, GN-22, University of Washington, Seattle, WA98195

Fax: (206) 685-7419
E-mail: {madigan, crc, jgavrin}@u.washington.edu
ovillumsen@daimi.aau.dk

jboose@spock.fhcrc.org

Abstract

Creation and maintenance of links in large hypermedia documents is difficult. Motivated by an application to a federal clinical practice guideline for cancer pain management, we have developed and evaluated a repertory grid-based linking scheme we call repertory hypergrids. Harnessing established knowledge acquisition techniques, the repertory hypergrid assigns each "knowledge chunk" a location in "context space". A chunk links to another chunk if they are both close in context space.

To evaluate the scheme, we conducted a protocol analysis. Six users of the guideline addressing typical cancer pain management tasks made 30 explicit links. The repertory hypergrid using a neighborhood size of 16 captures 24 of those links. With optimization, the repertory hypergrid captures 27 of the links with a neighborhood size of 13.

Keywords

implicit linking, repertory grid, clinical practice guidelines, link maintenance, evaluation

pp

117-125

References , Full text


 

 

Title

Accessing Hyperdocuments through Interactive Dynamic Maps

Year1994

Author

Mountaz Zizi, Michel Beaudouin-Lafon

Affiliation

Laboratoire de Recherche en Informatique, CNRS URA 410, Batiment 490, Universite de Paris-Sud, 91-405 Orsay Cedex, France
Tel. +33 (1) 69 41 66 25
Fax +33 (1) 69 41 65 86
E-mail: {mountaz, mbl} @lri.fr

Abstract

We propose a new navigation paradigm based on a spatial metaphor to help users access and navigate within large sets of documents. This metaphor is implemented by a computer artifact called an Interaction Dynamic Map (IDM). An IDM plays a role similar to the role of a real map with respect to physical space. Two types of IDMs are computed from the documents: Topic IDMs represent the semantic contents of a set of documents, while Document IDMs visualize a subset of documents such as those resulting from a query. IDMs can be used for navigating, browsing, and querying. They can be made active, they can be customized and they can be shared among users. The article presents the SHADOCS document retrieval system and describes the role, use and generation of IDMs in SHADOCS.

Keywords

navigation, maps, information retrieval, visualization, interaction paradigm

pp

126-135

References , Full text


 

Title

Interactive Clustering for Navigating in Hypermedia Systems

Year1994

Author

S. Mukherjea, J. D. Foley, S. E. Hudson

Affiliation

Grahics, Visualization and Usability Center, College of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA

Fax: 404-853-0673
E-mail: {sougata, foley, hudson} @cc.gatech.edu

Abstract

This paper talks about clustering related nodes of an overview diagram to reduce its complexity and size. This is because although overview diagrams are useful for helping the user to navigate in a hypermedia system, for any real-world system these become too complicated and large to be really useful. Both structure-based and content -based clustering are used. Since the nodes can be related to each other in different ways, depending on the situation different clustered views will be useful. Hence, it should be possible to interactively specify the clustering conditions and examine the resulting views. W e present efficient clustering algorithms which can cluster the information space in real time. We talk about the Navigational View Builder, a tool which allows the interactive development of overview diagrams. Finally, we propose a 3-D approach for visualizing these abstracted views.

Keywords

navigation, overview diagrams, clustering, information visualization

pp

136-145

References , Full text


 

Title

Frame-Axis Model for Automatic Information Organizing and Spatial Navigation

Year1994

Author

Yoshihiro Masuda, Yasuhiro Ishitobi, Anabu Ueda

Affiliation

Systems and Communications Lab., Fuji Xerox, KSP R&D Business Park Bldg., 3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki-shi, 213 Japan

Tel. +81-44-812-5140
Fax +81-44-812-8109
E-mail: {ymasuda, ishitobi, mueda} @s5g.ksp.fujixerox.co.jp

Abstract

In taxonomic reasoning tasks, such as scientific research or decision making, people gain insight and find new ideas through analysis of large numbers of factual data or material documents, which are generally disorganized and unstructured. Hpermedia technology provides effective means of organizing and browsing information with such nature. However, for large amounts of information, the conventional nod-link model makes linking or browsing operations complicated because their relationships have to be represented as binary relations. In this paper we propose a hypermedia data model called Frame-Axis model, which represents the relationship between information as N-ary relations on mapped space. Also, the automatic information organizing mechanism which is based on this data model and the browsing interface HyperCharts which employ spatial layout are provided. Finally we show some browsing examples on our work prototype system, CastingNet.

Keywords

data model, automatic linking, spatial hypertext, browsing, visualization

pp

146-157

References , Full text


 

Title

Backtracking in a Multiple-window Hypertext Environment

Year1994

Author

Michael Bieber, Jiangling Wan

Affiliation

Institute for Integrated Systems Research, Computer and Information Science Department, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102, USA

Tel: +1 201 596-2681
E-mail: bieber@cis.njit.edu; wan@irss.njit.edu

Abstract

Multi-window interfaces allow users to work on logically independent tasks simultaneously in different sets of windows and to move among these logical tasks at will, eg through selecting a window in a different task. Hypertext backtracking should be able to treat each logical task separately. Combining all traversals in a single chronological history log would violate the user’s mental model and cause disorientation. In this paper we introduce task-based backtracking, a technique for backtracking within the various logical tasks a user may be working on at any given time. We present a preliminary algorithm for its implementation. We also discuss several ramifications of multi-window backtracking including the types of events history logs must record, deleting nodes from history logs that appear in multiple logical tasks, and in general the choices hypermedia designers face in multi-window environments.

Keywords

hypertext, hypermedia, backtracking, multiple window, history log, session log, multiple pane

pp

158-166

References , Full text


 

Title

An Interaction Engine for Rich Hypertexts

Year1994

Author

Kasper Osterbye and Kurt Normark

Affiliation

Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Aalborg University Fredrik Bajers Vej. 7E, 9220 Aalborg O, Denmark

Abstract

In semantically rich hypertexts it is attractive to enable presentation of a network of nodes and links at different levels of abstraction. It is also important that the user can interact with the hypertext using a command repertoire that reflects the chosen abstraction level. Based on a characterization of rich hypertext we introduce the concept of an interaction engine that governs the separation between internal hypertext representation and external screen presentation. This separation is the key principle of the HyperPro system. The HyperPro interaction engine is based on simple rules for presentation, interpretation of events, and menu set up. Much of the power of the interaction engine framework comes from the organization of these rules relative to the type hierarchy of nodes and links, and relative to a hierarchy of so-called interaction schemes. The primary application domain discussed in the paper is program development and program documentation.

Keywords

tailorability, interaction engine, aggregated views, event control, program development

pp

167-176

References , Full text


 

Title

The Hypermedia Authoring Research Toolkit (HART)

Year1994

Author

John Robertson, Erik Merkus, Athula Ginige

Affiliation

University of Technology, Sydney Broadway, Australia 2007
Fax: 61 2 3302435
E-mail: jrob@ee.uts.edu.au

Abstract

A major obstacle hindering the advancement and commercial acceptance of hypermedia is the cost of converting paper based information into hypermedia form. The Hypermedia Authoring Research Toolkit (HART) was developed to support the human editor during this media-to-hypermedia conversion process. The tool’s goal is to help improve the correctness and completeness of the hypermedia database, as well as reduce the media-to-hypermedia conversion cost.

We believe it is not possible to properly convert media to hypermedia without the participation of a human editor during the transformation. It is therefore necessary to develop tools to assist the human during this process. By reducing the overhead associated with the physical management of the hyper-database construction, the subject specialist is better able to concentrate on the information content.

Support is provided in two basic ways: by providing procedural guidance. From our experience constructing hypermedia systems we have developed an efficient process for this media-to-hypermedia transformation; by providing intelligent assistance. At each phase in the transformation the system can suggest likely nodes, key phrases, index values, anchors, and links to the editor.

The project’s research focus is to identify the most effective methodologies to assist the human editor transform linear text, images and video into hypermedia structure.

Keywords

hypertext, hypermedia, media-to hypermedia authoring

pp

177-185

References , Full text


 

Title

Querying Structured Documents with Hypertext Links using OODBMS

Year1994

Author

1. V. Christophides; 2. A. Rizk

Affiliation

1. INRIA, Domaine de Voluceau, Rocquencourt BP 105, 78153 Le Chesnay, Cedex France
E-mail: Vassilis.Christophides@inria.fr
2. Euroclid, 12 Avenue des Pres, 78180 Montigny le Bretonneux, France
E-mail: Antoine.Rizk@inria.fr

Abstract

Hierarchical logical structure and hypertext links are complementary and can be combined to build more powerful document management systems. Previous work exploits this complementarity for building better document processors, browsers and editing tools, but not for building sophisticated querying mechanisms. Querying in hypertext has been a requirement and has already been elaborated in many hypertext systems, but has not yet been used for hypertext systems superimposed on an underlying hierarchical logical structure.

In this paper we use the model and the SQL-like query language in order to manage structured documents with hypertext links. The model represents a structured document with typed links as a complex object, and uses paths through the document structure as first class citizens in formulating queries. Several examples of queries illustrate, from a practical point of view, the expressive power of the language to retrieve documents, even without exact knowledge of their structure in a simple and homogeneous fashion. It must be stressed that the proposed model and language implement the equivalent HyTime Location Address Module. In fact, the language is more powerful than the corresponding HyQ query facilities. The implementation and the description throughout the paper uses the SGML standard to represent the document structure and the object-oriented DBMS O2 to implement the query language and the storage module.

Keywords

structured documents, hypertexts, object oriented databases, information retrieval, query languages, path expressions

pp

186-197

References , Full text


 

Title

Querying Typed Hypertext in Multicard/02

Year1994

Author

1. B. Amann; 2.M. Scholl; 3. A. Rizk

Affiliation

1. Cedric CNAM, 292 rue St. Martin, 75141 Paris Cedex 03, France
E-mail: amann@cnam.cnam.fr
2. INRIA, Rocquencourt, 78153 Le Chesnay Cedex France
E-mail: school@cnam.cnam.fr
3. Euroclid, 12 Avenue des Pres, 78180 Montigney le Tretonneux, France
E-mail: Antoine.Rizk@inria.fr

Abstract

Due to the growing complexity of modern hypertext applications, current hypertext systems require new mechanisms to support authoring and user navigation through large sets of documents connected by links. A general solution is to extend hypertext systems to cater for semantics of application domains. This requires new hypertext models providing strongly typed documents and links. Such models have been proposed and put to use in systems such as HDM and MacWeb to facilitate authoring of large hypertexts. In addition, Gram and MORE use typing and graph-based hypertext schemas for querying hyperdocuments. In this paper, we will show how query languages could be further exploited for designing sophisticated general query-based navigation mechanisms. We illustrate our examples using the Gram model and describe an implementation with the hypermedia system Multicard connected to the object-oriented database management system O2.

Keywords

hypertext querying, browsing, hypertext schema, visual interface

pp

198-205

References , Full text


 

Title

Where no mind has gone before: ontological design for virtual spaces

Year1994

Author

N. Kaplan, S. Moulthrop

Affiliation

Institute for Publications Design, The University of Baltimore, 1420 North Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, 21201-5779
E-mail: {nakaplan, samoulthrop} @ubmail.ubalt.edu

Abstract

Hypermedia designers have tried to move beyond the directed graph concept, which defines hypermedia structures as aggregations of nodes and links. A substantial body of work attempts to describe hypertexts in terms of extended or global spaces. According to this approach, nodes and links acquire meaning in relation to the space in which they are deployed. Some theory of space thus becomes essential for any advance in hypermedia design; but the type of space implied by electronic information systems, from hyperdocuments to "consensual hallucinations" requires careful analysis. Familiar metaphors drawn from physics, architecture, and everyday experience have only limited descriptive or explanatory value for this type of space. As theorists of virtual reality point out, new information systems demand an internal rather than an external perspective. This shift demands a more sophisticated approach to hypermedia space, one that accounts both for stable design properties (architectonic space) and for unforeseen outcomes, or what Winograd and Flores call "breakdowns". Following Wexelblat in cyberspace theory and Dillon, McKnight and Richardson in hypermedia theory, we call the domain of these outcomes semantic space. In two thought experiments or brief exercises in interface design, we attempt to reconcile these divergent notions of space within the conceptual system of hypermedia.

Keywords

spatial hypertext, interface design, information mapping, navigation

pp

206-216

References , Full text


 

Title

Aesthetic and Rhetorical Aspects of Linking Video in Hypermedia

Year1994

Author

Gunnar Liestol

Affiliation

Department of Media and Communication, University of Oslo, N-0317 Oslo, Norway
Fax: +47 22 69 47 90
E-mail: gunnar.liestol@media.uio.no

Abstract

This paper reports on the development of a hypermedia environment for public access in a museum. It discusses problems encountered when making video interactive and multilinear and when linking video and text in the creation of the system. Through the exchange of properties between print and video, media approaches to linking and continuity are presented. Visual examples are used to illustrate this and related to the need to further develop aesthetic and rhetorical aspects of linking video in hypermedia.

Keywords

aesthetic, rhetoric, digital video, media integration

pp

217-223

References , Full text


 

Title

Experience with the use of Acrobat in the CAJUN Publishing Project (Technical Briefing)

Year1994

Author

David F. Brailsford

Affiliation

Electronic Publishing Research Group, Department of Computer Science, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK
E-mail: dfb@cs.nott.ac.uk

Abstract

Adobe’s Acrobat software, released in June 1993, is based around a new Portable Document Format (PDF) which offers the possibility of being able to view and exchange electronic documents, independent of the originating software, across a wide variety of supported hardware platforms (PC, Macintosh, Sun UNIX etc.)

The fact that Acrobat’s imageable objects are rendered with full use of Level 2 PostScript means that the most demanding requirements can be met in terms of high-quality typography and device-independent colour. These qualities will be very desirable components in future multimedia and hypermedia systems. The current capabilities of Acrobat and PDF are described; in particular the present of hypertext links, bookmarks, and "yellow sticker" annotations (in release 1.0) together with article threads and multimedia "plug ins" in version 2.0.

This article also describes the CAJUN Project (CD-ROM Acrobat Journals Using Networks) which has been investigating the automated placement of PDF hypertextual features from various front-end text processing systems. CAJUN has also been experimenting with the dissemination of PDF over e-mail, via World Wide Web and on CD-ROM.

Keywords

 

pp

228-232

References , Full text


 

Title

An Editor’s Workbench for an Art History Reference Work (Technical Briefing)

Year1994

Author

Losthar Rostek, Wiebke Mohr

Affiliation

IPSI - Integrated Publication and Information Systems Institute, GMD - German National Research Organization of Information Technology, Dolivostr. 15 D-64293 Darmstadt, Germany
E-mail: {rostek, moehr}@ darmstadt.gmd.de

Abstract

The architecture and some of the realized functionality of a prototype Editor’s Workbench that supports the creation and maintenance of an object-oriented publisher’s knowledge base is presented. The knowledge base is the repository not only for the actual publication content, but for all the information needed to manage and control the publication process. The concrete application context is an art history reference work. We discuss content acquisition and data modelling aspects of the underlying object network.

Keywords

editor’s workbench, hypermedia reference work, knowledge-based system, object oriented data modelling

pp

233-238

References , Full text


 

Title

Representation and Manipulation of Conceptual, Temporal and Geographical Knowledge in a Museum Hypermedia System

Year1994

Author

Carl Taylor, Douglas Tudhope, Paul Beynon-Davis

Affiliation

University of Glamorgan, Mid Glamorgan, Wales, UK
Fax: 0443-482715
E-mail: cdtaylor@uk.ac.glam

Abstract

This paper discusses a semantic database approach to museum hypermedia systems based upon binary relations, with a restricted set of abstraction relationships. We describe examples of schema, queries and navigation aids for a prototype system designed as a social history museum exhibit, with around one hundred historical photographs. Media items are classified according to conceptual, temporal and geographical schema which attempt to model the changing nature of geography over time. The application yields a sparse information space, with densely populated clusters. Implementations of notions of semantic closeness, term generalisation, best fit solutions, media density and media similarity show potential to assist the exploration of such information spaces.

Keywords

knowledge based hypermedia, museum information systems, semantic modelling, temporal and geographical knowledge, navigational aids, semantic closeness

pp

239-243

References , Full text


1996 Hypertext Conference

 

Title

HyperCafe: Narrative and Aesthetic Properties of Hypervideo

Year1996

Author

N. Sawhney, D. Balcom, I. Smith

Affiliation

The Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Literature, Communication and Culture, College of Computing, Atlanta, GA 30332-0165 USA
E-mail: {nitin, dbalcom, iansmith} @cc.gatech.edu

Abstract

HyperCafe is an experimental hypermedia prototype, developed as a illustration of a general hypervideo system. This program places the user in a virtual café, composed primarily of digital video clips of actors involved in fictional conversations in the café; HyperCafe allows the user to follow different conversations, and offers dynamic opportunities of interaction via temporal, spatio-temporal and textual links to present alternative narratives. Textual elements are also present in the form of explanatory text, contradictory subtitles, and intruding narratives. Based on our work with HyperCafe, we discuss the components and framework for hypervideo structures, along with the underlying aesthetic considerations.

Keywords

aesthetics, multi-threaded narratives, navigation, temporal links, digital video

pp

1-10

References , Full text


 

Title

Content-oriented Integration in Hypermedia Systems

Year1996

Author

1. K. Hirata; 2. Y. Hara; 3. H. Takano; 4. S. Kawasaki

Affiliation

1, 2. C& C Research Laboratories, NEC USA Inc. 110 Rio Robles Ave, San Jose, CA 95134
Tel: 1-408-943-3002
E-mail: {hirata, hara}@ccrl.sj.nec.com

3, 4. C&C Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, 1-1 Miyazaki 4-Chome, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 216, Japan
E-mail: {takano, kawasaki}@mmp.cl.nec.co.jp

Abstract

In this paper, we present the concept and the general framework of a new integration model for hypermedia systems, the content-oriented integration. Content-oriented integration provides an integrated navigational environment that consists of both conceptual-based navigation and media-based navigation. For the conceptual-based navigation, each media representation is translated into a conceptual representation with the help of media recognition techniques and media understanding techniques. The media representation derives its own semantics by connecting the media-independent part to the conceptual representation such as an object name, keywords, etc. Media-based navigation supports media-dependent information difficult to translate into the conceptual representation. Conceptual-based navigation and media-based navigation enrich navigational capabilities in complementary fashion.

We also describe our content-oriented integrated hypermedia system "Himotoki". It provides a wide variety of navigational tools such as visual content-based navigation, moving hot-spot navigation and schema navigation. Each media translation is modularized as the corresponding media augmenter so that it can flexibly adapt to a distributed environment. Applications such as "Electronic Aquatic Life" and "Hypermedia Museum" demonstrate the usefulness of these navigational tools.

Keywords

content-oriented integration, conceptual-based navigation, media-based navigation, media augmenter, recognition engine, matching engine, moving hot-spots, content-based retrieval

pp

11-21

References , Full text


 

Title

The Structure of Hypertext Activity

Year1996

Author

Jim Rosenberg

Affiliation

R.D. #1 Box 236, Grindstone, PA 154412, USA
Tel. (412) 785-9398
E-mail: jr@amanue.pgh.net

Abstract

A framework for discussion of hypertext activity is introduced using the concepts acteme, episode and session. Acteme is a low-level unit such as link-following; episode is a collection of actemes that cohere in the reader’s mind; session is the entirety of contiguous activity. Well known issues in hypertext rhetoric are recast in this framework and generalized to all varieties of acteme. We consider whether the episode is a virtual document, user interface issues pertaining to the episode, multi-episode structure, concurrency issues, and reader-as-writer activity, with a frequent emphasis on hypertext gathering.

Keywords

hypertext, rhetoric, acteme, episode, session, gathering, contour, emergent structure

pp

22-30

References , Full text


 

Title

Practical Methods for Automatically Generating Typed Links

Year1996

Author

C. Cleary and R. Bareiss

Affiliation

The Institute for the Learning Sciences, Northwestern University, 1890 Maple Avenue, Evanston, IL 60201
Tel: 708-491-1500
E-mail: {chip, bareiss} @uks.nwu.edu

Abstract

Our research concerns how to construct knowledge-rich hypermedia systems for use as aids to problem-solving. One of the most difficult steps in building such systems is constructing a fertile set of hypermedia links between the nodes they contain (ie text segments, graphics, and video clips). This paper describes the progress we have made in formalizing and automating the process of creating typed links, that is links that not only join nodes, but also label the relationship between them. We present four different methods we have developed for automated linking, each of which uses a different scheme for representing nodes, and we evaluate each method by the criteria of recall , precision, thoroughness, and ease of use. Two of these methods, designed for two different user populations, are being incorporated into the ASKTool, a hypermedia editor currently in use at the Institute for Learning Sciences.

Keywords

automated linking, typed links, structured hypermedia system

pp

31-41

References , Full text


 

Title

Automatic Hypertext Link Typing

Year1996

Author

James Allan

Affiliation

Center for Intelligent Information Retrieval, Department of Computer Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.
E-mail: allan@cs.umass.edu

Abstract

We present entirely automatic methods for gathering documents for a hypertext, linking the set, and annotating those connections with a description of the type (ie nature) of the link. Document linking is based upon high-quality information retrieval techniques developed using the Smart system. We apply an approach inspired by relationship visualization techniques and by graph simplification, to show how to identify automatically tangential, revision, summary, expansion, comparison, contrast, equivalence, and aggregate links.

Keywords

link generation, link types, information retrieval

pp

42-52

References , Full text


 

Title

Automatic Text Decomposition Using Text Segments and Text Themes

Year1996

Author

G. Salton, A. Singhal, C. Buckley, M. Mitra

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, Cornell University
E-mail: {singhal, chrisb, mitra} @cs.cornell.edu

Abstract

With the widespread use of full-text information retrieval, passage-retrieval techniques are becoming increasingly popular. Larger texts can then be replaced by important text excerpts, thereby simplifying the retrieval task and improving retrieval effectiveness. Passage-level evidence about the use of words in local contexts is also useful for resolving language ambiguities and improving retrieval output.

Two main text decomposition strategies are introduced in this study, including a chronological decomposition into text segments, and semantic decomposition into text themes. The interaction between text segments and text themes is then used to characterize text structure, and to formulate specifications for information retrieval, text traversal, and text summarization.

Keywords

text structuring, text decomposition, segments, themes, information retrieval, passage retrieval, text summarization

pp

53-65

References , Full text


 

Title

Ut Pictura Hyperpoesis: Spatial Form, Visuality, and the Digital World

Year1996

Author

John Tolva

Affiliation

Department of English, Campus Box 1122, Washington University, St. Louis, MO63130-4899
Tel: (314) 727 7547
E-mail: jntolva@artsci.wustl.edu

Abstract

This essay discusses the visual characteristics of hypertext (space, contour, depth) by situating it, as an artistic form, in the literary traditions that it extends and modifies. While, from a literary perspective, hypertextuality is nothing new, what is revolutionary is the way that computerized hypertext emulates the spatial and visual qualities that literary texts have historically struggled to effect. To illustrate the concept of spatial form, I have chosen to analyze the mola web, a hypertext which is unique, though not abnormal, in the extremity of its link structure. One needs only think of the ubiquitous metaphor of the labyrinth in hypertext criticism or of the recent attention given to spatial user interfaces, to see how dependent is the idea of hypertext on a spatial form.

Keywords

hypertext, spatial form, ekphrasis, visual, flatland, mola, World Wide Web

pp

66-73

References , Full text


 

Title

Hypertextual Dynamics in A Life Set for Two

Year1996

Author

R. Kendall

Affiliation

Writing Program, New School for Social Research, 66 West 12th St. New York, NY10011
Tel: 1-212-229-5880
E-mail: 102012.1273@compuserve.com

Abstract

In most hypertexts the contents of nodes and the positions of links are fixed. Making these elements dynamic can help writers solve structural problems and help prevent navigational dilemmas for readers. The hypertext poem A Life Set for Two demonstrates several techniques for doing this. Floating links are positioned dynamically in response to the reader’s progress. Variable nodes change their texts according to factors such as their context within the current reading. The texts of individual nodes are also influenced by global states - settings that can be changed manually by the reader or automatically by the program.

Keywords

poetry, dynamic links, floating links, variable nodes, embedded variables, global states, reading templates

pp

74-83

References , Full text


 

Title

Hypertext with Consequences: Recovering a Politics of Hypertext

Year1996

Author

Diane Greco

Affiliation

Program in the History and Social Study of Science and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Room E51-070, Cambridge, MA 02139
E-mail: dgreco@mit.edu

Abstract

This paper aims to situate the practice of creating hypertexts and hypertext authoring systems within a larger political framework. Although hypertext design and use has always been both political and about human bodies, hypertext theorists have generally failed to explore the political dimensions of this lineage. The paper concludes with a discussion of recent work which bears on non-technological issues such as collaborative authoring, genre status of hypertexts (fiction or non-fiction) and reproduction of proprietary materials.

Keywords

hypertext, rhetoric, cyborgs, technology and society, literary theory, postmodernism, authorship, copyright

pp

85-92

References , Full text


 

Title

Information Reuse in Hypermedia Applications

Year1996

Author

1. F. Garzotto; 2. L. Mainetti; 3. P. Paolini

Affiliation

1, 2, 3: Hypermedia Laboratory - Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/5, 20133 Milano, Italy
3. Universita di Lecce - Informatics Engineering, Lecce, Italy.

E-mail: {garzotto, mainetti, paolini} @elet.polimi.it

Abstract

Reuse - broadly defined as the use of existing information objects or software artifacts in different contexts and for different purposes - is a technology for improving productivity, reducing the production effort and cost, and increasing the quality of end applications (promoting consistency and therefore improving usability). Reuse is a critical issue in hypermedia applications. Reuse may be applied to items of different sizes and different complexity (from an elementary value to a large structured portion of the application). It may involve several aspects of the hypermedia application (content, organisation, presentation and connections). It can be implemented with different techniques, by creating a new copy of an item, or by sharing the same item in two (or more) different contexts.

In this paper we analyse hypermedia reuse under these different viewpoints, discuss a classification of different types of reuse, and present a few examples from commercial and prototype hypermedia titles. From the analysis of these case studies, we derive technical hints, recommendations and pitfalls-to-avoid, that would help hypermedia authors handle reuse in the most effective way possible. We also suggest reuse techniques that can be incorporated in future authoring systems.

Keywords

hypermedia, reuse, authoring, design, models, evaluation, usability

pp

93-101

References , Full text


 

Title

Evaluating HyTime: An Examination and Implementation Experience

Year1996

Author

J.F. Buford

Affiliation

Distributed Multimedia Systems Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, University of Massachusetts Lowell, One University Avenue, Lowell, MA 01854 USA
URL: http://dmsl.cs.uml.edu
E-mail: buford@cs.uml.edu

Abstract

HyTime defines an extensive meta-language for hypermedia documents, including general representations for links and anchors, a framework for positioning and projecting arbitrary objects in time and space, and a structured document query language. We propose a set of criteria for evaluating the HyTime model. We then review the model with respect to these criteria and describe our implementation experience. Our review indicates both the benefits and limitations of HyTime. These results are relevant to systems and applications designers who are considering HyTime, and also to possible future revisions of the standard.

Keywords

HyTime, hypermedia models, hypermedia standards

pp

105-115

References , Full text


 

Title

Systematic Hypermedia Application Design with OOHDM

Year1996

Author

1. D. Schwabe; 2. G. Rossi; 3.S. D. J. Barbosa

Affiliation

Departamento de Informatica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, R. Marques de Sao Vicente 225, Rio de Janeiro, RJ22453-900, Brazil
Tel. +55-21-529 9544
E-mail: {schwabe, rosi, sim} @inf.puc-rio.br
2. Also at LIFIA, F.Cs. Exactas-UNLP, and CONICET, Argentina

Abstract

In this paper we analyze the process of hypermedia applications design and implementation, focusing in particular on two critical aspects of these applications: the navigational and interface structure.

We discuss the way in which we build the navigation and abstract interface models using the Object-Oriented Hypermedia Design Method (OOHDM); we show which concerns must be taken into account for each task by giving examples from a real project we are developing, the Portinari Project. We show which implementation concerns must be considered when defining interface behavior, discussing both a Toolbook ad an HTML implementation of the example application.

Keywords

hypermedia design, methodology, modeling, object orientation, navigation, interfaces

pp

116-128

References , Full text


 

Title

The Flag Taxonomy of Open Hypermedia Systems

Year1996

Author

Kasper Osterbye, Uffe Kock Wiil

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 7E 9220 Aalborg Ost, Denmark.
E-mail: {Kasper, Kock} @iesd.auc.dk

Abstract

This paper presents a taxonomy for open hypermedia systems. The purpose of the Flag taxonomy is manifold: 1. To provide a framework to classify and concisely describe individual systems; 2. To characterize what an open hypermedia system is; 3. To provide a framework for comparing different systems in a system independent way; and 4. To provide an overview of the design space of open hypermedia systems.

The Flag taxonomy builds on the achievements of the Dexter model. It extends the terminology of the Dexter model to adequately cover issues that relate to open hypermedia systems such as integration and use of third-party applications to edit and display hypermedia components.

Two of the most prominent open hypermedia systems, DeVise Hypermedia and Microcosm, are used as case studies. The Flag taxonomy is used to compare these systems on a carefully selected set of aspects that distinguish open hypermedia systems from other hypermedia systems.

Keywords

open hypermedia systems, Dexter model, taxonomy, link protocol, third-party viewers, integration

pp

129-139

References , Full text


 

Title

The HyperDisco Approach to Open Hypermedia Systems

Year1996

Author

1. Uffe Kock Wiil; 2. John J. Leggett

Affiliation

1. Department of Computer Science, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 7E, 9220 Aalborg Ost, Denmark
E-mail: kock@iesd.auc.dk

2. Hypermedia Research Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3112, USA
E-mail: leggett@bush.cs.tamu.edu

Abstract

Computing support for large engineering enterprises provides an example of the need for hypermedia-based collaborative computing systems composed of a large number of distributed heterogeneous tools. These computing environments place complex requirements on the underlying hypermedia platform. To support integration of independently written tools for these environments, hypermedia platforms must address several important issues such as scalability, openness, distribution, heterogeneity, interoperability, extensibility and computation.

This paper describes the HyperDisco approach to open hypermedia systems. HyperDisco provides an extensible object-oriented hypermedia platform supporting inter-tool linking, computation, concurrency control, notification control, version control, access control, query and search, and various other features. The present work has two main objectives: 1. To provide a platform to integrate existing and future distributed heterogeneous tools and data formats and 2. To provide a platform to extend integrated tools to handle multiple collaborating users and multiple versions of shared artifacts. The paper presents important dimensions of hypermedia platforms that helped to formulate the goals for HyperDisco, the HyperDisco prototype, and two integration examples to illustrate the distinctive features of the HyperDisco approach.

Keywords

open hypermedia systems, integration, hypermedia platforms, collaborative work, system architectures, data models, inter-tool linking, link services, hyperbase management systems, scalability, openness, distribution, heterogeneity, interoperability, extensibility, computation

pp

140-148

References , Full text


 

Title

Toward a Dexter-based model for open hypermedia: Unifying embedded references and link objects

Year1996

Author

1. Kaj Gronbaek; 2. Randall H. Trigg

Affiliation

1. Computer Science Department, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade, Bldg. 540, DK 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark

2. Xerox PARC, 3333 Coyote Hill Road, Palo Alto, CA94304, USA

Abstract

The Dexter Hypertext Reference model is well suited to modelling anchor-based hypermedia systems and static hypermedia structures. But it is less clear that Dexter is adequate for systems whose linking is based on embedded references like the World Wide Web (WWW), nor for modelling the dynamic aspects of contemporary hypermedia systems like DHM and Microcosm. This paper proposes a new Dexter-based extensible object-oriented model designed to cover a broader spectrum of the features of contemporary hypermedia systems. The model introduces two new concepts, LocationSpecifiers and ReferenceSpecifiers, which let us model links as references embedded in documents as well as links as objects in separate databases. This suggests the idea of new systems that could support both styles as one step toward integrating global networked information sources with application-bridging systems on local hosts. In addition, our model is better equipped to handle dynamic hypermedia structures. As an example, a model of Microcosm’s Generic Link is given which extends that important concept in useful ways.

Keywords

open hypermedia, link objects, embedded links, Dexter hypertext reference model, dynamic hypermedia, generic links

pp

149-160

References , Full text


 

Title

A Study of Navigational Support Provided by Two World Wide Web Browsing Applications

Year1996

Author

1. Steve Jones; 2. Andy Cockburn

Affiliation

1. School of Informatics, University of Abertay Dundee, Dundee, DD1 1HG, Scotland
E-mail: steve.jons@tay.ac.uk
2. Department of Computer Science, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
E-mail: andy@cosc.canterbury.ac.nz

Abstract

This paper describes a usability study of the Hypertext navigation facilities provided by two popular World Wide Web client applications (also termed ‘browsers’). We detail the navigation tools provided by the clients and describe their underlying page retrieval models.

We introduce a notation that represents the system states resulting from the user’s navigation actions in World Wide Web subspaces. The notation is used to analyse the client applications. We find that the client user interfaces present a model of navigation that conflicts with the underlying stack-based system model.

A small usability study was carried out to investigate the effects of the clients’ browser behaviour on users. The study reveals that users have incorrect models of their navigation support, and they have little confidence in the application of their models when using the clients.

The paper concludes with a discussion of future work and a discussion of implications for WWW page and client designers.

Keywords

World Wide Web, hypermedia navigation, usability

pp

161-169

References , Full text


 

Title

Browsing the WWW by interacting with a textual virtual environment - A framework for experimenting with navigational metaphors

Year1996

Author

Andreas Dieberger

Affiliation

Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Literature, Communication and Culture, Altlanta, GA 30332-0165
Tel. (404) 894-2730
Fax. (404) 853-0373
E-mail: andreas.dieberger@lcc.gatech.edu

Abstract

This paper describes a system that combines a textual virtual environment (MOO-MUD Object Oriented) and a WWW browser. The MOO provides a text-only but information0rich spatial user interface in which objects and locations can be associated with pointers to WWW pages. When using a specialized MOO client, navigation in the MOO causes the corresponding Web pages to be loaded. The overall effect is the possibility to navigate the Web using spatial navigational metaphors. Textual virtual environments support the creation of diverse navigation tools and metaphors. The Juggler system we describe can thus serve as an experimental tool to explore diverse navigational metaphors for the WWW. The system uses references to Web pages which can be arranged in any possible way and allows users to overlay a new secondary structure on existing Web structures, even using Web pages not on one’s own Web server. Textual virtual environments further support almost real time communication and interaction between several users. Because of the extensive interaction possibilities, the Juggler system can be used to discuss material on the Web, conduct guided tours through the Web or give presentations using material available on the Web.

Keywords

WWW, navigation, spatial hypertext, metaphors, collaborative navigation

pp

170-179

References , Full text


 

Title

HyPursuit: A Hierarchical Network Search Engine that Exploits Content-Link Hypertext Clustering

Year1996

Author

Ron Weiss, Bienvenido Velez, Mark A. Sheldon, Chanathip Namprempre, Peter Szilagyi, Andrzej Duda, David K. Gifford

Affiliation

Programming Systems Research Group, MIT Laboratory for Computer Science, 545 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Tel. 1-617-253-6264
E-mail: rweiss@lcs.mit.edu

Abstract

HyPursuit is a new hierarchical network search engine that clusters hypertext documents to structure a given information space for browsing and search activities. Our content-link clustering algorithm is based on the semantic information embedded in hyperlink structures and document contents. HyPursuit admits multiple, coexisting cluster hierarchies based on different principles for grouping documents, such as the Library of Congress catalog scheme and automatically created hypertext clusters.

HyPursuits’s abstraction functions summarize cluster contents to support scalable query processing. The abstraction functions satisfy system resource limitations with controlled information loss. The result of query processing operations on a cluster summary approximates the result of performing the operations on the entire information space. We constructed a prototype system comprising 100 leaf World-Wide Web sites and a hierarchy of 42 servers that route queries to the leaf sites. Experience with our system suggests that abstraction functions based on hypertext clustering can be used to construct meaningful and scalable cluster hierarchies. We are also encouraged by preliminary results on clustering based on both document contents and hyperlink structures.

Keywords

network resource discover, hypertext clustering, hyperlink structures

pp

180-193

References , Full text


 

Title

Hypermedia Operating Systems: A New Paradigm for Computing

Year1996

Author

1. Peter J. Nurnberg; 2. John J. Leggett; 3. Erich R. Schneider; 4. John L. Schnase

Affiliation

1, 2, 3. Hypermedia Research Laboratory, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX77843-3112, USA
Tel. 1-409-862-3217
E-mail: {pnuern, legget, erich} @bush.cs.tamu.edu
4. Center for Botanical Informatics, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO63166-0299, USA
Tel. 1-324-577-9570

E-mail: schnase@mobot.org

Abstract

Hypermedia is often viewed as either a paradigm for human-computer interaction or information organization. Human-computer interaction provides a view of hypermedia that involves the creation, manipulation, and access of information through a "point-and-click" navigation mechanism. Information organization provides a view of hypermedia that involves the storage of information as a set of data and metadata objects, where metadata objects capture structural relationships among information objects. This paper describes a third view of hypermedia: hypermedia as a computing paradigm. In this paper, we explore the implications of pushing hypermedia beyond its traditional role in human-computer interaction and information organization into the computer’s core operating environment. We believe the resulting hypermedia operating systems provide a new paradigm for computing: one in which human-computer interaction, information storage and retrieval, programming, and control are integrated in a common conceptual framework. We discuss the basic concepts of hypermedia operating systems and describe a general hypermedia operating system architecture and prototype. While this work represents only a beginning, we feel that viewing hypermedia as a computing paradigm offers a broad new field of research.

Keywords

open hypermedia systems, operating systems, system architectures, hyperbases, link services, hypermedia applications

pp

194-202

References , Full text


 

Title

HyperStorM: An Extensible Object-Oriented Hypermedia Engine

Year1996

Author

Ajit Bapat, Jurgen Wasch, Karl Aberer, Jorg M. Haake

Affiliation

Integrated Publication and Information Systems Institute (GMD-IPSI), GMD - German National Research Center for Information Technology, Dolivostr. 15, D-64293 Darmstadt, Germany.
Tel. + 49-6151-869-(960, 959, 935, 918)
E-mail: {bapat, waesch, aberer, haake} @darmstadt.gmd.de

Abstract

It is a well-known problem that developers of hypermedia applications need assistance for modeling and maintaining application-specific hypermedia structures. In the past, various hypermedia engines have been proposed to support these tasks. Until now, hypermedia engines either provided a fixed hypermedia data model and left extensions to the hypermedia application, or they left the modeling of the hypermedia data completely to the application developer and only provided storage functionality which had to be plugged into the data model by the application developer. As an alternative, we propose an extensible object-oriented hypermedia engine which supports the specification of application semantics as application classes within the hypermedia engine, thereby supporting complex operations maintaining application-specific as well as application-independent constraints.

In the HyperStorM hypermedia engine, the storage layer and the application layer of a hypermedia system are implemented within the object-oriented database management system VODAK. Only the presentation layer is kept outside the OODBMS. This approach facilitates both the reuse of database functionality as well as the flexibility necessary to support the efficient development of different kinds of hypermedia applications. First evaluations show that our approach presents a much more powerful hypermedia engine than previous approaches, thus giving a new quality to hypermedia application development.

Keywords

hypermedia engine, open extensible hypermedia systems, database management system support for hypermedia applications

pp

203-214

References , Full text


 

Title

Media-Based Navigation with Generic Links

Year1996

Author

Paul H. Lewis, Hugh C. Davis, Steve R. Griffiths, Wendy Hall, Rob J. Wilkins

Affiliation

The Multimedia Research Group, Department of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK

E-mail: phl@ecs.soton.ac.uk

Abstract

Microcosm is an open architecture hypermedia system in which documents remain in their native format and link information is held in separate link databases, This has facilitated the introduction of generic links which, once authored from a text string to a destination anchor, may be followed from any occurrence of the text string in any document. The generic link provides substantial reductions in authoring effort for large hypermedia systems, but the limitation of the generic link to text string source authors needed to be addressed.

This paper describes extensions to the Microcosm architecture to create MAVIS, Microcosm Architecture for Video, Image and Sound, in which generic links may be used from both text and non-text media. This development makes it possible to navigate through nontext media using content as the key and, through the facilities of the dynamic link, content based retrieval is also available. Examples of content based navigation with image, video and sound are presented.

Keywords

open hypermedia, content based navigation, information retrieval

pp

215-223

References , Full text


 

Title

VerSE: Towards Hypertext Versioning Styles

Year1996

Author

Anja Haake and David Hicks

Affiliation

GMD - German National Research Center for Information Technology, IPSI - Integrated Publication and Information Systems Institute, Dolivostr. 15, D-64392 Darmstadt, Germany
E-mail: (ahaake, hicks) @darmstadt.gmd.de

Abstract

Much of the previous work on version support for hypertext has focused primarily on the development of functionality for specific hypertext systems and/or a specific hypertext application domain. Although these models address crucial version support problems in specific hypertext application domains, they cannot be easily adapted and then integrated into other hypertext applications.

Hypertext version support environments have been introduced to help alleviate these problems. They are designed to meet the version support needs of a wide range of hypertext applications. However, so far few high level versioning facilities have been constructed in these environments, creating a gap between the facilities provided directly within the environment and the versioning needs of some applications.

The intent of this research is to bridge this gap. It turned out that task based versioning styles are easy to use by both hypertext application developers and hypertext application users. As shown in previous work, task-based versioning helps to alleviate cognitive overhead and disorientation problems for users. In addition, it requires little investment from the point of view of application development, since task-based versioning does not necessarily require an application to incorporate an extra notion for individual versions. This paper presents a set of task-based hypertext versioning styles that are offered in the VerSE flexible version support environment and shows the direction towards the design of additional versioning styles.

Keywords

version support, control, version support environment, versioning styles, policies, task-based versioning

pp

224-234

References , Full text


 

Title

Logic Programming with the World-Wide Web

Year1996

Author

Seng Wai Loke and Andrew Davison

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia
Tel: +613 9344 {9170, 9172}
E-mail: {swloke, ad} @cs.mu.oz.au

Abstract

We introduce LogicWeb, an integration of structured logic programming and the World-Wide Web. We show how LogicWeb enables programmable behaviour and state to be incorporated into Web pages, allowing them to be viewed as modules or objects with state. LogicWeb renders a Web page as a live information entity, able to determine its own response to user queries, and modify the behaviour of hyperlinks. This amalgamation of logic and the Web makes it possible to reason with Web pages, state relationships between pages, and dynamically generate pages. A prototype system is described which extends Mosaic with LogicWeb capabilities using the Common Client Interface. In addition, we outline a client-based search tool written with LogicWeb and compare it with an existing package.

Keywords

World-Wide Web, structured logic programming, mobile code, Mosaic, common client interface, prolog

pp

235-242

References , Full text


 

Title

Experiences in Developing Collaborative Applications Using the World Wide Web "Shell"

Year1996

Author

1. Andreas Girgensohn; 2. Alison Lee; 3. Kevin Schlueter

Affiliation

1, 2, 3. NYNEX Science and Technology, 500 Westchester Avenue, White Plains, NY 10604
3. University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A4

E-mails: {andreasg, alee, kevins} @nynexst.com

Abstract

The components of the World Wide Web which we call the World Wide Web shell, provide a framework for collaborative application development in much the same way as an expert system shell does for expert system development. This development is quick enough to support rapid prototyping. Once the collaborative application is developed, the WWW Shell facilitates the distribution of the application and its data to geographically-separated users on diverse computing platforms. We have developed and deployed two collaborative applications. Design Intent and NYNEX Portholes, using the WWW Shell. These applications are described and our experiences developing them with the WWW Shell are detailed. In the process of developing these applications, we discovered limitations of the WWW Shell which we present, along with suggested modifications and extensions to address them.

Keywords

collaborative application, World Wide Web, rapid prototyping, HTTP server and clients, Portholes, Design Intent, forms and scripts, work groups, community of users, awareness and familiarization

pp

246-255

References , Full text


1997 Hypertext Conference

 

Title

An Architectural Model for Application Integration in Open Hypermedia Environments

Year1997

Author

E. J. Whitehead Jr.

Affiliation

Department of Information and Computer Science, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA92697-3425
Tel. +1 714 824-4121
E-mail: ejw@ics.uci.edu

Abstract

This paper provides an architectural framework for modeling third-party application integrations with open hypermedia systems, which collects and extends the integration experience of the open hypermedia community. The framework is used to characterize applications prior to integration, and describe the qualities of a complete integration. Elements of the architectural model are artists, which are used to manipulate anchors, links, and native application objects; communicators, which manage information flow to and from the open hypermedia system; and containers which group the other elements. Prior integration experience is collected in a standard way using the model. Guidance in selecting the final integration architecture is provided by this prior integration experience, in conjunction with the degree of difficulty of an integration, which is related to the integration architecture.

Keywords

open hypermedia systems, third-party applications, integration, software architecture

pp

1-11

References , Full text


 

 

Title

Workspaces: The HyperDisco Approach to Internet Distribution

Year1997

Author(s)

1. U. K. Wiil 2. J. J. Leggett

Affiliation

1. Department of Computer Science, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 7E, 9220 Aalborg Ost, Denmark.
E-mail: kock@cs.auc.dk

2. Center for the Study of Digital Libraries, Department of Computer Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3112, USA

E-mail: leggett@cs.tamu.edu

Abstract

Hypermedia concepts are currently being deployed in a variety of information systems such as the World Wide Web, software development environments, large engineering enterprises, collaborative authoring systems, and digital library systems. The complex requirements of these application areas have resulted in extensive research into hypermedia infrastructures.

The HyperDisco project is about design, development, deployment and assessment of hypermedia infrastructures. Previous Hyperdisco experiments have dealt with integration fo a small set of tools supporting authoring and extension of the integrated tools to support multiple collaborating users and multiple versions of shared files. These experiments were conducted on a local area network using a single centralized workspace. The latest version of HyperDisco supports collaboration and versioning over multiple workspaces distributed across the Internet. This paper gives a brief overview of HyperDisco, describes the workspace concept and reports on the latest experiments: (1) an experiment that allows the use of multiple workspaces on a local area network, (2) an experiment that allows workspaces to be distributed across the Internet, and (3) an experiment focusing on hypermedia modeling and presentation issues of distributed workspaces.

Keywords

distributed workspaces, hypermedia infrastructure, Internet distribution, open hypermedia system, link replication, name service, hypermedia presentation

pp

13-23

References , Full text


 

Title

‘Our Words Were the Form we Entered’: A Model of World Wide Web Hypertext

Year1997

Author

Loss Pequeno Glazier

Affiliation

Associate Librarian, University Libraries - Director’s Office, 432 Capen Hall, North Campus, University of Buffalo, New York
Tel: +1 716 645 3547
E-mail: lolpoet@acsu.buffalo.edu

Abstract

Poetry has entered the electronic landscape. Even if such a landscape suggests images of electronic video games or machine-readable iambics swooning under the influence of a science fiction lexicon, the fact is that the electronic world is a world predominantly of writing. Though this writing often seems eclipsed by its mode of transmission (electronic mail and the World Wide Web as primary instances), in this it is not unlike all previous writing, which has also been eclipsed by modes of transmission. (For example, the book, the stone tablet, the scroll.) Electronic writing, like previous instances of writing, equally engages the double "mission" of writing: to varying degrees, writing is about a subject, but also about the medium through which it is transmitted. "Transmission" then, suggests both the circulation of texts and the cross-purpose ("trans" = across or to cross + "mission" = purpose or intention) of inscription.

Keywords

 

pp

24-28

References , Full text


 

Title

Scholarly Hypertext: Self-Represented Complexity

Year1997

Author

David Kolb

Affiliation

Department of Philosophy, Bates College, Lewiston, ME 04240 USA
Tel: 207 786 6308
E-mail: dkolb@bates.edu

Abstract

Scholarly hypertexts involve argument and explicit self-questioning, and can be distinguished from both informational and literary hypertexts. After making these distinctions the essay presents general principles about attention, some suggestions for self-representational multi-level structures that would enhance scholarly inquiry, and a wish list of software capabilities to support such structures. The essay concludes with a discussion of possible conflicts between scholarly inquiry and hypertext.

Keywords

hypertext rhetoric, argument, scholarship, typed nodes, typed links, self-representation

pp

29-37

References , Full text


 

Title

Designing Modal Hypermedia Applications

Year1997

Author

1. Franca Garzotto, 2. Luca Mainetti, 3. Paolo Paolini

Affiliation

1., 2. HOC-Hypermedia Open Center, Politecnico di Milano, Italy
3. Telemedia Lab, University of Lecce, Italy
E-mail: {garzotto, maintetti, paolini} @elet.polimi.it

Abstract

Different users of a hypermedia application may require different combinations of modes, ie, different ways of perceiving the content or different ways of interaction. Multimodality - intended as the coexistence of multiple combinations of modes in the same application - can improve application richness and can accommodate the needs of different categories of users. On the other hand, multimodality increases complexity and may affect usability, since a variety of different interaction styles may be disorienting for the users. Designing an effective multimode hypermedia is a difficult problem. This paper discusses this issue, presenting a taxonomy of different kinds of modes in hypermedia applications and introducing the concept of model hypermedia interaction. Modal interaction means that the semantics of normal application commands are dependent not only on the application state, as usual, but also on mode setting. We introduce a formal model for modal hypermedia interaction that helps us to analyse more precisely design alternatives and their impact on usability. We illustrate our approach by examples from a museum hypermedia called "Polyptych" that we actually built.

Keywords

modal interaction, usability, hypermedia, application design, hypermedia models

pp

38-47

References , Full text


 

Title

Initial Design and Evaluation of an Interface to Hypermedia Systems for Blind Users

Year1997

Author

1. Helen Petrie; 2. Sarah Morley; 3. Peter McNally; 4. Anne-Marie O’Neill; 5. Dennis Majoe

Affiliation

1-4: Sensory Disabilities Research Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts., AL10 9AB, UK.
Tel. +44 1707 284629
E-mail: {h.l.petrie, s.morley, p.mcnally, a.m.o-neill}@herts.ac.uk

5. M.A. Systems and Control Ltd., 2 West Links, The Business Village, Tollgate, Eastleigh,Hants., SO53 3TG, UK.
Tel. +44 1703 650999
E-mail: majoe@ibm.net

Abstract

Access to information in electronic forms is currently difficult for blind people, but electronic information, particularly hypermedia, provide great potential to overcome the difficulties that blind people have in accessing information. The E.U. funded ACCESS Project is developing tools to facilitate user interfaces which will be adaptable to the needs of different user groups. One demonstrator developed with these tools is a hypermedia system for blind students. This paper presents the initial designs for the hypermedia system which has a non-visual interface named DAHNI (Demonstrator of the ACCESS Hypermedia Non-visual Interface). DAHNI can be used with a variety of assistive input/output systems for blind users. Output from the system includes synthetic and digitised speech, non-speech sounds and refreshable Braille; input to the system can be via a small or large touchtablet, joystick, and/or conventional keyboard. This paper presents an evaluation of DAHNI by seven blind and partially sighted students. Plans for further development and evaluation of the system are also discussed.

Keywords

blind users, user interfaces for hypermedia, usability evaluation, user testing

pp

48-56

References , Full text


 

 

Title

Design Reuse in Hypermedia Applications Development

Year1997

Author

1. Gustavo Rossi; 2. Daniel Schwabe; 3. Alejandra Garrido

Affiliation

1. LIFIA, Fac. Cs. Exactas, UNLP, Argentina, and CONICET
E-mail: gustava@sol.info.unlp.edu.ar
2. Departamento de Informatica, PUC-RIO, Brazil

E-mail:schwabe@inf.puc-rio.br

3. LIFIA, Fac. Cs. Exactas, UNLP, Argentina
E-mailL garrido@sol.info.unlp.edu.ar

Abstract

In this paper we discuss the use of design patterns for the process of building hypermedia applications. The idea of design patterns has been recently developed, and rapidly spread outside the object-oriented community to a general audience of software developers. By using patterns it is not only possible to document design experience with a very simple and comprehensible format, but also reuse the same experience several times for different applications. We argue that the hypermedia community will take a vital step towards better designs of hypermedia applications and systems by developing a pattern language for that domain.

Keywords

design patterns, pattern languages, hypermedia design, navigation, interface

pp

57-66

References , Full text


 

Title

What the Query Told the Link: The Integration of Hypertext and Information Retrieval

Year1997

Author

Gene Golovchinsky

Affiliation

FX Palo Alto Laboratory, 3400 Hillview Avenue, Bldg. 4, Palo Alto, CA 94304
Tel. +1 415 813-7361
E-mail: gene@pal.xerox.com

Abstract

Traditionally hypertexts have been limited in size by the manual effort required to create hypertext links. In addition, large hyper-linked collections may overwhelm users with the range of possible links from any node, only a fraction of which may be appropriate for a given user at any time. This work explores automatic methods of link construction based on feedback from users collected during browsing. A full-text search engine mediates the linking process. Query terms that distinguish well among documents in the database become candidate anchors; links are mediated by passage-based relevance feedback queries. The newspaper metaphor is used to organise the retrieval results.

VOIR, a software prototype that implements these algorithms has been used to browse a 74,500 node (250MB) database of newspaper articles. An experiment has been conducted to test the relative effectiveness of dynamic links and user-specified queries. Experimental results suggest that link-mediated queries are more effective than user-specified queries in retrieving relevant information. The paper concludes with a discussion of possible extensions to the linking algorithms.

Keywords

dynamic hypertext, information retrieval, information exploration, browsing, relevance feedback, newspaper metaphor

pp

67-74

References , Full text


 

Title

Object-based Navigation: An Intuitive Navigation Style for Content-oriented Integration Environment

Year1997

Author

1. Kyoji Hirata; 2. Sougata Mukherjea; 3. Yusaku Okamura; 4. Wen-Syan Li; 5. Yoshinori Hara

Affiliation

1, 2, 4, 5. C& C Research Laboratories, NEC USA Inc., 110 Rio Robles, San Jose, California, USA
Tel. +1 408 943 3002
E-mail: {hirata, sougata, wen, hara}@ccrl.sj.nec.com

3. Stanford University, 110 Rio Robles, San Jose, California, USA

Tel. +1 408 943 3002
E-mail: okamura@ccrl.sj.nec.com

Abstract

In this paper we present the idea of object-based navigation. Object-based navigation is a navigation style based upon the characteristics at the object level, that is contents of the objects and the relationship among the objects. With object-based navigation, users can specify a set of objects and their relationship. The system creates queries from the users’ input and determines links dynamically based on matching between this query and indices. Various kinds of attributes including conceptual and media-based characteristics are integrated at the object level. We introduced this navigation style into the content-oriented integration environment to manage a large quantity of multimedia data.

COIR (Content Oriented Information Retrieval tool), an object-based navigation tool for content-oriented integrated hypermedia systems is introduced. We show how this tool works in indexing and navigating multimedia data. Using COIR we have developed the directory service systems for the World-Wide Web and have evaluated the navigational capability and extensibility of our tools. Multimedia search engines including COIR extract the characteristics from multimedia data at any web site automatically. Extracted characteristics are connected with each other semi-automatically and utilized in the navigational stage. With this system, users can execute the navigation based on the relationship between objects as well as the contents of the objects. In this paper, we present how the COIR tool increases the navigational capabilities for hypermedia systems.

Keywords

object-based navigation, relationship among objects, object-level integration, content-oriented integration, COIR, World-Wide Web

pp

75-85

References , Full text


 

Title

Query-based Navigation in Semantically Indexed Hypermedia

Year1997

Author

1. Daniel Cunliffe; 2. Carl Taylor; 3. Douglas Tudhope

Affiliation

1. Hypermedia Research Unit, Department of Computer Studies, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, CF37 1DL, UK
Tel. +44 1443 482718
E-mail: djcunlif@glamorgan.ac.uk

2. DK Multimedia, 9 Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, London WC2E 8PS, UK
E-mail: cdtaylor@dkmm.co.uk

3. Hypermedia Research Unit, Department of Computer Studies, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, CF37 1DL, UK
Tel. +44 1443 482271

E-mail: dstudhope@glamorgan.ac.uk

Abstract

This paper discusses an approach to navigation based on queries made possible by a semantic hypermedia architecture. Navigation via query offers an augmented browsing capacity based on measures of semantic closeness between terms in an index space that models the classification of artefacts within a museum collection management system. The paper discusses some of the possibilities that automatic traversal of relationships in the index space holds for hybrid query/navigation tools, such as navigation via similarity and query generalisation. The example scenario suggests that, although these tools are implemented by complex queries, they fit into a browsing rather than an analytical style of access. Such hybrid navigation tools are capable of overcoming some of the limitations of manual browsing and contributing to a smooth transition between browsing and query. A prototype implementation of the architecture is described, along with details of a social history application with three dimensions of classification schema in the index space. The paper discusses how queries can be used as the basis for navigation, and argues that this is integral to current efforts to integrate hypermedia and information retrieval.

Keywords

hypermedia, semantic index space, semantic closeness, query-based navigation, cultural heritage, museums

pp

87-94

References , Full text


 

Title

As We Should Have Thought

Year1997

Author

P. J. Nurnberg, J. J. Leggett, E. R. Schneider

Affiliation

Hypermedia Research Laboratory, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX77843-3112 USA
Tel. +1-409-862-3217
E-mail: {pnuern, leggett, erich}@bush.cs.tamu.edu

Abstract

The hypermedia field has long realized the need for first-class structural abstractions. However, we have failed to generalize the concept of ubiquitous structure management to problem domains other than navigation of information spaces. In this paper, we argue for the recognition of such a generalization, called structural computing, in which we assert the primacy of structure over data. We provide examples of four problem domains that are more naturally modeled with structure than data. We argue that support for structural computing must come in the form of new models, operating systems, and programming languages. We also assert that the experience gained by hypermedia researchers over the last decade may be naturally extended to form the basis of the new field of structural computing, and furthermore, the broadening of the applicability of our work is necessary for the continued vitality of our research community.

Keywords

models of computation, hypermedia operating systems, hypermedia models, spatial hypertext, taxonomic hypertext, open hypermedia systems, hyperbases, structural computing

pp

96-101

References , Full text


 

Title

A Navigation-Oriented Hypertext Model Based on Statecharts

Year1997

Author

1. M. A. S. Turine; 2. A. C. F. de Oliveira; 3. P. C. Masiero

Affiliation

1. Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 369, 13560-970 - Sao Carlos, SP, Brasil.
Tel. +55 16 2749193
E-mail: mast@icmsc.sc.usp.br

2. and 3. Instituto de Ciencias Matematicas de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 668, 13560-970 - Sao Carlos, SP, Brasil.
Tel. +55 16 2749136
E-mail: {ferreira, masiero} @icmsc.sc.usp.br

Abstract

In this paper we present a navigation-oriented model for hyperdocument specification based on statecharts. The HMBS (Hypertext Model Based on Statecharts) model uses the structure and execution semantics of statecharts to specify both the structural organization and the browsing semantics of a hyperdocument. The formal definition of the model is presented, as well as its associated browsing semantics. A short discussion on the model’s capabilities is also provided. A prototype hypertext system which implements HMCS as its underlying model for hyperdocument authoring and browsing is introduced, and some examples are presented that illustrate the application of the model.

Keywords

hypertext document model, statecharts, browsing semantics, HMBS, hierarchical views

pp

102-111

References , Full text


 

Title

Supporting User-defined Activity Spaces

Year1997

Author

Weigang Wang and Jorg Haake

Affiliation

GMD - German National Research Center for Information Technology
IPSI - Integrated Publication and Information Systems Institute, Dolivostrasse 15, D-64293 Darmstadt, Germany
Tel. +49 6151 869 917 or 918
E-mail: {wwang, haake} @darmstadt.gmd.de

Abstract

Activity spaces are usually task-specific and only common to a group of people who work together in a certain application domain. It is desirable to enable users to define and modify activity spaces according to their needs. However, many users are unable to use a pre-defined activity space correctly, or incapable of formally defining an activity space. This work tries to solve these problems 1) by developing a flexible hypertext meta-model which can represent activity space semantics; 2) developing an example-based definition tool for users to create task-specific activity spaces; 3) providing intelligent aid in using these activity spaces, and 4) providing a flexible space for adopting existing and emergent patterns. A system (COWFISH) with the above components has been implemented and tested at CMD-IPSI. Examples and initial applications have shown that using the system users can easily define the schemata of many activity spaces and hyperdocuments. They can also create new activity spaces with stepwise structure transformation and through reusing existing activity spaces. The system then uses the schema knowledge to maintain the semantic consistency of the activity space instances and to provide users with context-sensitive examples, choices, and explanations.

Keywords

activity space, hypertext model, semantic net, schema definition, schema integration, intelligent system, object-oriented system

pp

112-123

References , Full text


 

Title

Spatial Hypertext and the Practice of Information Triage

Year1997

Author

Catherine C. Marshall and Frank M. Shipman III

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-3112
Tel. +415 812-4288
E-mail: marshall@parc.xerox.com shipman@cs.tamu.edu

Abstract

Information triage is the process of sorting through relevant materials, and organizing them to meet the needs of the task at hand. It is a practice that has become increasingly common with the advent of "at your fingertips" information resources. To explore the characteristics of information triage and its interaction with spatial hypertext, a medium we claim supports the process, we have studied subjects engaged in a time-constrained decision-making task using a large set of relevant documents. We use the study task to investigate information triage under three different conditions: one in which the participants used paper documents, and two others in which the participants used variants of VIKI, a spatial hypertext system. Our findings suggest that during information triage attentional resources are devoted to evaluating materials and organizing them, so they can be read and reread as they return to mind. Accordingly, hypertext tools to support the practice should facilitate the rapid assimilation and assessment of new material, aid in the creation and management of a fluid category structure, allow readers to track their own progress through the information, and use minimum-effort methods to promote the intelligibility of results.

Keywords

information triage, analysis, information workspaces, qualitative study, gathering interfaces, spatial hypertext, VIKI, digital libraries

pp

124-133

References , Full text


 

Title

A Large-Scale Hypermedia Application using Document Management and Web Technologies

Year1997

Author

1. V. Balasubramanian; 2. Alf Bashian; 3. Daniel Porcher

Affiliation

1. President, E-Papyrus Inc., 63E Reading Road, Edison, NJ 08817, USA
Tel/Fax: 1-908-548-7868
E-mail: bala@e-papyrus.com

2. System Architect, Merrill Lynch, 400 College Road East, Princeton, NJ 08540m USA
Tel. 1-609-282-4717
E-mail: alf_bashian@ml.com
3. System Architect, Merrill Lynch, 400 College Road East, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
Tel. 1-609-282-4722
E-mail: daniel_porcher@ml.com

Abstract

Merrill Lynch has initiated a major effort called the Trusted Global Advisor to provide instantaneous access to current financial information to about 20,000 financial consultants and other professionals across the corporation. As part of this effort, marketing information about products and services will be delivered to financial consultants, clients, and the general public through an intranet and the Internet. A number of researchers have reported on the requirements for industrial strength hypermedia. In this paper, we present a case study on how we have designed a large-scale hypermedia authoring and publishing system using document management and Web technologies to satisfy our authoring, management, and delivery needs. We describe our systematic design and implementation approach to satisfy requirements such as a distributed authoring environment for non-technical authors, templates, consistent user interface, reduced maintenance, access control, version control, concurrency control, document management, link management, workflow, editorial and legal reviews, assembly of different views for different target audiences, and full-text and attribute-based information retrieval. We also report on design trade-offs due to limitations with current technologies. It is our conclusion that large scale Web development should be carried out only through careful planning and a systematic design methodology.

Keywords

WWW, document management, workflow, systematic hypermedia design, distributed authoring, publishing, views, templates, information retrieval

pp

134-145

References , Full text


 

Title

Designing Dexter-based hypermedia services for the World Wide Web

Year1997

Author

K. Gronbaek, N. O. Bouvin, L. Sloth

Affiliation

Computer Science Department, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade, Bldg. 540, 8000 Arhus C, Denmark
Tel. +45 8942 3188
E-mail {kgronbak, bouvin, les} @daimi.aau.dk

Abstract

this paper discusses how to augment the WWW with a Dexter-based hypermedia service that provides anchors, links and composites as objects stored external to the Web pages. The hypermedia objects are stored in an object-oriented database that is accessible on the Web via an ordinary URL. The Dexter-based hypermedia service is based on the Devise Hypermedia framework. Three client solutions are described and discussed, one that is platform independent based on Netscape Navigator 3.0, utilizing Java, Javascript, and LiveConnect, and two that are platform dependent, one utilizing Netscape plug-ins, and another using Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.0, utlizing mainly ActiveX. The server part is developed as a specialization of the Devise Hypermedia framework accessible through CGI scripts. Thus the system provides the full power of Dexter-based hypermedia to arbitrary Web pages on the Internet. This includes the ability for multiple users to create links from parts of HTML Web pages they do not own and support for creating links to parts of Web pages without writing HTML target tags. Support for providing links to/from parts of non-HTML data, such as Quicktime movies or VRML documents will also be possible in the future provided that appropriate open plug-in modules become available.

Keywords

open hypermedia service, link objects, World Wide Web, HTML, Dexter hypertext reference model, Java, JavaScript, ActiveX, OLE

pp

146-156

References , Full text


 

Title

Integrating Open Hypermedia Systems with the World Wide Web

Year1997

Author

K. M. Anderson

Affiliation

Department of Information and Computer Science, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-3425
Fax: +1 714-824-4056
E-mail: kanderso@ics.uci.edu

Abstract

Research on open hypermedia systems (OHSs) has been conducted since the late Eighties. These systems employ a variety of techniques to provide hypermedia services to a diverse range of applications. The World Wide Web is the largest distributed hypermedia system in use and was developed largely independent of the research in OHSs. The popularity of the Web along with problems inherent in its design has motivated OHS researchers to integrate their systems with it. This research has primarily focused on enhancing the functionality of the Web via the services of an OHS. This paper presents three experiments exploring the integration of the Chimera OHS with the Web. While one of the experiments indeed describes work which enhances the Web, the other two investigate ways in which the Web can beneficially enhance an OHS. The paper concludes with a call for both communities to continue research which focuses on integration.

Keywords

Chimera, integration, open hypermedia systems, World Wide Web

pp

157-166

References , Full text


 

Title

Hypertext Paths and the World-Wide Web: Experiences with Walden’s Paths

Year1997

Author

R. Furuta, F. M. Shipman III, C. C. Marshall, D. Brenner, H. Hsieh

Affiliation

Center for the Study of Digital Libraries and Department of Computer Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-3112, USA
E-mail: {furuta, shipman, marshall, dbrenner, haowei} @csdl.tamu.edu

Abstract

Walden’s Paths applies the concept of hypertextual paths to the World-Wide Web. Walden’s Paths is being developed for use in the K-12 school environment. The heterogeneity of the Web coupled with the desirability of supporting the teacher-student relationship make this an interesting and challenging project. We describe the Walden’s Paths implementation, discuss the elements that affected its design and architecture, and report on our experiences with the system in use.

Keywords

Walden’s Paths, hypertext tours and paths, meta-structure, educational applications

pp

167-176

References , Full text


 

Title

Structuring and Visualising the WWW by Generalised Similarity Analysis

Year1997

Author

Chaomei Chen

Affiliation

Department of Computer Studies, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, G4 0BA, UK
Tel. +44 141 3313288
E-mail: cch@gcal.ac.uk

Abstract

This paper describes a generic approach to structuring and visualising a hypertext-based information space on the WWW. This approach, called Generalised Similarity Analysis (GSA), provides a unifying framework for extracting structural patterns from a range of proximity data concerning three fundamental relationships in hypertext, namely, hypertext linkage, content similarity and browsing patterns. GSA emphasizes the integral role of users’ interests in dynamically structuring the underlying information space. Pathfinder networks are used as a natural vehicle for structuring and visualising the rich structure of an information space by highlighting salient relationships in proximity data. In this paper, we use the GSA framework in the study of hypertext documents automatically retrieved over the Internet, including a number of departmental WWW sites and conference proceedings on the WWW. We show that GSA has several distinct features for structuring and visualising hypertext information spaces. GSA provides some generic tools for developing adaptive user interfaces to hypertext systems. Link structures derived by GSA can be used together with dynamic linking mechanisms to produce a number of hypertext versions of a common information space.

Keywords

WWW, Pathfinder networks, structural analysis, information visualisation, sequential behavioural patterns

pp

177-186

References , Full text


 

Title

Focus+Context Views of the World-Wide Web Nodes

Year1997

Author

S. Mukherjea , Y. Hara

Affiliation

C&C Research Laboratories, NEC USA Inc., San Jose, Ca, USA
E-mail: {sougata,hara}@ccrl.sj.nec.com

Abstract

With the explosive growth of information that is available on the World-Wide Web, it is very easy for the user to get lost in hyperspace. When the user feels lost, some idea of the position of the current node in the overall information space will help to orient the user. Therefore we have developed a technique to form focus+context views of World-Wide Web nodes. The view shows the immediate neighborhood of the current node and its position with respect to the important (landmark) nodes in the information space. The views have been used to enhance a Web search engine. We have also used the landmark nodes and the focus+context views in forming overview diagrams of Web sites.

Keywords

World-Wide Web, landmarks, information visualization, overview diagrams

pp

187-196

References , Full text


 

Title

The Aleph: A tool to spatially represent user knowledge about the WWW docuverse

Year1997

Author

Fernando Das Neves

Affiliation

LIFIA-Fac.Ciencias Exactas - Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Depto de Informatica - 50 y 115, 1er piso, (1900) La Plata, Argentina
E-mail: babel17@sol.info.unlp.edu.ar

Abstract

One of the most elusive targets in hypermedia research has been to provide effective support for user navigation. The popularity of the World Wide Web and its inherent vastness has only made things worse: many of the tools that were proposed to alleviate this problem in closed systems do not scale well when applied to WWW. We designed a tool, that we call The Aleph, that addresses the support of user navigation with two views, known as the Travel Map and the Content View. The Travel Map assists the user at the stage of travelling through the docuverse, and the Content View helps him at the moment of recalling and organizing the known space. We developed a novel approach based on document collections, that takes advantage of 3D space, to give much more information than is usually available in 2D representations, and to simplify the map layouts. The maps provide a framework that relates document and terms with specific positions in space. The structure of the paper is as follows: Section 1 positions The Aleph in the context of a large-scale hypertext system as WWW. Section 2 shows the structure of The Aleph, the two views it provides, explains why to use different views, how they are related, and how they work. Finally Section 3 relates The Aleph to other tools that address similar user needs and design objectives.

Keywords

Web visualization, spatial metaphors, Navigation tools

pp

197-207

References , Full text


 

Title

Distributed Link Service in the Aquarelle Project

Year1997

Author

Antoine Rizk

Affiliation

Euroclid (France)
E-mail: Antoine.Rizk@inria.fr

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to describe briefly the Aquarelle project and the type of distributed link service we are implementing to meet its requirements.

Keywords

link service, open hypermedia systems

pp

208-209

References , Full text


 

Title

The World Wide Web: What Cost Simplicity?

Year1997

Author

1. Brian C. Ladd; 2. Michael V. Capps; 3. P. David Stotts

Affiliation

1, 3. Department of Computer Science, University of Northh Carolina at Chapel hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
E-mail: {ladd, stotts} @cs.unc.edu

2. MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
E-mail: capps@lcs.mit.edu

Abstract

The ubiquity of the World Wide Web owes much to the simplicity of its graph model. Unfortunately, that graph model omits powerful features found in traditional hypertext systems: concurrency and synchronization. These shortcomings are addressed in an extensible manner as part of the Multi-head, Multi-head, Multi-client Browsing Project; our research is focused on extending the Web Web through the use of the more powerful link semantics.

Keywords

hypertext, World Wide Web, concurrency, synchronization, link semantics, browsing, automata

pp

210-211

References , Full text


 

Title

Exploiting Serendipity Amongst Users to Provide Support for Hypertext Navigation

Year1997

Author

1. G. Hill; 2. G. Hutchings; 3. R. James; 4. S. Loades; 5. J. Hale; 6. M. Hatzopulous

Affiliation

1. Multicosm Ltd., 2 Venture Road, Southampton, SO16 7NP, UK
Tel. +44 1703 767678
E-mail: gjh@multicosm.com
2. Parallel Applications Centre
Tel. +44 1703 760834
E-mail: gah@pac.soton.ac.uk
3. Glaxo Wellcome R&D Ltd.
Tel. +44 181 966 4476
E-mail: rj9588@ggr.co.uk
4. Unichema International
Tel. +31 182 542806
E-mail: steve.loades@unichema.com
5. IBEX Object Systems Ltd.
Tel. +44 1202 432752
E-mail:100112.1272@CompuServe.com
6. University of Athens, Department of Informatics
Tel. +30 1 721 7941
E-mail: mike@di.uoa.gr

Abstract

The aim of the MEMOIR Project is to demonstrate the applicability and integration of advanced, distributed multimedia information systems to support the management of, and access to, diverse sources of technical information in large R*D based corporations. The key technologies within the system are an object-oriented database, hypermedia link services and autonomous software agents.

Keywords

Navigation, user trails, corporate memory, knowledge management

pp

212-213

References , Full text


 

Title

A User Adaptive Navigation Metaphor to Connect and Rate the Coherence of Terms and Complex Objects

Year1997

Author

1. H. Husemann; 2. J. Petersen; 3. C. Kanty; 4. H-D. Kochs; 5. P. Hase

Affiliation

1,2,3,4. Maschinenbau Technische Informatik, Gerhard-Mercator Universitat, GH Duisburg, D-47048, Duisburg, Germany
Tel. +49 203 379 2712
E-mail: husemann@mti.uni-duisburg.de

5. Huttenwerke Krupp-Mannesmann, Ehinger Str. 200, D-47251 Duisburg, Germany
Tel: +49 203 999 2050

Abstract

In many aspects research in the area of hypertext trends from static to dynamically created structures due to vast amounts of offered information. To dynamically generate relevant information nodes knowledge about an individual user and his task, together with intelligent filtering methods can be used. Terms, organized in hierarchies, describe employees, groups of employees, machines, objects, products, processes and functions. Choosing terms specifying the actual task defines a special context which describes the relation and connection of units of information and therefore the user’s individual view of the hypertext. Simultaneously it will be meaningful to look at similar contexts of other users or working groups to compare and possibly add further units of information into the user’s private area. A system can be adaptive in the sense that units of information will be copied into a working group area if more than a certain percentage of its members will regard this information as important and vice versa. The described navigation metaphor was designed to enable the maintenance crew of a steel mill to access company-wide (hypermedia) information systems.

Keywords

navigation metaphor, spatial hypertext, open hypertext, filtering agents, adaptive user interface

pp

214-215

References , Full text


 

Title

Style Sheet Support for Hypermedia Documents

Year1997

Author

1. J. van Ossenbruggen; 2. L. Hardman; 3. L. Rutledge; 4. A. Eliens

Affiliation

1, 4. Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1081a, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
E-mail: {jrvosse, eliens} @ cs.vu.nl

2, 3. CWI, PO Box 94079, 1090 GB Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
E-mail: {lynda, lloyd} @cwi.nl

Abstract

Hypermedia documents are most often created with a particular presentation environment in mind. This requires the authoring of one document per presentation platform. As pointed out, much implementation effort can be avoided by specifying how the same underlying document can be presented in different environments. A style sheet defines a mapping from a source document to a presentation for it. We discuss the existing use of style sheets as applied to text and discuss their application to the case of hypermedia, and in particular how they need to be extended.

Keywords

style sheets, temporal specifications, structural transformations

pp

216-217

References , Full text


 

Title

A Generic Dynamic-Mapping Wrapper for Open Hypertext System Support of Analytical Applications

Year1997

Author

1. C-M. Chiu; 2. M. Bieber

Affiliation

1. The New Jersey Centre for Multimedia Research, Rutgers University, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102, USA

E-mail: chchiu@pegasus.rutgers.edu
2. The New Jersey Centre for Multimedia Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102, USA.
E-mail: bieber@cis.njit.edu
http://megahertz.njit.edu/~bieber

Abstract

Hypertext should augment everyday analytical applications with supplemental navigation, structuring and annotative features. Because analytical applications generate their screen contents in real time, hypertext constructs and navigation paths must be generated and mapped in real time. We are developing a hypertext engine that provides dynamic mapping automatically for any analytical application. We propose a standard, generic open hypertext system (OHS) wrapper for back-end or storage-level components that dynamically generate their contents. (The storage-level wrapper itself creates hypertext constructs instead of the users.) the hypertext engine delivers supplemental hypertext functionality based on these mappings. Furthermore, by providing a standard format and set of guidelines, we are providing a standard protocol or systematic approach for exchanging information between an OHS and any analytical application. This adds to the work in the OHS community on developing a standard protocol for passing information among OHS and integrated applications.

Keywords

hypertext, hypermedia, open hypermedia systems, information systems, World Wide Web

pp

218-219

References , Full text


 

Title

Collective Phenomena in Hypertext Networks

Year1997

Author

V. M. Chelnokov, V. L. Zephyrova

Affiliation

State Scientific and Technological Center HINTECH, 52/16 Zemlyanoy Val, Moscow, 109240, Russia.
Tel: +7 095 287 2968, 915-7004
E-mail: ludmila@mucatex.msk.ru

Abstract

A large hypertext net with node-to-node links can be interesting as a system of unities of meaning formed by node clusters, such that nodes in each of them are orderable into a coherent discourse. To access this collective behavior of nodes, a form of graph searching combined with some calculation of node positions is used.

Keywords

discourse semantic coherence, collective phenomena in populations of hypertext nodes, clusters of meaning formed by hypertext nodes, discourse macrostructure, hypertext statics and dynamics, hypertext node macrostatus, spreading-activation search, depth-first search, coherent navigation, SMIsC, Internet

pp

220-221

References , Full text


 

Title

Hyper-news: revolution or contradiction?

Year1997

Author

M. Engebretsen

Affiliation

Department of Nordic and Media Studies, Agder College, 4604 Kristiansand, Norway
Tel: +47 38 14 16 10
E-mail: Martin.Engebretsen@hia.no

Abstract

Journalism as a form of text and communication is confronted with great challenges when going online and meeting the technology of hypertext. Old ideals concerning objectivity and authenticity may experience a renewal when journalists start replacing the traditional news narrative with the distribution of various source material in the form of separate nodes. A practice such as this will, however, have serious consequences for the inner coherence of the elements of news, and new principles for evaluating journalistic products will have to be developed.

Keywords

hypertext journalism, coherence, ethics

pp

222-223

References , Full text


 

Title

Improving the Usability of Hypertext Courseware through Adaptive Linking

Year1997

Author

1. L. Calvi; 2. P. De Bra

Affiliation

1. University of Antwerp (UIA), Department of Romanic Languages, Universiteitsplein 1, B2610 Wilrijk, Belgium.

E-mail: calvi@uia.ua.ac.be

2. Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Computing Science, PO Box 513, NL 5600 MB, Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Email:debra@win.tue.nl

Abstract

Hypertext is being used more and more for on-line course texts. But the navigational freedom offered by a rich link structure is a burden for students who need guidance throughout the learning process. This paper presents a framework for adaptive link structures. By enabling links when a student is ready to read the pages these links lead to, and by disabling links to pages that are no linger needed, the student can be assured that links always lead to interesting new information she is ready to read. This framework is illustrated by means of courseware for an on-line course on "Hypermedia Structures and Systems", developed at Eindhoven University of Technology, and currently offered at six different universities in the Netherlands and Belgium.

Keywords

hypertext courseware, adaptive interaction, dynamic link structure

pp

224-225

References , Full text


 

Title

Microcosm TNG: A Distributed Architecture to Support Reflexive Hypermedia Applications

Year1997

Author

S. Goose, J. Dale, W. Hall, D. De Roure

Affiliation

Multimedia Research Group, Department of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, UK
Tel. +44 1703 593255
E-mail: {sg93r, jd94r, wh, dder} @ecs.soton.ac.uk

Abstract

Microcosm: The Next Generation (TNG) is an open, distributed hypermedia system with a design that represents a significant departure from the Microcosm architecture. This system embodies an alternative model to facilitate the dynamic construction of hierarchies of distributed hypermedia applications. This paper will present the "reflexive model" and provide an appreciation of the Microcosm TNG framework through which this model is realised.

Keywords

 

pp

226-227

References , Full text


 

Title

TourisT - Conceptual Hypermedia Tourist Information

Year1997

Author

J. C. Bullock, C. A. Goble

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK
E-mail: {bullockj, carole} @cs.man.ac.uk

Abstract

The TourisT project is developing a prototype conceptual hypermedia tourism information system using GRAIL, a terminological logic devised at the University of Manchester, to maintain the conceptual model. A primary concern of the work is to develop a system which assists the tourist seeking information. The project has thus used the results of ethnographic studies, carried out in tourist information centres, to inform the structure and content of the conceptual model, and to determine what styles of interaction should be supported.

Keywords

conceptual hypermedia, conceptual querying, tourism information systems, user requirements, ethnographic studies

pp

228-229

References , Full text


 

Title

Using Hypertext for Textual Genetics, or What is Suitable in a Hypertext Sysem for an Information Gardening Application

Year1997

Author

C. Chuat

Affiliation

ITEM Institut des Textes et Manuscrits Modernes, CNRS, UPR7, A0007, France, 61 rue Richelieu, 75084 Paris Cedex 02
Tel: +33 1 42 96 30 94
Fax: +33 1 47 03 89 40
E-mail: lebrave@msh-paris.fr

Abstract

This paper describes how the methodology of genetic criticism can interact with spatial hypertexts and information gardening techniques in the construction of a genetic hypertext that fits the needs of textual geneticists as well as it opens an interesting application domain to hypertexts.

Keywords

information gardening, versioning, spatial hypertext, genetic criticism

pp

230-231

References , Full text


 

Title

Hypertext-Assisted Video Indexing and Content-based Retrieval

Year1997

Author

H. Ho-Shing Ip, S-L. Chan

Affiliation

Image Computing Group, Department of Computer Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Tel. (852) 2788 8599
E-mail: cscslok@cityu.edu.hk

Abstract

An effective approach has been designed for the construction of on-line educational video systems. We have made use of the assistance of HTML text for accurate video parsing and complete content extraction. A video system with segmentation/indexing module and browsing/query modules are implemented to demonstrate the idea.

Keywords

video segmentation, video indexing, content-based retrieval, educational video system

pp

232-233

References , Full text


 

Title

A task driven design method and its associated tool for automatically generating hypertexts.

Year1997

Author

S. Fraisse

Affiliation

LIRMM UMR 5506, 161 rue Ada, 34392 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
Tel: +33 4 67 41 85 86
Fax: +33 4 67 41 85 00
E-mail: sfraisse@lirmm.fr

Abstract

Navigation and interaction are the essence of hypertext. Navigation is not simply travelling freely along a messy set of links nor querying a database using dialog boxes and buttons. Unfortunately, navigating into the WWW often looks so. Navigating efficiently in an information space supposes that a previous authoring effort has prepared a hypertext structure especially designed to make the information access scheme fit with the cognitive constraints of the various contexts of the reading task. Thus the navigation model cannot be a simple isomorphic copy of the data model of the presented information! It relies on the one side on the data model and on the other side on the task model. Designing a hypertext leads to define a mapping between these two models.

Keywords

 

pp

234-235

References , Full text


1998 Hypertext Conference

 

Title

Evaluation of Hypermedia Application Development and Managing Systems

Year1998

Author

S. P. Christodoulou, G. D. Styliaras, T. S. Papatheodoroou

Affiliation

High Performance Computing Architectures Laboratory, Computer Engineering and Informatics Dept., University of Patras, 26500 Rion, Patras, Greece. E-mail: {spc, gds, tsp}@hpclab.ceid.upatras.gr

Abstract

In this paper we propose and study a framework for evaluating Hypermedia Application Development and Management Systems (HADMS) in relation to specific application requirements. We address the need for HADMS capable to efficiently support the main users involved in the life cycle of hypermedia applications, namely designers, programmers/implementers, authors/administrators and end-users. A HADMS consists of a hypermedia application development and management methodology and the respective environment. In this work, we propose and classify a set of evaluation criteria. These are mainly imposed by real life development and the need to support forthcoming, or next generation, features for hypermedia applications. We also introduce a simple framework for a comparative evaluation of HADMS. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of the criteria and the framework proposed, for the case of three real-life applications. A representative set of seven HADMS is selected and the evaluation of these sytems is caried out, leading to some useful conclusions and suggestions for future work.

Keywords

Hypermedia application development systems, evaluation framework, criteria methodology, Hypermedia design, Hypermedia systems, WWW.

pp

1-10

References , Full text


 

Title

Pushing Reuse in Hypermedia Design: Golden Rules, Design Patterns and Constructive Templates

Year1998

Author

1. M. Nanard, J. Nanard; 2. Paul Kahn

Affiliation

  1. LIRMM, University de Montellier, 161 Rue Ada, F34392 Montpellier Cedex 5, France; tel. 33 4-67-41-85-17; e-mail: nanard@lirmm.fr;
  2. Dynamic Diagrams, 12 Bassett Street, Providence, RI 02903, USA., Tel. 401-331 2014; e-mail: paul@DynamicDiagrams.com

Abstract

Reuse is increasingly strategic for reducing cost and improving quality of hypermedia design and development. In this paper, based on the design and development of a real hypermedia application, we classify and explore different types of reuse in hypermedia design. We show how constructive templates constitute a practical technique for capturing the specification of reusable structures and components and enabling the automation of the production process. We also discuss connections between constructive templates and design patterns.

Keywords

Hypermedia design, golden rules, design patterns, templates, reuse, hypermedia generation

pp

11-20

References , Full text


 

Title

Patterns of Hypertext

Year1998

Author

Mark Bernstein

Affiliation

Eastgate Systems Inc., 134 Main Street, Watertown MA 02172 USA. Tel. 1-617-924-9044; e-mail: bernstein@eastgate.com

Abstract

The apparent unruliness of contemporary hypertexts arises, in part, from our lack of a vocabulary to describe hypertext structures. From observation of a variety of actual hypertexts, we identify a variety of common structural patterns that may prove useful for description, analysis, and perhaps for design of complex hypertexts. These patterns include: cycle, counterpoint, mirrorworld, tangle, sieve, montage, split/join, missing link, feint.

Keywords

design, patterns, pattern languages, rhetoric, hypertext structure, criticism, navigation

pp

21-29

References , Full text


 

Title

Linking by Inking: Trail-blazing in a Paper-like Hypertext

Year1998

Author

Morgan N. Price, Gene Golovchinsky, Bill N. Schilit

Affiliation

FX Palo Alto Laboratory, 3400 Hillview Avenue, Building 4, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA; tel. +1 650 813 7233; e-mail {price, gene, schilit}@pal.xerox.com

Abstract

"Linking by Inking" is a new interface for reader-directed link construction that bridges reading and browsing activities. We are developing linking by inking in Xlibris, a hypertext system based on the paper document metaphor. Readers use a pen computer to annotate page images with free-form ink, much as they would on paper, and the computer constructs hypertext links based on the ink marks. This paper proposes two kinds of reader-directed links: automatic and manual. Automatic links are created in response to readers; annotations. The system extracts the text near free-form ink marks, uses these terms to construct queries, executes queries against a collection of documents, and unobtrusively displays links to related documents in the margin or as "further reading links". We also present a design for manual (ad hoc) linking: circling an ink symbol generates a multi-way link to other instances of the same symbol.

Keywords

dynamic hypertext, information retrieval, paper-like user interface, pen computing, document metaphor, digital ink

pp

30-39

References , Full text


 

Title

Toward an ecology of hypertext notation

Year1998

Author

Catherine C. Marshall

Affiliation

Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, 3333 Coyote Hill Road, Palo Alto, CA94304, USA; tel. 1-650-812-4288; e-mail: marshall@parc.xerox.com

Abstract

Annotation is a key way in which hypertexts grow and increase in value. This paper first characterizes annotation according to a set of dimensions to situate a long-term study of community of annotators. Then, using the results of the study, the paper explores the implications of annotative practice for hypertext concepts and for the development of an ecology of hypertext annotation, in which consensus creates a reading structure from an authorial structure.

Keywords

annotation, study, spatial hypertext, reading-orientate systems, consensus

pp

40-49

References , Full text


 

Title

Fluid Links for Informed and Incremental Link Transitions

Year1998

Author

Polle T. Zelleweger, Bay-Wei Chang, Jock D. Mackinlay

Affiliation

Xerox Parc, 3333 Coyote Hill Road, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA; e-mail: {zellweger, bchang, mackinlay}@parc.xerox.com

Abstract

We have developed a novel user interface technique for hypertext, called fluid links, that has several advantages over current methods. Fluid links provide additional information at a link source to support readers in choosing among links and understanding the structure of a hypertext. Fluid links present this information in a convenient location that does not obscure the content or layout of the source material. The technique uses perceptually-based animation to provide a natural and lightweight feeling to readers. In their richer forms, fluid links can provide a novel hypertext navigation paradigm that blurs the boundaries of hypertext nodes and can allow readers to fluidly control the focus on the material to support their current reading goals.

Keywords

fluid ui, fluid links, hypertext navigation paradigms, rhetoric of departure, scent, user interface, animation

pp

50-57

References , Full text


 

Title

Graphical Multiscale Web Histories: a study of PadPrints

Year1998

Author

Ron R. Hightower, Laura T. Ring, Jonathan I. Helfman, Benjamin B. Bederson, James D. Hollan

Affiliation

Computer Science Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131. Tel. (505)277 3112; e-mail:{high,Iring,bederson,jon,hollan}@cs.unm.edu; www.cs.unm.edu/pad++

Abstract

We have implemented a browser companion called PadPrints that dynamically builds a graphical history map of visited web pages. PadPrints relies on Pad++, a zooming user interface (ZUI) development substrate, to display the history map using minimal screen space. PadPrints functions in conjunction with a traditional web browser but without requiring any browser modifications.

We performed two usability studies of PadPrints. The first addressed general navigation effectiveness. The second focused on history-related aspects of navigation. In tasks requiring returns to prior pages, users of PadPrints completed tasks in 61.25% of the time required by users of the same browser without PadPrints. We also observed significant decreases in the number of pages accessed when using PadPrints. Users found browsing with PadPrints more satisfying than using Netscape alone.

Keywords

World Wide Web, Web Navigation, Web Browser, Usability, Pad++, Zooming User Interface (ZUI), Hypertext, Multiscale interfaces, information visualization

pp

58-65

References , Full text


 

Title

MAPA: a system for inducing and visualizing hierarchy in websites

Year1998

Author

David Durand, Paul Kahn

Affiliation

Dynamic Diagrams, Inc., 12 Bassett Street, Providence, RI 02903, USA; tel: 1-401-331-2014; e-mail: david,paul@dynamicdiagrams.com

Abstract

The MAPA system provides improved navigation facilities for large web sites. It extracts a hierarchical structure from an arbitrary web site, with no or minimal human assistance, and creates an interactive map of that site that can be used for orientation and navigation. MAPA is designed and most useful for large web sites of from 500 to 50,000 pages. We present an overview of the mapping problem, with a list of 10 important user facilities that maps can offer. Then we describe how the MAPA system analyzes the link structure of the site, and provides effective aids for the navigation of large hypertexts. We also compare MAPA with a number of other web-mapping systems, and conclude with a review of how MAPA stands with respect to our wish-list of map features.

Keywords

hypertext interfaces, structural analysis, hierarchical organization, WWW, web mapping, data visualization

pp

66-76

References , Full text


 

Title

From Latent Semantics to Spatial Hypertext - an integrated approach

Year1998

Author

1. Chaomeni Chen; 2. Mary Czerwinski

Affiliation

  1. Department of Information Systems and Computing, Brunel University, Uxbridge, UB8 3PH, UK; Tel. 44-1895 203080; e-mail: chaomei.chen@brunel.ac.uk
  2. Microsoft User Interface Research, One Microsoft Way, 9N/2290, Redmond, WA 98052, USA; Tel. 1-425-703-4882; e-mail: marycz@microsoft.com

Abstract

In this paper we introduce an integrated approach to the development of spatial hypertext. This approach brings together several theories and techniques concerning semantic structures, and streamlines the transformation from implicit semantic structures to a semantic space rendered in virtual reality. Browsing and querying become natural, inherent and compatible activities within the same semantic space. The overall design principle is based on the theory of cognitive maps. Techniques such as latent semantic indexing, pathfinder network scaling, and virtual reality modelling are used in harmony. The value of this integrated approach is discussed based on initial results of a recent empirical study, which suggests that the spatial metaphor is intuitive and particularly useful when dealing with implicit information structures, or when a highly flexible and extensible virtual environment is required. Search strategies in association with the spatial hypertext and further work are also discussed.

Keywords

spatial hypertext, latent semantic indexing, virtual reality, digital libraries

pp

77-86

References , Full text


 

Title

Temporally threaded workspace: a model for providing activity based perspectives on document spaces

Year1998

Author

1. Koichi Hayashi, Takahiko Nomura, Tan Hazama, Makoto Takeoka, Sunao Hashimoto;

2. Stephen Gudmundson

Affiliation

  1. Corporate Research Labs., Fuji Xerox Co. Ltd., 430 Sakai, Nakai-machi, Ashigarakami-gun, Kanagawa 259-01, Japan. E-mail: hayashi.koichi@fujixerox.co.jp
  2. The Department of Computer Science, University of British Columbia, 201-2366 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada.

Abstract

In this paper we present a framework for providing activity based perspectives of a document space, especially in WWW. An activity based perspective is a view of the subspace of the www document space that a knowledge worker should understand or modify while executing the activity. We designed the framework to reduce the cognitive overhead of managing document spaces dependent on various internal and external changes. Changes within the activity (often resulting from the natural progress of the activity) result in changes of focus in the subspace related to the activity. For such internal changes, we introduce a temporally-threaded workspace model. Our model introduces a structured workspace that maintains a thread of snapshots of a knowledge worker’s perspective on a document space. Such threads of snapshots are constructed by monitoring user actions. External changes (for example, changes to documents managed in external sites) are independent of the progress of users’ activities. To deal with these changes, we introduce a proxy mechanism to maintain documents in the same state as accessed. This paper also describes the implementation of prototype systems, in the WWW environment, based on our frameworks. Interlocus is a client/server system providing facilities based on the temporally-threaded workspace model. It provides a user interface that presents spatial-temporal views of a workspace thread. Packrat is a WWW proxy server that maintains documents in the same state as accessed.

Keywords

hypertext, www, spatial hypertext, version management, shared workspace, authoring, activity

pp

87-96

References , Full text


 

Title

Adaptive Narrative Abstraction

Year1998

Author

Michel Crampes, Jean Paul Veuillez, Sylvie Ranwez

Affiliation

Laboratoire de Genie Informatique et d’Ingenierie de Production (LG12P), EERIE-EMA, Parc Scientifique Georges Besse, 30 000 Nimes, France. Tel: 33-4 66 38 7000; e-mail:mcrampes@ensm-ales.fr

Abstract

Narrative abstraction consists in selecting and assembling meaningful events from an original set of related events. This acquisition of information hinges on several requirements. This paper deals with some of them, namely the viewer’s intention, the viewer’s resource constraint, particularly the time constraint, and the narrative coherence.

We present a foundation of narrative abstraction and several algorithms that can be used to build up abstracts compliant with the requirements. Our evaluation of these algorithms in a prototype leads to some questioning about their performance. We propose and discuss several solutions to improve them with regard to the flexibility of the abstract building process.

Keywords

narratives, abstraction, hypermedia, adaptivity, granularity, causality, context

pp

97-105

References , Full text


 

Title

The Moment in Hypertext: a brief lexicon of time

Year1998

Author

Marjorie C. Luesebrink

Affiliation

School of Humanities and Languages, Irvine Valley College, Irvine, CA 92620, USA. Tel. 1-714 644 6587; e-mail: luesebr1@ix.netcom.com

Abstract

Hypertext literature has been characterized as spatial construct by many of the critics involved with its aesthetics and poetics. Michael Joyce, Cathy Marshall, Mark Bernstein, Carolyn Guyer, George Landow, Stuart Moulthrop and many others have explored the way in which metaphors of visual space can inform hypertexts - impacting both meaning and process. Although these writers refer to the time/space continuum, their writing has been less concerned with temporal constructs - how time might influence the programming, writing, and reading of hypertext literature. Time factors, however, could be viewed as important elements in the way hypertexts are conceived and received. This paper seeks to raise questions about issues of time - and to suggest some possible categories that might be investigated. Significant "information" is coded into everything from the equipment-determined limitations of machine time to the author controlled clues embedded in mythic time. To the extent that we make mental scripts of spatial parameters, readers and writers of hypertext fiction may build into the space of the cyberworld a complementary universe fully as rich in temporal experience. In both the interface experience and the cognitive structure, time is part of the inscription of coherent meaning for cyber-narratives and electronic poetry.

Keywords

time frames, hypertext fiction, hypertext poetry, narrative structures, story parameters, spatial metaphor, temporal metaphor, interface, hypertext structure

pp

106-112

References , Full text


 

Title

Link Services or Link Agents?

Year1998

Author

L. A. Carr, W. Hall, S. Hitchcock

Affiliation

Multimedia Research Group, Department of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; tel. +44 (0) 1703 594479; e-mail: lac@ecs.soton.ac.uk

Abstract

A general link service for the WWW has been used within an electronic libraries project. Experience using it shows that as the links become increasingly interesting to the user, processing them becomes increasingly expensive. Eventually textual analysis, ontological services, and remote database lookups conflict with the goal of prompt delivery of documents. This paper summarizes the history of the Link Service software behind the Open Journal project, together with the kind of links that it has been used to produce. Building on this work it then discusses how the paradigm, architecture and user interface of the DLS have been newly modified both in response to user feedback and also to allow more linking facilities to be added to the WWW environment. We then introduce Agent DLS, an agent-style system that offers suggestions to help the user’s browsing and information discovery activities.

Keywords

links, hypertext, open hypermedia, link services, autonomous user interface agents

pp

113-122

References , Full text


 

Title

Dynamic Hypertext Catalogues: Helping Users to help themselves

Year1998

Author

1. Maria Milosavljevic; 2. Jon Oberlander

Affiliation

  1. CSIRO Mathematical Information Sciences, Locked Bag 17, Sydney, NSW 2113, Austrailia; e-mail: Maria.Milosavljevic@cmis.csiro.au;
  2. Human Communication Research Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH8 9LW, Scotland. E-mail: J.Oberlander@ed.ac.uk

Abstract

Electronic hypertext catalogues provide an important channel for information provision. However, static hypertext documents cannot be dynamically adapted to help the user find what he/she is looking for. We demonstrate that natural language generation techniques can be used to produce tailored hypertext documents, and we focus on two key benefits of the resulting dynamic hypertext. First documents can be tailored more precisely to an individual’s needs and background, thus aiding the search process. Secondly, the incorporation of techniques for comparing catalogue items allows the user to search still more effectively. We describe the automatic generation of hypertext documents containing comparisons, with illustrations from two implemented systems.

Keywords

adaptive hypertext, dynamic hypertext, natural language generation, user modelling, discourse history

pp

123-131

References , Full text


 

Title

TourisT: The application of a Description Logic based Semantic Hypermedia system for Tourism

Year1998

Author

Joe Bullock and Carole Goble

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK; tel. +44 (0)161 275 6195; e-mail {bullockj, cag}@cs.man.ac.uk

Abstract

Web-based Public Information Systems of the kind common in tourism do not satisfy the needs of the customer because they do not offer a sufficiently flexible linking environment capable of emulating the mediation role of a tourist adviser. We present the requirements of a tourism hypermedia system resulting from ethnographic studies of tourist advisers, and conclude that an open semantic hypermedia (SH) approach is appropriate. We present a novel and powerful SH prototype based on the use of a semantic model expressed as a terminology. The terminological model is implemented by a Description Logic, GRAIL, capable of the automatic and dynamic multi-dimensional classification of concepts, and hence the web pages they describe. We show how GRAIL-link has been used within the TourisT hypermedia system and conclude with a discussion.

Keywords

semantic hypermedia, tourism, description logics, link services

pp

132-141

References , Full text


 

Title

Stalking the Paratext: speculations on hypertext links as a second order text

Year1998

Author

Francisco J. Ricardo

Affiliation

Harvard Graduate School of Education, 201 Longfellow Way, 1 Appian Way, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Tel. 1-617-661-9050; e-mail: frank-ricardo@post.harvard.edu

Abstract

In the popular conception of hypertext as non-linear writing, primary emphasis typically falls on the construction, character and quantity of constituent lexias that comprise any given hypertext. This paper, however, will focus on what the text would reveal if an ordered collection were made of the links emerging from the main (first order) text. Such a collection, as a second order text or parallel text, which I propose to call the paratext, comprises the layer-world of links, of intertextual descriptors that could be subjected to cluster analyses that reveal aspects of cohesion, breadth, and other speculative characteristics of the first order text.

Keywords

hypertext, intertextuality, link semantics, grammatology, paratext, rhetoric

pp

142-151

References , Full text


 

Title

Locus looks at the Turing Play: hypertextuality vs Full Programmability

Year1998

Author

Jim Rosenbergq

Affiliation

RD#1, Box 236, Grindstone, PA 15442; e-mail: jr@amanue.com

Abstract

Hypertext extensibility is briefly reviewed: strategies have included external execution, published internal primitives, scripted articulation points, generalized object inheritance, and guest algorithms. Hypertext algorithms are typically localized. The user/algorithm relationship in hypertext is typically master/slave; other types of relationship are possible in generalized cybertext. Hypertext algorithms normally have a clear identity: for generalized cybertext, identity of the algorithm may need to be hidden. The algorithm might only be revealed by sampling activities; these activities might or might not be structured. Identity of the programmer needs to be considered as much as that of reader or writer. Hypertext is typically structurally focused; generalized algorithms exhibit behavior, and a behavioral rather than a structural focus may be important in certain types of cybertext. Hypertextuality is not "all or nothing"; there are dimensionalities to hypertextuality, only some of which may be present. The extensibility architecture should be flexible enough to allow for all of these dimensionalities.

Keywords

hypertext, extensibility, user interface, localization, user/algorithm relationship, algorithm identity, sampling, structure, behavior

pp

152-160

References , Full text


 

Title

XHMBS: A formal model to support hypermedia specification

Year1998

Author

1. Fabiano B. Paulo, Maria Cristina F. de Oliveira, Paulo C. Masiero; 2. Marcelo Augusto S. Turine

Affiliation

  1. Instituto de Ciencias Matematicas de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 668, 13560-970 - Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil. Tel. 016 273 9688; Fax 016 273 9702; e-mail: {mast, cristina, masiero}@ icmsc.sc.usp.br
  2. Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 668, 13560-970 - Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil. Tel. 016 273 9688; Fax 016 273 9702

Abstract

This paper introduces XHMBS (the eXtended Hyperdocument Model based on Statecharts) to support the formal specification of general hypermedia applications. XHMBS uses a novel formalism called hypercharts as its underlying model for specifying the navigational structure, browsing semantics and synchronization requirements of a hyperdocument. Hypercharts are statecharts extended with additional mechanisms for describing the time sequencing and information synchronization requirements typical of multimedia. The extensions incorporated into hypercharts are based on the major characteristics of some petri net based multimedia models, and make it an alternative to such models for multimedia and hypermedia specification. XHMBS provides facilities for defining the structure of a hypermedia application in terms of nodes and links and also for describing the temporal behavior of dynamic data streams contained in nodes. The model incorporates presentation and communication channels for describing spatial coordination and distribution of information and anchor objects for ensuring separation between information structure and content.

Keywords

Multimedia/Hypermedia modeling, statecharts, hypercharts, HMBS, XHMBS, Temporal Synchronization, formal specification

pp

161-170

References , Full text


 

Title

Enforcing Strong Object typing in Flexible Hypermedia

Year1998

Author

Pedro Furtado and H. Madeira

Affiliation

Depto Eng. Informatica Univ. Coimbra, Pinhal Marrocos, 3030 Coimbra, Portugal; e-mail pnf@dei.uc.pt

Abstract

The presentation layer of hypermedia systems could benefit from standard object querying functionality and this is most effective if strong typing is enforced. By strong typing we mean the direct represetnation of dat semantics as object types in an object database as opposed to a slotted frames representation. On the other hand, the flexible emergent nature of structure must be considered in the authoring activity and in this sense premature typing and organizing is counterproductive. Reflecting on these apparently contradictory issues and the past proposals to handle the problem, we extend the strongly typed ata model of a prototype hypermedia system, WorldView, to support semi-automatic object submission and type metamorphosis. Weak types are also necessary for some constructs, so they coexist with strong types, but these are enforced. We emphasize the benefits available to the presentation layer of keeping a uniform object oriented structure. In particular, we implement a dynamic linking capability that uses queries to retrieve the objects related to some object attribute and suggest other improvements. We stress that most object oriented hypermedia systems are frame-based, especially in what concerns user-defined and emergent structure.

Keywords

hypermedia, flexibility, knowledge structuring, emergent structures, frame model, OODBMS

pp

171-179

References , Full text


 

Title

Structural Properties of Hypertext

Year1998

Author

Seongbin Park

Affiliation

Computer Science Department, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0781, USA; e-mail: separk@pollux.usc.edu

Abstract

We provide a framework that allows one to study structural properties of hypertext in connection with formal language theory. We model hypertext as a transformation device (an a-transducer) that transforms a link-following into a sequence of matched pairs: basic linkable units. Then, we address the following questions: what can hypertext do? What structure is formed when a link-following is done? What structure is built when a virtual document is constructed? We show that the set of all link-followings in hypertext is a regular set. Then, the set of all possible outputs of link-followings is shown to be context-free, which means that constructing virtual documents is essentially the same as generating words of a context-free language.

Keywords

hypertext structure, dexter model, regular set, context-free language, hypertext models, link-following, a-transducer, virtual document

pp

180-187

References , Full text


 

Title

Using the Flag Taxonomy to study Hypermedia System Interoperability

Year1998

Author

1. Uffe Kock Wiil; 2. Kasper Osterbye

Affiliation

1. The Danish Centre for IT Research, Aarhus University; 2. Department of Computer Science, Aarhus University.

Abstract

Interoperability between existing systems, program packages, tools and applications with various degrees of hypermedia awareness is a complex and important challenge facing the hypermedia community. This paper presents a general framework (called the Flag Interoperability Matrix) to discuss and examine hypermedia system interoperability based on the concepts and principles of the Flag taxonomy of open hypermedia systems. The purposes of the Flag Interoperability Matrix are to provide a framework to classify, describe concisely and compare different approaches to hypermedia system interoperability, and provide an overview of the design space of hypermedia system interoperability. The Flag Interoperability Matrix is used to examine existing interoperability approaches. Based on a systematic analysis of possible approaches to hypermedia system interoperability, the paper explores one solution to hypermedia system interoperability that seems particularly promising with respect to handling the growing number of applications with increasing but incomplete awareness of hypermedia structure concepts.

Keywords

flag taxonomy, interoperability matrix, partial hypermedia system, interoperability protocol

pp

188-197

References , Full text


 

Title

An Agenda for Open Hypermedia Research

Year1998

Author

1. Peter J. Nurnberg; 2. John J. Leggett; 3. Uffe K. Wiil

Affiliation

  1. Dept. of Computer Science, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade, Bldg 540, 8000 Aarhus, C. Denmark, tel. + 45 8942 3281, e-mail: pnuern@daimi.aau.dk
  2. Dept. of Computer Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843-3112 USA; tel +1 409 845 0298; e-mail: leggett@csdl.tamu.edu
  3. Center for IT Research, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade, Bldg. 540, 8000 Aarhus, C. Denmark. Tel. +45 8942 3358; e-mail: ukwiil@cit.dk

Abstract

The historical development of hypermedia systems can be characterized as a series of successive abstractions of functionality away from the "core" hypermedia server, often resulting in a new open layer in the hypermedia environment architecture. Recently, this trend of abstraction has been applied to the hypermedia server itself, replacing the notion of a single, closed hypermedia server with an open layer of structure servers. This newest development brings with it a new set of challenges and research issues for open hypermedia researchers. In this paper, we discuss these issues, review some of our collective applicable experience with contemporary open hypermedia systems and other work, and point out some of the more pressing and intriguing open questions that we feel are facing open hypermedia researchers today. We also examine the split in the current hypermedia research community between system and domain researchers and the still-present need for interoperability among systems, and discuss why any attempt to address the issues we discuss in this paper must account for these observations.

Keywords

open hypermedia system (OHS). Component-based open hypermedia system (CB-OHS), structural computing, hypermedia middleware, hyperbase, hypermedia operating system, hypermedia domain research

pp

198-206

References , Full text


 

Title

Referential integrity of links in open hypermedia systems

Year1998

Author

Hugh C. Davis

Affiliation

Multicosm Ltd and the Multimedia Research Group, Department of Electronics and Computer Science, the University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK

e-mail: hcd@multicosm.com

Abstract

This paper is concerned with broken hypertext links. These are links which do not refer the reader to the information that was intended by the author of the link. The paper present three distinct models which have been adopted by various developers for the storage of hypertext links, and considers the problems that may result from adopting each of these models, and reviews and classifies a number of methods that may be adopted for preventing these problems. The link models that are reviewed range from the tightly coupled links implemented by html in the World Wide Web through to the loosely coupled links adopted by some link server systems. The paper concludes that there can be no universal solution to this problem; rather, there is a range of approaches from which hypertext developers must choose a solution appropriate to their needs.

Keywords

open hypermedia, link services, dangling links, broken links, referential integrity

pp

207-216

References , Full text


 

Title

Combining Structure search and Content search for the World-wide Web

Year1998

Author

1. Hermann Kaindl, Stefan Kramer; 2. Luis Miguel Afonso

Affiliation

  1. Siemens AG Austria, Geusaug. 17, A-1030 Vienna, Austria; e-mail {hermann.kaindl/stefan.kramer} @ siemens.at
  2. Rua de Campolide 51-5, 1070 Lisboa, Portugal; e-mail: luis-m-afonso@telecom.pt

Abstract

When searching information in the world-wide web, the currently available search engines typically return too many irrelevant addresses to their users. This is a deep and many-faceted issue and very hard to be generally solved. One of the current problems involved is that these search engines focus on content search and not on structure search as investigated in hypertext research. A prerequisite of full-fledged structure search would be that links are first-class objects. This is obviously not the case for the representation of links in the www. So, we introduce a rudimentary form of structure search that is based upon content search. In our application of this approach to searching the www we combine this kind of structure search with content search in a meta-search engine. In this way, we are able to reduce the number of irrelevant addresses returned. As a consequence, we propose this approach for searching the world-wide web.

Keywords

world-wide web, content search, structure search, meta-search engine

pp

217-224

References , Full text


 

Title

Inferring Web Communities from Link Topology

Year1998

Author

1. David Gibson; 2. Jon Kleinberg; 3. Prabhakar Raghavan

Affiliation

  1. Dept. of Computer Science, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA94720 USA; tel: +1 510 643 5425; e-mail: dag@cs.berkeley.edu
  2. Dept. of Computer Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA; tel: + 1 607 254 4636; e-mail: kleinber@cs.cornell.edu
  3. Almaden Research Center, IBM, San Jose, CA95120 USA; tel: +1 408 927 1804; e-mail: pragh@almaden.ibm.com

Abstract

The World Wide Web grows through a decentralized, almost anarchic process, and this has resulted in a large hyperlinked corpus without the kind of logical organization that can be built into more traditionally-created hypermedia. To extract meaningful structure under such circumestances, we develop a notion of hyperlinked communities on the WWW through an analysis of the link topology. By invoking a simple, mathematically clean method for defining and exposing the structure of these communities, we are able to derive a number of themes: the communities can be viewed as containing a core of central "autoritative" pages linked together by hub pages, and they exhibit a natural type of hierarchical topic generalization that can be inferred directly from the pattern of linkage. Our investigation shows that although the process by which users of the Web create pages and links is very difficult to understand at a local level, it results in a much greater degree of orderly high-level structure than has typically been assumed.

Keywords

hypertext communities, information exploration, world wide web, collaborative annotation

pp

225-234

References , Full text


 

Title

Cut as a Querying unit for WWW, Netnews and E-mail

Year1998

Author

Keishi Tajima, Yoshiaki Mizuuchi, Masatsugu Kitagawa, Katsumi Tanaka

Affiliation

Department of Computer and Systems Engineering, Kobe University, Nada-ku, Kobe, 657, Japan. Tel. +81 78 803 1225; Fax: +81 78 803 1225; e-mail: {tajima/mizuuchi/kitagawa/tanaka} @db.cs.kobe-u.ac.jp

Abstract

In this paper we propose a query framework for hypertext data in general and for WWW pages, Netnews articles, and e-mails in particular. In existing query tools for hypertext data, such as search engines for WWW or intelligent news/mail readers, data units in query are typically individual nodes. In actual hypertext data, however, one topic is often described over a series of connected nodes, and therefore the logical data unit should be such a series of nodes corresponding to one topic. This discrepancy between the data unit in query and the logical data unit hinders the efficient information discovery from hypertext data. To solve this problem, in our framework, we divide hypertexts into connected subgraphs corresponding to individual topics, and we use those subgraphs as the data units in queries.

Keywords

query, structuring, information discovery, graph-partitioning, www, Netnews, e-mail, hypertext

pp

235-245

References , Full text


 

Title

Flexible Coordination with Cooperative Hypermedia

Year1998

Author

Weigang Wang, Jorg M. Haake

Affiliation

GMD German National Research Center for Information Technology,

IPSI - Integrated Publication and Information Systems Institute, Dolivostrasse 15, D-64293 Darmstadt, Germany. E-mail: {wwang / haake} @darmstadt.gmd.de

Abstract

In current workflow and groupware systems there is a gap between formal and informal coordination mechanisms. To fill the gap, flexible coordination support covers the whole spectrum of informal and formal coordination mechnisms. In this paper, a flexible coordination model integrating formal and informal coordination mechanisms is presented. Methods of using cooperative hypermedia concepts to uniformly model all objects representing coordination mediums and shared artifacts are described. Using the proposed model and method, a cooperative hypermedia system (CHIPS) that offers flexible coordination support has been implemented. An application example of the system shows how a set of tasks and different coordination mechanisms are integrated into a cooperative process. This work demonstrates that cooperative hypermedia can serve as a bridge to close the gap.

Keywords

cooperative hypermedia, groupware, coordination, workflow, CHIPS

pp

245-255

References , Full text


 

Title

JPernLite: an extensible transaction server for the World Wide Web

Year1998

Author

Jack J. Yang, Gail E. Kaiser

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, Columbia University, New York, NY10027, USA. Tel: +1-212-939-7085/7081; e-mail: {jyang/kaiser}@cs.columbia.edu

Abstract

Concurrency control is a well-known problem in design and implementation of multi-user hypermedia systems. Most existing systems store data and links in specialized databases (link servers or hyperbases) with a built-in concurrency control policy, typically the conventional atomic/serializable transaction model, usually implemented via locking. But this conventional model may not be appropriate for collaborative hypermedia systems, where the multiple users work together in groups on shared tasks.

Further, it is desirable to construct collaborative hypermedia systems on top of the World Wide Web, but most web servers do not support even conventional transactions, let alone distributed (multi-website) transactions or flexible concurrency control mechanisms oriented towards teamwork - such as even notification, shared locks and find granularity locks.

We present a transaction server that operates independently of web servers or the hypermedia applications, to fill the concurrency control gap. The transaction server by default enforces the conventional transaction model where sets of operations are performed in an all-or-nothing fashion and isolated from concurrent users. The server can be tailored dynamically to apply more sophisticated concurrency control policies appropriate for collaboration. The transaction server also supports applications employing information resources other than web servers, such as legacy databases, CORBA objects, and other hypermedia systems.

Keywords

distributed transactions, extended transaction models, WWW, computer supported collaborative work

pp

256-266

References , Full text


 

Title

Using Paths in the Classroom: Experiences and Adaptations

Year1998

Author

Frank M. Shipman III, Richard Furuta, Donald Brenner, Chung-Chi Chung, Hao-wei Hsieh

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science and Center for the Study of Digital Libraries, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-3112, USA; e-mail: {shipman, furuta}@cs.tamu.edu

Abstract

Walden’s Paths was designed to enable teachers to collect, organize and annotate web-based information for presentation to their students. Experiences with the use of Walden’s Paths in high-school classrooms have identified four needs/issues: better support for the gradual authoring of paths by teachers; support for student authoring of paths, including the ability for students to collaborate on paths; more obvious distinction between content of the original source materials and that added by the path author; and support for maintaining paths over an evolving set of source documents. These observed needs have driven the development of new versions of Walden’s Paths. Additionally, the experiences with path authoring have led to a conceptualization of meta-documents, documents whose components include complete documents, as a general domain where issues of collaboration, intellectual property, and maintenance are decidedly different from traditional document publication.

Keywords

computers and education, meta-documents, guided tours, directed paths, world wide web, Walden’s paths

pp

267- 276

References , Full text


 

Title

Hypertext and Web Engineering

Year1998

Author

Michael Bieber

Affiliation

CIS Department, New Jersey Center for Multimedia Research, and National Institute of Transportation and Industrial Productivity, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights,Newark, NJ 07102 USA; e-mail: bieber@njit.edu

Abstract

We take a two-stage approach to engineering world wide web appications. First a relationship-navigation analysis, analyzes an existing or new application specifically in terms of its intra- and inter-relationships. Second, a dynamic hypermedia engine (DHymE), automatically generates links for each relationship and metaknowledge items at run-time. Links andnavigation supplement the application’s primary functionality.

Keywords

hypermedia, www, web engineering, software engineering, relationship management, linking, complex interfaces

pp

277-278

References , Full text


 

Title

Automatic creation of hypervideo news libraries for the world wide web

Year1998

Author

Guillaume Boissiere

Affiliation

MIT Media Laboratory, E15-350, 20 Ames Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA; tel. 1-617-253-0185; e-mail: boissier@media.mit.edu

Abstract

This paper presents the design of a server offering up to date hypervideo news to www users. The novel advantage of this system is that it combines simplicity to maintain; all the taks are automated, accessibility: everyone with a widely used browser can access the interactive videos and view them inside the browser, and extensibility: new video databases or links can be easily added to the database. The segmentation of news video is done automatically by using the closed caption information extracted from the broadcast, and the hyperlinks are defined with a simple scripting language.

Keywords

hypervideo server, closed caption, digital libraries, news segmentation

pp

279-280

References , Full text


 

Title

Designing Open Hypermedia Applets: Experiences and Prospects

Year1998

Author

Niels Olof Bouvin

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, Aarhus University. Tel. +45 8942 3188

Abstract

The experiences with the continued development of DHM/www, an applet integrating WWW with external structures stored in the Dexter-based hypermedia system Devise Hypermedia (DHM) will be described some problems discussed, and a brief outline of current and future work will be given

Keywords

 

pp

281-282

References , Full text


 

Title

2L670: A flexible adaptive hypertext courseware system

Year1998

Author

1. Paul de Bra, 2. Licia Calvi

Affiliation

  1. Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Computing Science, PO Box 513. NL5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands. E-mail: debra@win.tue.nl
  2. University of Antwerp (UIA), Department of Romanic Languages, Universiteitsplein 1, B2610, Wilrijk, Belgium. E-mail: calvi@uia.ua.ac.be

Abstract

Among other papers we have reported on the development of an adaptive hypertext document and system, used for learning about the subject of hypertext, through distance learning by means of the WWW. In the terminology of Brusilovsky’s overview paper, the system offered adaptive content and link hiding. This short paper briefly describes the latest developments, which include the possibility for users to choose between link hiding and link annotation. The adaptive hypertext contents consist of standard HTML pages, which makes it easy for authors to create adaptive courses using off the shelf authoring tools.

Keywords

hypertext courseware, adaptive content, adaptive hiding, annotation

pp

283-284

References , Full text


 

Title

Applying open hypermedia to Audio

Year1998

Author

David DeRoure, Steven Blackburn, Lee Oades, Jonathan Read, Neil Ridgway

Affiliation

Multimedia Research Group, Dept. of ECS, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK Tel +44 (0)1703 592418; e-mail: {dder, sgb97r, lro96r, jnr95r, cnhr}@ecs.soton.ac.uk

Abstract

We describe a set of tools to support navitational hypermedia linking within audio ("branching audio") and between media types including audio. We have adopted an open hypermedia approach, with a component-based architecture, and aim to be compliant with the emerging Open Hypermedia Protocol (OHP). Content-based navigation is supported and we have focused on speech and musical content for our case studies. Although our investigation concentrates on audio, many of the techniques are generic and therefore applicable to other temporal media.

Keywords

open hypermedia, content-based navigation, open hypermedia protocol (OHP), branching audio

pp

285-286

References , Full text


 

Title

1-800 Hypertext: browsing hypertext with a telephone

Year1998

Author

1. Stuart Goose, Michael Wynblatt, 2. Hans Mollenhauer

Affiliation

  1. Multimedia/Video Technology Department, Siemens Corporate Research, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA. Tel. 1-609-734-3391; e-mail: {sgoose, wynblatt}@scr.siemens.com
  2. Private Communication Systems Group, Siemens AG, Munich, Germany. E-mail: Hans.Mollenhauer@pn.siemens.de

Abstract

We present the issues and design of a telephone-based browser for email and the WWW

Keywords

hypertext, browsing, www, telephone

pp

287-288

References , Full text


 

Title

Clusters on the World Wide Web: creating neighbourhoods of make-believe

Year1998

Author

Stephen Hirtle, Molly Sorrows, Guoray Cai

Affiliation

School of Information Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA

Abstract

A study is reported on the role of neighborhoods in searching for information on the www. Users were asked to search collections of web pages in which the conceptual content of groups of pages was used to assign a specific background color to each group. The results indicate that for collections of web pages with moderately complex topologies, the structured backgrounds were significantly easier to search. The results suggest that neighborhoods can be induced by visual characteristics of the page and that the identification ofneighborhoods can improve the overall navigability of the space.

Keywords

www, neighborhoods, navigation

pp

289-290

References , Full text


 

Title

Adaptive Navigational Facilities in Educational Hypermedia

Year1998

Author

Denise Pilar da Silva, Rafael Van Durm, Erik Duval, Henk Olivie

Affiliation

Computer Science Dept., Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 A, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium. E-mail: {Denise.PilarDaSilva, Rafael.VanDurm, Erik.Duval, Henk.Olivie}@cs.kuleuven.ac.be

Abstract

 

Keywords

adaptiveness, navigation, educational hypermedia

pp

291-292

References , Full text


 

Title

Browsing Hyperdocuments with Multiple Focus + Context Views

Year1998

Author

Laurent Robert, Eric Lecolinet

Affiliation

ENST/CNRS URA 820, 46 Rue Barrault, 75013 Paris, France. E-mail: {lrobert, elc}@inf.enst.fr

Abstract

We present an interactive focus+context environment based on zooming and hierarchical representations for browsing large data sets. It gives an overviewof the data and provides multiple views for visualizing the content and the local organization of documents of interest. This multi-view system has been applied to the www browsing as a first practical demonstration

Keywords

information visualization, www, multi-view system, focus+context, zooming interface, hierarchical representations, animation

pp

293-294

References , Full text


 

Title

Contextures focus+context+texture

Year1998

Author

Terry Stanley

Affiliation

Foresight Institute, Los Altos, CA 94002, USA. E-mail: tstanley@cocoon.com

Abstract

When the amount of information to present is large relative to the display area, views organised around a focus of attention and its surrounding context make effectiv use of the limited area. Contextures extend the concept of focus+ context by adding texture - compact, expressive views providing statistical rather than detail information

Keywords

focus, context, critical discussion, mediator, navigation, linkmap

pp

295-296

References , Full text


 

Title

Dynamic Bookmarks for the WWW; managing personal navigation space by analysis of link structure and user behavior

Year1998

Author

Hajime Takano, Terry Winograd

Affiliation

Computer Science Department, Stanford University, Gates Building, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; E-mail: htakano@db.stanford.edu; winograd@cs.stanford.edu

Abstract

This paper describes a management tool to support revisiting www pages, which we call www dynamic bookmark (WDB). WDB watches and archives a user’s navigation behavior, analyses the archive, and shows analyzed results as clues for revisiting URLs. We have integrated link analysis and user behavior analysis to evaluate WWW page importance. WDB presents a list of sites that a user has visited, in importance order via a landmark list in each site, and showing relationships among sites. Experimental implementation shows that importance calculation and structure displays help users to pick up useful URLs.

Keywords

www navigation, bookmark, link analysis, user behavior analysis

pp

297-298

References , Full text


 

Title

Finding Links

Year1998

Author

John Tebbutt

Affiliation

The National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA. E-mail: tebbutt@nist.gov

Abstract

Possibilities for the automatic designation of pre-existing text elements as implicitly typed links through the use of information retrieval technology are discussed. Results of preliminary work in this area are presented, and plans for future research outlined.

Keywords

automatic hypertext, construction, embedded links, installed links, hypertext, information retrieval, IR

pp

299-300

References , Full text


 

Title

Generating Hypertext explanations for visual languages

Year1998

Author

Neil W. Van Dyke

Affiliation

MIT Media Laboratory, 20 Ames Street, Rm. E15-312, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. E-mail: nwv@media.mit.edu

Abstract

 

Keywords

generated hypertext, dynamic hypertext, explanation, visual languages, education

pp

301-302

References , Full text


 

Title

Grammatron: Filling the Gap?

Year1998

Author

Karin Wenz

Affiliation

English Department, University of Kassel, 34109 Kassel, Germany. Tel. ++561 804 3379; e-mail: wenz@hrz.uni-kassel.de

Abstract

 

Keywords

 

pp

303-304

References , Full text


1999 Hypertext Conference

 

Title

Semiautomatic Generation of Glossary Links: A practical solution

Year1999

Author

1. Hermann Kaindl., 2. Stefan Kramer, 3. Papa Samba Niang Diallo

Affiliation

  1. & 2. Siemens AG Osterreich, Geusaugasse 17, A-1030 Wien, Austria; e-mail: {hermann.kaindl, stefan.kramer} @siemens.at

3. Mitterberggasse 23/6, A-1180 Wien, Austria

Abstract

Especially through the increasing popularity of the World Wide Web (WWW.web), more and more hypertext is created. A major task in creating hypertext is link generation, and in particular for larger hypertexts. Generating the links manually takes a lot of effort. Therefore, at least some support for link generation is highly desirable. We faced an important case of this problem in practice - to make explicit glossary links, i.e. links within and into a technical glossary. So, we developed a new and interactive algorithm for the semiautomatic generation of glossary links in hypertext. In order to be useful in practice, it deals with inexact matching of text and with names that may consist of several words, which may overlap or encompass each other in the text. Since the hypertext author using this algorithm should have full control over which links to include, our approach relies on user cooperation and interaction. Therefore, the design of our algorithm aims at reducing the cognitive overhead of the hypertext author. While we use this approach successfully in practice, its performance there is hard to evaluate quantitatively. So, we present a novel experiment design for quantitatively measuring the success of semiautomatic link generation and its application to our new algorithm. Both our qualitative empirical evidence and these quantitative results suggest its usefulness.

Keywords

Authoring, hypertext, automatic link generation, glossary links, WWW.

pp

3-12

References , Full text


 

Title

Finding Context Paths for Web Pages

Year1999

Author

Yoshiaki Mizuuchi, Keishi Tajima

Affiliation

Department of Computer and Systems Engineering, Kobe University, Nada, Kobe 657-8501, Japan; Tel +81 78 803-1225; Fax +81 78 803-1225; e-mail: {mizuuchi/tajima}@db.cs.kobe-u.ac.jp

Abstract

The contents of Web pages are often not self-contained. A page author often assumes all the readers of the page come through the same path, and he sometimes omits the information described in the pages on that path because the readers must already know it. Therefore, indexes used by search engines based on the contents of each page are also incomplete. In this paper, we propose a method of discovering those paths assumed by page authors, and of complementing the incomplete indexes with keywords extracted from the pages on those paths.

Keywords

query, structure discovery, information discovery, web, hypertext

pp

13-22

References , Full text


 

Title

Dynamic Hyperlink Generation for Navigation in Relational Databases

Year1999

Author

Karl M. Goschka, Jurgen Falb

Affiliation

Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Computer Technology, Gusshausstrasse 27-29/384, A-1040, Vienna, Austria. Phone +431 58801-38425 or 38412. E-mail: goeschka@acm.org

Abstract

Information processing is the key issue of the 20th century. Databases are designed to store information and the worldwide web has turned out to be the place for the gathering and distribution of information. While these two seem to be made for each other, there are inherent difficulties in linking them together, due to quite different technologies. Nevertheless, it turned out that most real life Web applications need an underlying database to be stable, flexible and scalable. Appropriate design methodologies are hence needed to implement complex functionality. Moreover, there already exist databases which people want to connect to the web with similar functionality as in classic implementations. Most of them rely on the proven technology of relational databases.

Keywords

 

pp

23-26

References , Full text


 

Title

Data Scalability in Open Hypermedia Systems

Year1999

Author

Kenneth M. Anderson

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, ECOT 717, Boulder, CO, 80309-0430, USA. Phone: +1 303 492 6003; e-mail: kena@cs.colorado.edu

Abstract

A key issue in hypermedia is scalability. A review of the hypermedia literature relevant to scalability is presented and related to the field of open hypermedia systems. The issues are grounded in the description of a development project that increased the scalability of the Chimera open hypermedia system two orders of magnitude. The project description includes the scenario that motivated the work, Chimera’s architecture, the scalability issues encountered, and the techniques employed to address them. An important lesson of the work is that scalability impacts all levels of a system’s architecture. This has significant ramifications with respect to open hypermedia systems since the highest layer of their architecture is composed of third-party applications typically outside the control of the open hypermedia system’s developers.

Keywords

open hypermedia systems, scalability, Chimera

pp

27-36

References , Full text


 

Title

Team and Role-based organizational context and access control for cooperative hypermedia environments

Year1999

Author

Weigang Wang

Affiliation

GMD/IPSI, Dolivostr. 15, D-64293 Darmstadt, Germany. E-mail: wwang@darmstadt.gmd.de

Abstract

Access control needs to be more flexible and fine-grained to support cooperative tasks and processes performed by dynamic teams. This can be done by applying state-of-the-art role-based access control (RBAC) technology. This paper examines how to integrate RBAC in a team-based organization context and how to apply such access control to hypermedia structures. Based on the analysis of these issues, a team-and-role-based access control model is proposed, which describes various aspects of role-based access control in cooperative hypermedia environments. The model has been implemented in CHIPS, a cooperative hypermedia-based process support system. Application examples demonstrate that its organizational context management and access permission authorization retain the simplicity of RBAC. Our extensions provide effective and flexible access control for managing various kinds of shared workspaces, especially share process spaces, where access control is not only used for managing security, but also for supporting co-ordination.

Keywords

cooperative hypermedia, groupware, coordination, workflow, role-based access control, process support

pp

37-46

References , Full text


 

Title

The Callimachus approach to distributed hypermedia

Year1999

Author

Manolis Tzagarakis, Michalis Vaitis, Athanasios Papadopoulos, Dimitris Christodoulakis

Affiliation

Department of Computer Engineering and Informatics, University of Patras, Computer Technology Institute, 26500 Rion, Patras, Greece. E-mail: {tzagara, vaitis, papadopa, dxri}@cti.gr

Abstract

We present the issues and design of the naming architecture of Callimachus - an open distributed hypermedia system

Keywords

open hypermedia system, naming, distribution

pp

47-48

References , Full text


 

Title

CAOS: a collaborative and open spatial structure service component with incremental spatial parsing

Year1999

Author

Olva Reinert, Dick Bucka-Lassen, Claus Aagaard Pedersen, Peter J. Nurnberg

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, Aarhus University, Ny Mukegade, Bldg 540, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark; E-mail: {oreinert, dibuck, aagaard, pnuern} @daimi.au.dk

Abstract

This paper introduces a project that provides spatial hypermedia services as part of a component-based open hypermedia system (CB-OHS). We focus on the issues of storing both the information space and the parsed spatial structure (for structure sharing purposes) and collaboration support. Continuous reparsing of spatial structure guarantees consistency between spatial and parsed structure. This promotes parsed structure to first-class status, making persistent storage of it attractive; and, it ensures a consistent view of the parsed structure between collaborative users. For effiNurnberg, P., Leggett, J.ciency reasons, the spatial parser is incremental. An accompanying spatial editor shows the validity and utility of the approach.

Keywords

open hypermedia system (OHS), component-based open hypermedia system (CB-OHS), collaboration, CSC, hypermedia middleware, spatial hypermedia, incremental spatial parsing

pp

49-50

References , Full text


 

Title

Trailblazing the Literature of Hypertext: Author Co-citation Analysis (1989-1998)

Year1999

Author

1. Chaomei Chen; 2. Les Carr

Affiliation

  1. Department of Information Systems and Computing, Brunel University, Uxbridge, UB8 3PH; tel. +44 1895 203080; e-mail chaomei.chen@brunel.ac.uk
  2. Department of Electronics and Computer Science, Southampton University, Southampton, SO17 1BJ; tel. +44 1703 594479; e-mail L.Carr@ecs.soton.ac.uk

Abstract

This paper presents the analysis and modelling of the literature of hypertext based on the ACM Hypertext conference series. This work explores a new paradigm of organizing and accessing the vast amount of interrelated information. In the first study, a semantic space is automatically derived and visualised based on all the full papers published in this series (1987-1998). The second study, an author co-citation analysis of nine conference proceedings in the series (1989-1998) maps this substantial literature of hypertext in its entierety and in three evenly distributed sub-periods. Specialities - major research fronts in the field of hypertext - are identified using a factor analysis. Author co-citation maps are automatically generated as virtual worlds on the WWW to help people explore the literary legacy of hypertext.

Keywords

Author co-citation analysis, literature mapping, factor analysis, information visualisation

pp

51-60

References , Full text


 

Title

Visualizing and Assessing Navigation in Hypertext

Year1999

Author

John E. McEneaney

Affiliation

Division of Education, Indiana University South Bend, South Bend, IN 46634-7111, USA; Tel/Fax 219-237-4576/219-237-4550; E-mail: JMcEneaney@IUSB.edu

Abstract

User navigation has been a central theme in both theoretical and empirical work since the earliest days of hypertext research and development. Studies exploring user navigation have, however, tended to rely on indirect navigational measures and have rarely tried to relate navigation to performance solving problems or locating information. The purpose of this paper is to propose methods that lead to a more direct representation and analysis of user movement in hypertext and to empirically explore the relationship of resulting measures to performance in a hypertext search task. Results of this study support the claim that the proposed graphical and numerical methods have empirical significance and may be useful in applications related to assessing and modeling user navigation.

Keywords

visualization, user paths, path analysis, navigation patterns, navigation metrics, empirical validation

pp

61-70

References , Full text


 

Title

Hypertext-like Structures through a SOM network

Year1999

Author

Rizzo, R., Allegra M., Fulantelli, G.

Affiliation

CNR-ITDF via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo, Italy. Tel: +39 091 6809207; Fax +39 091 6809239; E-mail: {rizzo, allegra, fulantelli}@mail.itdf.pa.cnr.it

Abstract

In this paper we describe a system whose main aim is supporting a hypertext author to classify and organize a large amount of documents; the system allows the author to have access to the documents with hypertext features, providing some access points and suggesting, for each document, the related ones. The system is an interesting application of the Self Organizing Map network, a neural network widely used to organize multidimensional data; specifically, it is based on two SOM networks, the first one is aimed at organizing collections of documents in "information maps" that display the relations between the content of the documents; the second one identifies access points and splits the maps into meaningful areas. Finally the author can edit both the list of access points and the map through a web page editor, thus moving the misclassified documents in the right area.

Keywords

artificial neural networks, hypertext development

pp

71-74

References , Full text


 

Title

Control Choices and Network Effects in Hypertext Systems

Year1999

Author

E. James Whitehead Jr

Affiliation

Dept. of Information and Computer Science, University of California, Irvine, Irvine CA 92697-3425. Tel: +1 949 824 4121; e-mail: ejw@ics.uci.edu

Abstract

When the utility of a hypertext system depends on the number of users and amount of data in the system, the system exhibits network effects. This paper examines how the core differences in control assumptions between monolithic hypertext systems, open hypermedia systems, and the Web, lead to different incentive structures for readers and content providers and hence varying levels of network effects.

Significant results of this analysis are as follows. First, lack of control over the data in a hypermedia system combined with a large-scale distribution infrastructure is a key aspect of achieving network effects, since this control choice affords large numbers of readers. Second, examination of network effects from the Web and monolithic hypermedia systems suggests that control over the user interface is a key contributor to network effects, since it provides a more pleasant experience for readers, and allows for more control over the presentation by content providers. Finally, control over the hypermedia structure provides a negative contribution to network effects, since the control point limits scalability, thus capping the total number of readers.

keywords

Network effects, architectural control choices, monolithic hypertext, open hypertext, WWW

pp

75-82

References , Full text


 

Title

What was the Question? Reconciling open hypermedia and world wide web research

Year1999

Author

1. Peter J. Nurnberg, 2, Helen Ashman

Affiliation

  1. Department of Computer Science, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 116, Bldg. 540, DK-8000 Arhus C, Denmark.
  2. Department of Computer Science, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK

Abstract

This paper considers some of the issues surrounding the relationship between open hypermedia systems research and World Wide Web research. Both areas claim to address advanced hypermedia systems issues, but do so in quite different ways. Although there has been some cooperation between members of these fields, there is significant room for improvement. With both fields using much different approaches in what is ostensibly the same area, researchers often feel more need to justify their approach over others instead of looking for ways to synthesize their results. In this paper, we consider two "extremist" positions that caricature/characterize points of view held by some members of these fields, allowing each field to "make its case" as the "true" home of hypermedia systems research. We then reconcile these radically different perspectives, and in doing so, propose a framework that makes more apparent the contributions of each field and that we feel forms a basis for more fruitful co-operation.

Keywords

open hypertext systems, OHS, World Wide Web, WWW

pp

83-90

References , Full text


 

Title

Unifying Strategies for Web Augmentation

Year1999

Author

Niels Olof Bouvin

Affiliation

Aarhus University, Department of Computer Science, Aabogade 34A, DK8200 Aarhus N., Denmark. E-mail: bouvin@daimi.aau.dk

Abstract

Since the beginning of the WWW, tools have been developed to augment the functionality of the Web. This paper provides an investigation of hypermedia tools and systems integrating the World Wide Web with focus on functionality and the techniques used to achieve this functionality. Similarities are found and based on this, a new framework, the Arakne framework, for developing and thinking about Web augmentation is presented. The Arakne framework is flexible and supports most kinds of Web augmentation. Finally, an implementation of the Arakne framework is described and discussed.

Keywords

Web integration, open hypermedia systems, open hypermedia protocol, collaboration on the web, unifying interfaces, common reference architecture for open hypermedia systems, Java

pp

91-100

References , Full text


 

Title

Lector in rebus: the role of the reader and the characteristics of hyperreading

Year1999

Author

Licia Calbi

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland; Tel: +353 1 608 1765; E-mail: Licia.Calvi@cs.tcd.ie

Abstract

The paper focuses on the characteristics of reading and on the role of the reader in hyperfiction in order to determine whether the hyperreader is fundamentally different from the traditional reader and, if so, what form such a difference may take. Once we have identified which elements of hypertext rhetoric may have fostered reading, we could indeed start to better understand the intimate nature of a hypertext ecology.

Following Umberto Eco’s analysis "Six Walks in the Fictional Woods", the paper focuses on a sample collection of hyperfictions, in order to determine whether hypertext exploits the same rhetorical concepts and techniques adopted in paper-based texts to foster reading. In particular, we want to examine hypertext structure in the light of a combinatorial calculus. Such a combinatorial calculus is what postmodern fiction has drawn from Borges’s original idea of the labyrinth and the interconnection of multiple paths. It determines the multiple potential ways to connect lexias and the reading agreement between reader and author which results from such a combinatorial structuring. Ultimately, the author’s writing strategy is revealed by this combinatorial embedding.

Keywords

hyperreading, the role of the reader, the garbage axiom, the labyrinth challenge, the reading agreement

pp

101-109

References , Full text


 

Title

Piecing Together and tearing apart: finding the story in afternoon

Year1999

Author

Jill Walker

Affiliation

University of Bergen, 5027 Bergen, Norway. Tel: +47 552 90049; e-mail: jill.walker@lili.uib.no

Abstract

This paper is a reading of a classic of hypertext narrative: Michael Joyce’s afternoon, a story. Several writers have discussed afternoon previously. However, I have chosen to explore afternoon from a different angle by using theories of narratology, especially Genette. In this reading, I explore ways in which the text confuses the reader but also the many stabilising elements that aid the reader to piece together a story.

Keywords

criticism, theory, rhetoric, hypertext structure, hypertext fiction, hyperreading

pp

111-117

References , Full text


 

Title

Towards the Recognition of the Shell as an integral part of the Digital Text

Year1999

Author

Anja Rau

Affiliation

Department of English/American Studies, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitat Mainz, Elsa-Brandstrom-Str. 10/10114, 55124 Mainz, Germany. Tel: +49 6131-689757; E-mail: raua000@mail.uni-mainz.de

Abstract

Although the theory of hypertext fiction does not regard the shell as a text, writers of digital fiction have long started to blur the boundaries between the reader and the "main" text. Both interpreters of fictional hypertexts and programmers of hypertext- environments need to acknowledge this fact in order to accommodate current writing practices.

Keywords

digital literature, hyperfiction, computer games, metatext, paratext

pp

119-120

References , Full text


 

Title

Beyond Location: Hypertext Workspaces and Non-Linear Views

Year1999

Author

1. Frank Shipman; 2. Catherine Marshall; 3. Mark LeMere

Affiliation

  1. Department of Computer Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-3112; e-mail: shipman@cs.tamu.edu
  2. Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, 3333 Coyote Hill Road, Palo Alto, CA 94304; e-mail: marshall@parc.xerox.com
  3. Guidant Corporation, 1360 O’Brian Drive, Menlo Park, CA 94025; e-mail: mark1@endovascular.com

Abstract

With the growth of the web as a public information resource, users need workspaces to support the collection, evaluation, organization, and annotation of the materials they retrieve. These analytic workspaces should be designed for both the casual and professional analyst, keeping in mind that different environments may be appropriate for each type of use. In this paper we derive a set of requirements from observations and reports on the use of information workspaces, coupled with observations of people performing analytical tasks. These workspace requirements include: 1. Support for performing multiple simultaneous tasks; 2. A variety of activity-based connections to information resources; 3. Tailorable and manipulable reduced document representations; and 4. Visualizations to help users manage screen space. We explore the trade-offs implied by these requirements using our implementation of multiple focus fisheye views as we have integrated them into the VIKI workspace.

Keywords

information workspaces, analysis, interpretation, VIKI, fisheye views, reduced document representations, visualization, visual languages

pp

121-130

References , Full text


 

Title

Navigation Scheme for Interactive Movies with Linear Narrative

Year1999

Author

Guy Vardi

Affiliation

The Interdisciplinary Center - Herzelia, Israel, 27 Sokolov St. Rishon Lezion, Israel, 75262; Tel. +972 3-964 1089; E-mail: yvardi@ibm.net

Abstract

The article introduces an interactive movie navigation model focused on some cinemati aspects of the movie, such as camera position, movement, and angle. The model preserves the linear structure of the narrative and creates a context-based navigation scheme. The interactive dimension of the project enables the viewer to explore the story through the characteristics of several points of view. The user’s interaction is used to affect some cinematic conventions, while it does not interfere with the development of the plot.

Keywords

hypermedia, digital video, interactive movie, navigation model, non-linear video

pp

131-132

References , Full text


 

Title

No longer lost in WWW-based hyperspaces

Year1999

Author

Reinhard Kreutz Brigitte Euler, Klaus Spitzer

Affiliation

Institut fur Medizinische Informatik an der RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, Germany. Tel. +49 241 80 89797; E-mail: {kreutz, beuler, spitzer}@imib.rwth-aachen.de

Abstract

In this paper a toolbox of Java applets is presented which was designed to solve the known problems of disorientation and increasing cognitive load in hypertexts. It enables the author of HTML hypertexts to explicitly define the document’s underlying structure, guided tours and different link types. The reader’s benefits from these information are a clearly structured hypertext, automatically generated graphical maps that allow direct information access and a reduction of the cognitive load. The latter is achieved by displaying a link type icon behind each link and a "preview" function that gives a brief summarization of the referenced page.

Keywords

document maps, link typing, preview, navigation, guided tours, WWW, Java, HTML

pp

133-134

References , Full text


 

Title

Structure Analysis for Hypertext with Conditional Linkage

Year1999

Author

Jean-Hugues Rety

Affiliation

CWI, PO Box 94079, 1090 GB Amsterdam, The Netherlands; E-mail: jean-hugues.rety@cwi.nl

Abstract

We propose a structure analysis and proof framework for hypertext with conditional linkage. This framework can provide hypertext systems with a powerful and simple tool to help the writer to maintain control over the browsing semantics of her hypertext. We briefly present the outline of a possible implementation in PROLOG.

Keywords

conditional link, structural analysis

pp

135-136

References , Full text


 

Title

Visualization of Relationships

Year1999

Author

Vijay Kumar and Richard Furuta

Affiliation

Center for the Study of Digital Libraries and Department of Computer Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-3112, USA

Abstract

TmViewer allows the flexible graphical display and redisplay of object relationships, as well as the derivation of new relationships from existing ones. In this paper we describe an extension to tmViewer to enable the implicit specification of relationships. These mechanisms, taken together, enable flexible exploration of the information space.

Keywords

Timelines, spatial hypertext, relationship visualization

pp

137-138

References , Full text


 

Title

Improving Hypermedia Development: A Reference Model-based Process Assessment Method

Year1999

Author

1. David B. Lowe, Andrew J. Bucknell; 2. Richard G. Webby

Affiliation

  1. Faculty of Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway NSW 2007 Australia. Tel +61 29514 2526; Fax +61 29514 2435; E-mail: {dbl, andrewb}@eng.uts.edu.au
  2. School of Information Systems, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia. Tel +61 29385 5890; Fax +61 29662 4061; E-mail: r.webby:unsw.edu.au

Abstract

If we are to improve our ability to reliably and consistently create high quality hypermedia applications then we need to improve our understanding of the development process and its relationship to the quality of the end applications. An important aspect in achieving this understanding is the ability to assess the process. This is in turn best facilitated by the use of a suitable process model. In this paper we discuss a model-based approach to the assessment of the development process of hypermedia applications. We propose a hypermedia development process reference model which guides the identification of suitable process quality attributes and subsequent assessment activities. We look at how this process assessment can be applied in improving development processes and hence hypermedia applications. We provide some examples that demonstrate the validity of the approach. The result is a technique which is capable of providing significant improvement in the development process and hence the quality of the applications which result from this process.

Keywords

hypermedia, development, process, methodology, evaluation, assessment, improvement

pp

139-146

References , Full text


 

Title

AHAM: A dexter based reference model for Adaptive Hypermedia

Year1999

Author

Paul de Bra, Geert-Jan Houben, Hongjing Wu

Affiliation

Department of Computing Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, NL 5600 MB, Eindhoven, The Netherlands. E-mail: {debra, houben, hongjing}@win.tue.nl

Abstract

Hypermedia applications offer users the impression that there are meaningful ways to navigate through a large body of information nodes. This rich link structure not only creates orientation problems, it may also be a source of comprehension problems when users follow paths through the information which the author did not foresee. Adaptive techniques have been used by a number of researchers, in an attempt to offer guidance through the orientation support for rich link structures. The majority of these adaptive hypermedia systems (AHS) have been used in educational applications. The terminology used in this paper also has an educational flavor. However, there are some adaptive on-line information retrieval systems (or kiosk-systems) adaptive information retrieval systems, and other adaptive hypermedia applications.

In this paper we describe a reference model for adaptive hypermedia applications, called AHAM, which encompasses most features supported by adaptive systems that exist today, or that are being developed and have been published about. Our description of AHS is based on the dexter model, a widely used reference model for hypermedia. The description is kept somewhat informal in order to be able to explain AHAM rather than formally specify it. AHAM augments Dexter with features for doing adaptation based on a user model which persists beyond the duration of a session.

Keywords

adaptive hypermedia, user modeling, hypermedia reference model

pp

147-156

References , Full text


 

Title

Abstract Tasks: a tool for the inspection of web sites and off-line hypermedia

Year1999

Author

F. Garzotto, M. Matera, P. Paolini

Affiliation

HOC - Hypermedia Open Center, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Politechnico di Milano, P. zza Leondardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan, Italy. E-mail: {garzotto, matera, paolini}@elet.polimi.it

Abstract

This paper discusses a systematic method for inspecting the usability of on-line and off-line hypermedia. The core idea of our approach is the use of an organized list of abstract tasks to guide the inspector’s activity. An abstract task specifies a pattern of inspection operations that the evaluator is required to perform on some specific features of a hypermedia. Abstract tasks capture our expertise in usability inspection, and express it in a precise and understandable form, so that it can be easily "reproduced", communicated and exploited. They help transferring usability expertise from experienced to inexperienced inspectors, and sharing know-how among different evaluators. Thus, different inspectors who systematically apply the same set of abstract tasks are more likely to come up with consistent results, and the overall quality of their inspection (in terms of completeness and accurateness of the findings) is greatly improved.

The paper briefly introduces the background of our approach and explains the rationale of abstract tasks. It also provides some examples of abstract tasks (out of the 43 currently defined) and of inspection results achieved by applying them to inspect WWW sites and commercial CD-ROMS.

Keywords

usability inspection, evaluation methodology, hypermedia quality

pp

157-163

References , Full text


 

Title

Hypermedia Potentials for Analysis Support Tools

Year1999

Author

Douglas S. Lange

Affiliation

Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, 53560 Hull Street, San Diego, CA 92152-5000, USA; tel. +1 619 553 6534; E-mail: dlange@acm.org

Abstract

The analytical process in many domains is one of associating pieces of pre-existing data to form new information. Where the individual data elements are multimedia files, database entries, and computer-based models, hypermedia architectures provide natural support for such a process. This paper describes aspects of analysis support that dictate particular requirements in a hypermedia based system. Adaptations of techniques from published hypermedia research were indicated by these requirements. Key among these techniques were anchoring as presented in Dexter model, perspective filtering and navigation from graph-based hypermedia, link typing from rich hypermedia and the system structure of open hypermedia systems.

Keywords

analysis, knowledge model, semantic network, perspective filtering, navigation, open hypermedia, Dexter, anchor

pp

165-178

References , Full text


 

Title

Mix’n’match: exchangeable modules of hypermedia style

Year1999

Author

Lloyd Rutledge, Lynda Hardman, Jacco van Ossenbruggen, Dick Bulterman

Affiliation

CWI (Centrum voor Wiskunde en Informatica), PO Box 94079, 1090 GB Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Tel +31 20 592 4127; E-mail: {loyd.Rutledge, Lynda.Hardman, Jacco.van.Ossenbruggen, Dick.Bulterman}@cwi.nl

Abstract

Making hypermedia adaptable for multiple forms of presentation involves enabling multiple distinct specifications for how a given collection of hypermedia can have its presentation generated. The Standard Reference Model for Intelligent Multimedia Presentation Systems describes how the generation of hypermedia presentation can be divided into distinct but cooperating layers. Earlier work has described how specifications for generating presentations can be divided into distinct modules of code corresponding to these layers. This paper explores how the modules for each layer of the presentation specification can be exchanged for another module encoded for that layer and result in the whole specification remaining well functioning. This capability would facilitate specifying presentation generation by allowing for the use of pre-programmed modules, thus enabling the author to focus on particular aspects of the presentation generation process. An example implementation of these concepts that uses current and developing Web standards is presented to illustrate how wide-spread modularized presentation generation might be realized in the near future.

Keywords

adaptable hypermedia, presentation specification, IMMPSs

pp

179-188

References , Full text


 

Title

Do You Have the Time? Composition and Linking in Time-based Hypermedia

Year1999

Author

Lynda Hardman, Jacco van Ossenbruggen, K. Sjoerd Mullender, Lloyd Rutledge, Dick C. A. Bulterman

Affiliation

CWI, PO Box 94079, 1090 GB Amsterdam, The Netherlands. E-mail: {Lynda.Hardman, Jacco.van.Ossenbruggen}@cwi.nl

Abstract

Most hypermedia models and systems do not incorporate time explicitly. This prevents authors from having direct control over the temporal aspects of a presentation. In this paper we discuss the concept of presentation time - the timing of the individual parts of the presentation and the temporal relations among them. We argue why time is necessary from a presentation perspective, and discuss its relationship with other temporal views of a presentation. We discuss the requirements and present our solution for incorporating temporal and linking information in a model of time-based hypermedia.

Keywords

time-based hypermedia, composition, links, Amsterdam Hypermedia Model, SMIL

pp

189-196

References , Full text


2000 Hypertext Conference

Title

A development environment for building component-based open hypermedia systems

Year 2000

Author

u. k. wiil1, p. j. nurnberg1, d. hicks1, s. reich2

Affiliation

1Department of Computer Science, Aalborg University. Aalborg University, Esbjerg, Niels Bohrs Vej 8, 6700 Esbjerg, Denmark
2Department of Information Systems, University of Linz. University of Linz, Altenbergerstraߥ 69, 4040 Linz, Austria

Abstract

The Construct development environment is targeted at the construction of different types of hypermedia services. The primary goal of the environment is to ease the construction of component-based open hypermedia systems by providing development tools that assist the system developers in the generation of the set of services that make up a hypermedia system.

Keywords

construct development environment, development tools, hypermedia services

pp

266-267

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Title

A pragmatics of links

Year 2000

Author

p. tosca

Affiliation

Departamento de Filologia III.

Abstract

This paper applies the linguistic theory of relevance to the study of the way links work, insisting on the lyrical quality of the link-interpreting activity. It is argued that such a pragmatic approach can help us understand hypertext readers' behavior, and thus be useful for authors and tool-builders alike.

Keywords

context, hypertext, inferences, linguistics, link, movement of meaning, pragmatics

pp

77-84

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Title

A semiotic analysis of iMarketing tools

Year 2000

Author

Moritz Neumuller

Affiliation

.

Abstract

This paper tries to point out current developments in the commercialization of the Internet and its various effects on the World Wide Web. Approaching Hypertext Theory from of the viewpoint of applied Semiotics, the author analyzes recently developed Internet Marketing Tools such as Banner Ad Keying and Keywords in Discussion Groups.

Keywords

eCommerce, internet, marketing, semiotics

pp

238-239

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Title

A user interface combining navigation aids

Year 2000

Author

Mountaz Hascoet

Affiliation

University of Paris-sud.

Abstract

This paper describes how four independent navigational aids can be smoothly integrated in a unified graphical user interface. Our aim is to improve user performance in most web related tasks through integration of navigational aids. The navigational aids considered are (1) a short term history (the six last visited pages), (2) a personal BestOf, (the six most visited web pages), (3) an area of unclassified web pages stored to be read later and (4) an overview of an organized collection of bookmarks.

Keywords

WWW, bookmarks, browsing, history, navigation, user interface, visualization

pp

224-225

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Title

Achieving practical development-merging skill bases (panel session)

Year 2000

Author

d. b. lowe1, d. larsen2, b. bly3, r. kendall4, l.a. carr5, p. j. nurnberg6, l. clarke7

Affiliation

1University of Technology. Sydney P.O. Box 123 Broadway, NSW 2007 Australia
2Hypertext Writer. 633 Oak St. #1 Lakewood, Colorado 80215 USA.
3New York University.
4The New School for Social Research.
5The Multimedia Research Group.
6Aarlborg University.
7Texas A&M University.

Abstract

Keywords

audience, development, hypertext, management, skills

pp

262-263

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Title

Adaptability in KDAEHS: an adaptive educational hypermedia system based on structural computing

Year 2000

Author

h. xu, m. x. zhou, Jinfeng Ni, z. zhao

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, University of Science & Technology of China.

Abstract

We have implemented an adaptive educational hypermedia system for the course of Algorithms and Data Structures. The adaptation techniques used for this course allows students to choose their own learning goals, get suggestions for suitable study sequence and proper information units covering the knowledge required to reach these learning goals. Adaptive map presented does a great deal of good to the understanding of the course. In addition, the questionnaire and evaluation of current study and the recommendation for future study are also presented after some period of learning. The student modeling component underlying uses a kind of overlay model which corresponds to the application domain model containing knowledge items and learning dependencies between these knowledge items. For calculation the system's belief of a user's knowledge on each knowledge items we use a Bayesian network. Structural computing algorithms based on user goals and previous knowledge are the key to support different adaptive strategies.

Keywords

adaptive educational hypermedia system, structural computing

pp

250-251

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Title

An orthogonal taxonomy for hyperlink anchor generation in video streams using OvalTine

Year 2000

Author

Jason McC. Smith, p. d. stotts, Sang-Uok Kum

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, University of North Carolina.

Abstract

As dynamically linked content follows the progression of statically linked media into the realm of video, new opportunities for link creation become apparent. In this paper we describe a real-time video hypermedia system with user-definable linkage areas, in a distributed collaborative environment. We also investigate the extension of such a system to automated link creation in video streams. In the process, we identify and describe orthogonal issues of hypervideo anchor creation. An example system, OvalTine, has been produced to illustrate several potential uses through configuration of an extended video conferencing application on the SGI O2 platform.

Keywords

automated anchor generation, collaboration, digital video, hypervideo, streaming video

pp

11-18

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Title

Analysis of the authoring process of hypertext documents

Year 2000

Author

m. pohl, p. purgathofer

Affiliation

Department of Design and Assessment of Technology, Vienna University of Technology.

Abstract

This paper discusses the hypertext authoring process. The main focus lies in finding the kinds of activities authors of hypertext documents concentrate on. We describe a method to visualize the strategies and priorities of authors while creating a hypertext document, based upon protocol data.

Keywords

concept maps, hypertext authoring, information visualization

pp

240-241

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Title

Arguments in hypertext: a rhetorical approach

Year 2000

Author

l. m. carter

Affiliation

Department of English, Texas Tech University.

Abstract

The qualities of non-sequentiality that make hypertext so appealing to writers and readers of informative and literary texts are also those that problematize arguments in the same settings. For a hypertextual argument to succeed, it should clearly employ the fundamentals of giving good reasons and ample evidence. But such an essay should also deal with the loss of control over order by making use of recent developments in rhetoric and argument theory. Specifi-cally, the author presents concepts of informal logic, stasis theory, primacy/recency/repetition effects, spatial meta-phors, and textual coherence as a starting point for building a rhetorical understanding of argumentation strategies in hypertext.

Keywords

argumentation, discourse, hypertext, rhetoric

pp

85-91

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Title

Automatic creation of exercises in adaptive hypermedia learning systems

Year 2000

Author

s. fischer1, r. steinmetz2

Affiliation

1Industrial Process and System Communications. Deptartment of Electrical Eng. & Information Technology Darmstadt University of Technology Merckstr. 25, D-64283 Darmstadt, Germany
2GMD IPSI. German National Research Center for Information Technology Dolivostr. 15, D-64293 Darmstadt, Germany

Abstract

In the last few years the automatic sequencing of course material became an important research issue, particularly with regard to the standardization of metadata for educational resources. Sequencing can help to generate hypermedia documents which match the learner's needs at its best. However, the generation of exercises is in most cases done manually. In this paper we propose an approach to generate exercises in an automatic way, exploiting the information which is already included in the knowledge base used in many adaptive hypermedia systems.

Keywords

adaptive hypermedia systems, hypermedia learning, knowledge engineering, sequencing of course material

pp

49-55

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Title

Automatically generated hypertext versions of scholarly articles and their evaluation

Year 2000

Author

j. blustein

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, Bowling Green State University.

Abstract

The overall objective of this work is to develop and evaluate ways of automatically incorporating hypertext links into pre-existing scientific articles. Some readers like hypertext even when it is not as useful to them as the linear document from which it was generated. Hy-pertexts must therefore be evaluated for usefulness and acceptability. We describe rules for making links and an experiment using two methods of applying those rules, to show how such rules should be evaluated, and to see if they truly help people. In addition to measures of per-formance we also collected measures of preference. The effectiveness of these links was evaluated by testing with people. Performance was determined by measuring the accuracy and inclusiveness of answers to questions about the article, and written summaries. Readers judged the quality of links (and thereby the quality of the rules used to forge them) and the overall effectiveness of the hypertext. Most readers did not read the entire articles in the time allotted. Readers had no preference for arti-cles with or without novel link types, but they did have a strong preference for definition and structural links over (novel) semantic links. Readers of documents with only structural links had comprehension scores that were inversely proportional to their satisfaction ratings. No performance difference was detected.

Keywords

Browsing, World Wide Web, automated linking, browsing, digital library, electronic journal, evaluation, hypertext, information retrieval, usability

pp

201-210

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Title

Automatically linking multimedia meeting documents by image matching

Year 2000

Author

p. chiu, j. foote, a. girgensohn, John Boreczky

Affiliation

FX Palo Alto Laboratory.

Abstract

We describe a way to make a hypermedia meeting record from multimedia meeting documents by automatically generating links through image matching. In particular, we look at video recordings and scanned paper handouts of presentation slides with ink annotations. The algorithm that we employ is the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). Interactions with multipath links and paper interfaces are discussed.

Keywords

automatic linking, image matching, meeting capture, multimedia, paper interfaces, scanning, video indexing

pp

244-245

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Title

Clustering hypertext with applications to web searching

Year 2000

Author

d. s. modha, W. Scott Spangler

Affiliation

IBM Almaden Research Center.

Abstract

Clustering separates unrelated documents and groups related documents,and is useful for discrimination,disambiguation, summarization,organization,and navigation of unstructured collections of hypertext documents.We propose a novel clus- tering algorithm that clusters hypertext documents using words (contained in the document),out-links (from the document), and in-links (to the document).The algorithm automatically determines the relative importance of words,out-links,and in-links for a given collection of hypertext documents.We annotate each cluster using six information nuggets: summary, breakthrough,review,keywords,citation,and refer- ence.These nuggets constitute high-quality information re- sources that are representatives of the content of the clusters, and are extremely effective in compactly summarizing and navigating the collection of hypertext documents.We em- ploy web searching as an application to illustrate our results.

Keywords

cluster annotation, feature combination, high-dimensional data, hyperlinks, sparse data, toric k-means algorithm, vector space model

pp

143-152

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Title

Content permanence via versioning and fingerprinting

Year 2000

Author

j. simonson1, d. berleant2, Ahmed Bayyari1

Affiliation

1Department of Computer Science & Computer Engineering, University of Arkansas. University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701-1201
2Department of Computer Science & Computer Engineering, Iowa State University. Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, 5011-0002, USA

Abstract

Referencing documents on the Web is becoming increase-ingly popular due to the convenience provided to both readers and publishers. Unfortunately this convenience can become just the opposite when referenced documents are altered or removed. This lack of content permanence is of particular concern for works of lasting appeal. To address this problem, a scheme is proposed that both encourages content permanence and detects document version tampering.

Keywords

content permanence, electronic publishing, hypertext referencing, security, versioning

pp

226-227

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Title

Context-aware hypermedia in a dynamically-changing environment, supported by a high-level Petri net

Year 2000

Author

Jin-Cheon Na, r. furuta

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, Texas A&M University.

Abstract

In modern hypertext systems, adaptation support for users in dynamically-changing environments will be essential to meet the needs of mobile users. In this paper, we introduce context-aware Trellis (caT), which supports flexible user (or agent) adaptation to a changing environment by incorporating both high-level Petri net features, such as structured tokens, and user modeling. It also integrates a fuzzy logic tool to support fuzzy (or uncertain) knowledge representation.

Keywords

context-aware hypertext system, fuzzy logic, high-level Petri net

pp

222-223

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Title

Creation of interactive media content by the reuse of images

Year 2000

Author

Tsutomu Miyasato

Affiliation

ATR Media Integration & Communications Research Laboratories.

Abstract

By using video clips taken from a Japanese sumo wrestling digest TV program, we introduces an example of inter-active media content production on the viewer side.

Keywords

interactive media, presentation software, video clip

pp

246-247

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Title

Defining logical domains in a web site

Year 2000

Author

Wen-Syan Li1, Okan Kolak1, Quoc Vu1, h. takano2

Affiliation

1Syan Li C&C Research Laboratories. NEC USA, Inc. NEC USA, Inc. 110 Rio Robles, M/S SJ100, San Jose, CA 95134, USA
2Hajime Human Media Research Laboratories. NEC Corporation, 4-1-1, Miyazaki, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 216, Japan

Abstract

Each URL identifies a unique Web page; thus, it is viewed as a natural choice to use for organizing Web query results. Web search results may be grouped by domain and presented to users as clusters for ease of visualization. However, it has a drawback: dealing with large Web sites, such as Geoci-ties, W3C,andwww.cs.umd.edu. Large Web sites tend to yield many matches that leads to a few large, flat struc-tured, and unorganized clusters. As a matter of fact, these sites contain Web sites of other entities, such as projects and people. Many pages in these sites are actually logical do-mains by themselves. For example, Web sites for projects at a university or the XML section at W3C could be viewed as logical domains. In this paper, we propose the concept of logical domain with respect to physical domain which is identified simply by domain name. We have developed and implemented a set of rules based on link structure, path infor-mation, document metadata, and citation to identify logical domain entry pages and their corresponding boundaries. Ex-periments on real Web data have been conducted to validate the usefulness of this technique.

Keywords

WWW, domain boundary, link structures, logical domain, site map

pp

123-132

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Title

Designing user interfaces for collaborative web-based open hypermedia

Year 2000

Author

n. o. bouvin

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, University of Aarhus.

Abstract

The paper presents the design of a user interface to support collaboration work in the Arakne Environment, a Web-oriented component-based open hypermedia system. The main objective of the user interface has been to provide a seamless integration between a single user and a collabora-tive work situation, and the paper describes how this has been accomplished, and how peripheral awareness can be supported using event-based notifications. The system utilises the Construct servers, which are Open Hypermedia Systems Working Group compliant.

Keywords

IRC chat, OHSWG, WWW, WebDAV, audio/video conferencing, event notification, open collaborative hypermedia, peripheral awareness, sessions

pp

230-231

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Title

Finding linking opportunities through relationship-based analysis

Year 2000

Author

j. yoo1, m. bieber2

Affiliation

1Rutgers University.
2New Jersey Institute of Technology.

Abstract

Many techniques exist for analyzing information domains in preparation for systems design. No systematic technique exists, however, for analyzing a system or domain in terms of its relationships. This is especially important for hypermedia and World Wide Web applications, which (should) provide a high degree of linking and navigational support. RNA (Relationship Navigation Analysis) provides a systematic way of identifying useful relationships in application domains. Developers can then implement each relationship as a link. Viewing an application domain from the relationship management point of view and modeling from a philosophy of maximum access provides a unique vantage point for application design. We present RNA and its generic relationship taxonomy, focusing upon their use for system analysis. We provide a long example in the domain of an on-line bookstore.

Keywords

World Wide Web applications, book store, hypermedia analysis, hypermedia design, relationship analysis, relationship attributes, relationship management

pp

181-190

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Title

FOHM: a fundamental open hypertext model for investigating interoperability between hypertext domains

Year 2000

Author

d. millard1, l. moreau1, h. c. davis1, s. reich2

Affiliation

1The Multimedia Research Group. Department of Electronics & Computer Science, University of Southampton SO17 IBJ, UK phone+44 1703593255
2Department of Information Systems, University of Linz. University of Linz, 4040 Linz, Austria

Abstract

The Open Hypermedia Systems community has been largely concerned with interoperability between hypertext systems which share the same paradigm. It has evolved a compo-nent based framework for this purpose, in which specific but incompatible middleware components are designed for each hypertext domain, such as navigational hypertext, spatial hy-pertext or taxonomic hypertext. This paper investigates the common features of these domains and introduces FOHM, a Fundamental Open Hypertext Model, which defines a com-mon data model and set of related operations that are applica-ble for all three domains. Using this layer the paper explores the possible semantics of linking between different hypertext domains, and shows that each can introduce features which benefit the other domains.

Keywords

component-based open hypermedia system (CB-OHS), fundamental open hypermedia model (FOHM), hypertext domains, interoperability, open hypermedia protocol, open hypermedia protocol (OHP)

pp

93-102

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Title

From cinematographic to hypertext narrative

Year 2000

Author

Clara Mancini

Affiliation

Knowledge Media Institute.

Abstract

This paper argues that cinematographic language may pro-vide insights into the construction of narrative coherence in hypertext. Brief examples of cinematic representation mod-els are mapped onto the hypertext domain.

Keywords

cinematography, juxtaposition, narrative

pp

236-237

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Title

Generating instructional hypermedia with APHID

Year 2000

Author

Judi R. Thomson1, j. e. greer2, j. cooke2

Affiliation

1Department of Computer Science, University of Alberta. University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
2Department of Computer Science, University of Saskatchewan. University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada

Abstract

We propose a method (APHID) that assists an instructional designer to define format, structure and sequence within an instructional hypermedia application. Our method uses concept maps and instructional patterns, as well as data, navigation, and presentation models to support partial automation for creating instructional hypermedia.

Keywords

XML, concept maps, instructional hypermedia, instructional patterns

pp

248-249

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Title

Generating presentation constraints from rhetorical structure

Year 2000

Author

l. rutledge1, Brian Bailey2, j. van ossenbruggen1, l. hardman1, Joost Geurts1

Affiliation

1CWI. P.O.Box 94079, NL-1090 GB Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Tel: +31 20 592 41 27
2Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis,MN 55455, USA. Tel:+1 612 624-8372

Abstract

Hypermedia structured in terms of the higher-level intent of its author can be adapted to a wider variety of final presentations.Many multimedia systems encode such high- level intent as constraints on either time,spatial layout or navigation.Once specified,these constraints are translated into specific presentations whose timelines,screen displays and navigational structure satisfy these constraints.This ensures that the desired spatial,temporal and navigation properties are maintained no matter how the presentation is adapted to varying circumstances. Rhetorical structure defines author intent at a still higher level.Authoring at this level requires that rhetorics can be translated to final presentations that properly reflect them. This paper explores how rhetorical structure can be translated into constraints,which are then translated into final presentations.This enables authoring in terms of rhetorics and provides the assurance that the rhetorics will remain properly conveyed in all presentation adaptation.

Keywords

authoring, constraints, meta-structure, presentation generation, rhetorics

pp

19-28

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Title

Hypermedia in the virtual project room - toward open 3D spatial hypermedia

Year 2000

Author

p. mogensen, Kaj Gronbaek

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, University of Aarhus.

Abstract

This paper discusses hypermedia aspects of the design of a Virtual Project Room. Based on ethnographic and participatory design studies of landscape architects' and architects' work, prototypes for a notion of virtual project rooms, supporting remote collaboration, is developed. Since (landscape) architects work with 3D objects and environments a natural first step is to design a virtual project room as a 3D virtual environment. The current prototype, Manufaktur, utilizes open hypermedia technology to integrate documents with design models in the virtual project room. Manufaktur provides hot-linking of arbitrary MS Windows documents into the virtual project room, it supports spatial arrangement and categorization of (sub) workspaces by means of proximity, and it provides "classical" open hypermedia linking between segments of documentation. Finally, support for two modes of tightly coupled collaboration in the virtual project room is being provided by means of a session management service. Based on the experiences from design of Manufaktur we discuss design issues for the integration of hypermedia and collaborative virtual environments.

Keywords

3D workspace, CSCW, collaborative virtual environments, open hypermedia, spatial hypermedia

pp

113-122

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Title

Hypertext interaction revisited

Year 2000

Author

g. golovchinsky, c. c. marshal

Affiliation

FX Palo Alto Laboratory, Inc..

Abstract

Much of hypertext narrative relies on links to shape a reader's interaction with the text. But links may be too limited to express ambiguity, imprecision, and entropy, or to admit new modes of participation short of full collaboration. We use an e-book form to explore the implications of freeform annotation-based interaction with hypertext narrative. Readers' marks on the text can be used to guide navigation, create a persistent record of a reading, or to recombine textual elements as a means of creating a new narrative. In this paper, we describe how such an experimental capability was created on top of XLibris, a next generation e-book, using Forward Anywhere as the hypernarrative. We work through a scenario of interaction, and discuss the issues the work raises.

Keywords

annotation, e-books, hypertext narrative, pen-based computing

pp

171-179

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Title

Integrating infrastructure: enabling large-scale client integration

Year 2000

Author

k. m. anderson, c. och, r. king, r. m. osborne

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, University of Colorado.

Abstract

The open hypermedia community has addressed issues of client integration providing hypermedia services in third-party applications over the past decade. As a result, a set of models and techniques has emerged to guide developers in the task of integrating hypermedia services into their applications. We argue that the logical next step for the open hypermedia community is to develop techniques for integrating massive numbers of clients in tandem. Our approach consists of integrating existing infrastructure mechanisms that are already used by numerous applications. We believe that integrating an underlying infrastructure can provide a basic level of hypermedia functionality to client applications while reducing the level of effort required of application developers. We present issues encountered in performing client-integration-in-the-large, discuss an experimental prototype of a specific infrastructure integration, and describe related work in this area.

Keywords

client-integration-in-the-large, infrastructure integration, open hypermedia

pp

57-66

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Title

Investigating link service infrastructures

Year 2000

Author

d. c. de roure1, Nigel G. Walker2, l.a. carr1

Affiliation

1The Multimedia Research Group. University of Southampton, Southampton, UK
2British Telecom Laboratories. Adastral Park, Martlesham Heath, Ipswich IP5 3RE, UK Tel: +44 1437 644853

Abstract

Variations on the Distributed Link Service have now been deployed across a spectrum of hypermedia and multimedia projects. Although some implementations have utilised standard database technologies and and hypermedia tools behind the scenes, most of the network services have been proprietary implementations. In this paper we discuss the motivation and requirements for a large scale, dynamic and open distributed link service using third party components, and explore the use of off-the-shelf services to provide the distributed infrastructure for link services. In particular we investigate HTTP, LDAP and Whois++ as candidate technologies.

Keywords

LDAP, Whois++, directory services, distributed link service, link service, open hypermedia, query routing

pp

67-76

Full Text, References



Title

Irresistible forces and immovable objects

Year 2000

Author

j. grudin

Affiliation

Microsoft Research.

Abstract

We cannot predict the future, but we don't want to design it entirely by trial and error. Our imaginations encompass everything from utopia to nightmare; we need to constrain the space of possibilities. Earlier technologies led to a mix of deterministic outcomes and individual or social choices in their use. I am of the persuasion that the Web and wireless technologies are "irresistible forces" that will merge and transform the world more than all but a handful of past technologies. But not everything is possible. The most immovable of objects is human biology: basic human perceptual, cognitive, affective, and social psychology, the product of millions of years of evolution. In addition, present-day social organization, the result of thousands of years of evolution, has become extremely complex.

Keywords

pp

259

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Title

Linking by interacting: a paradigm for authoring hypertext

Year 2000

Author

m. pimentel1, g. d. abowd2, y. ishiguro3

Affiliation

1Instituto de Ciꮣias Matemᴩcas e de Computa磯. Universidade de S㯠Paulo, S㯠Carlos, SP 13560-970, Brazil
2College of Computing & GVU Center. Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
3Human Media Research Lab. NEC Corporation, Takayama-cho, Ikoma, Nara 630-0101, Japan

Abstract

Authoring hypertext structures has always been a difficult task. The cognitive overhead problem, well known from authors when creating structured hyperdocuments, has been tackled in a variety of forms. In this paper we advocate that capture-based systems should support flexible hypertext structures generated by linking by interacting operations. These include linking by capturing operations which capture user-interactivity during a live session and linking by augmenting operations which allow the captured contents to be extended with complementary operations available outside the live session. We demonstrate how such combination leads to the generation of flexible hypertext structures by presenting our implementation in the educational domain.

Keywords

augmenting, authoring hypertext, capturing, linking, presenting, user-hypertext interaction

pp

39-48

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Title

Making a successful case for a hypertextual doctoral dissertation

Year 2000

Author

Christine Boese

Affiliation

Department of English, Clemson University.

Abstract

In August, 1998 the first hypertextual dissertation at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute was accepted (http://www.nutball.com), a case study applying methods of rhetorical analysis and cultural critique to the online phenomenon called the Xenaverse, the cyberspaces devoted to the cult following of the syndicated television program Xena, Warrior Princess. The hypertextual research site, a vital online culture, seemed to demand a new kind of scholarship to describe and analyze it. Still, there were many hurdles to getting such an unorthodox presentation form accepted by the dissertation committee and the Graduate School. This paper summarizes a few of the justifying arguments that led to the successful acceptance this dissertation, a hypertext that could not be reproduced in any way on paper. In showing how one case for a hypertextual dissertation was successfully argued, I hope to help other scholars make similar cases at other institutions, perhaps leading to further debate on the ways arguments and epistemologies will be defined in the future.

Keywords

University Microfilms, University Microfilms graduate school Xenaverse Xena, Xena, Xenaverse, archives, cultural, dissertation, electronic, electronic scholarship, graduate school, hypertext, library, library archives, online, scholarship, studies

pp

232-233

Full Text, References



Title

More than legible: on links that readers don't want to follow

Year 2000

Author

m. j. bernstein

Affiliation

Eastgate Systems, Inc..

Abstract

Clear, complete, and accurate link descriptions may cause hypertext readers to avoid links we very much want them to follow. Link anchors must simultaneously explain what will happen after they are followed and why readers ought to follow them; this dual message may be conveyed through multivalence, montage, or collage.

Keywords

animation, design, links, montage, navigation, patterns, rhetoric

pp

216-217

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Title

Naming as a fundamental concept of open hypermedia systems

Year 2000

Author

m. tzagarakis1, Nikos Karousos1, d. christodoulakis1, s. reich2

Affiliation

1Computer Technology Institute. Department of Computer Engineering & Informatics, University of Patras, 26500 Rion, Greece
2Department of Information Systems, University of Patras. University of Linz, 4040 Linz, Austria

Abstract

Names play a key role in distributed hypertext systems, for two main reasons: Firstly, because accessing and managing system services require finding and locating the relevant components. Secondly, because managing structures between hypertext resources, such as nodes, anchors and links, requires that these resources are named and addressed. We argue that naming services are endemic to hypertext systems and therefore, form a core part of any hypertext system's infrastructure. In particular, the current move towards interoperable component-based Open Hypermedia Systems (CB-OHS) demonstrates the need for naming components.

Keywords

component-based open hypermedia system (CB-OHS), naming system, reference architecture

pp

103-112

Full Text, References



Title

Navigational correlates of comprehension in hypertext

Year 2000

Author

j. e. mceneaney

Affiliation

Department of Reading and Language Arts, Oakland University.

Abstract

Despite a substantial literature on problems related to user navigation, we know remarkably little about the relationship between navigational strategies and successful use of hypertext. Revealing the complex interactions of navi-gational decision making and comprehension, however, will require objective, reliable, and empirically significant navigational metrics that go beyond the largely informal and indirect measures that have traditionally been used. The purpose of this paper is to describe a study that replicates and extends earlier work that defines and validates two objective navigational metrics [5]. Results of this study confirm the empirical significance of these metrics, support the reliability of their relationship to hypertext com-prehension, and provide indirect support for a model of reading comprehension that postulates greater demands on higher-level processing in hypertext compared to traditional print.

Keywords

comprehension, empirical validation, navigational metrics, navigational patterns, user paths

pp

254-255

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Title

Ontology-supported and ontology-driven conceptual navigation on the World Wide Web

Year 2000

Author

m. a. crampes, s. ranwez

Affiliation

Laboratoire de G鮩e Informatique et d'Ingenierie de Production (LGI2P).

Abstract

This paper presents the principles of ontology-supported and ontology-driven conceptual navigation. Conceptual navigation realizes the independence between resources and links to facilitate interoperability and reusability. An engine builds dynamic links, assembles resources under an argumentative scheme and allows optimization with a possible constraint, such as the user's available time. Among several strategies, two are discussed in detail with examples of applications. On the one hand, conceptual specifications for linking and assembling are embedded in the resource meta-description with the support of the ontology of the domain to facilitate meta-communication. Resources are like agents looking for conceptual acquaintances with intention. On the other hand, the domain ontology and an argumentative ontology drive the linking and assembling strategies.

Keywords

WWW, XML, adaptive hypertext, conceptual navigation, metadata, narration, ontology, time optimization

pp

191-199

Full Text, References



Title

Organizing topic-specific web information

Year 2000

Author

s. mukherjea

Affiliation

C&C Research Laboratories.

Abstract

With the explosive growth of the World-Wide Web, it is be-coming increasingly difficult for users to collect and organize Web pages that are relevant to a particular topic. To address this problem we are developing WTMS, a system for Web Topic Management. In this paper we explain how WTMS collects Web pages for a topic and organizes them at various levels of abstraction. We also introduce the user interface of the system that smoothly integrates querying and browsing. Moreover, we present the various views of the interface that allow the user to navigate through the information space.

Keywords

World-Wide Web, World-Wide-Web, abstraction hierarchy, graph algorithms, information visualization, topic management

pp

133-141

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Title

Personal Information Everywhere (PIE)

Year 2000

Author

Boaz Carmeli, Benjamin Cohen, Alan J. Wecker

Affiliation

IBM Research Laboratory in Haifa.

Abstract

We present some of the issues in the design of a mobile hypermedia system with display on PDAs.

Keywords

PDA, XML, client/server hypermedia system, mobile, pervasive computing

pp

252-253

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Title

Posties: a WebDAV application for collaborative work

Year 2000

Author

Joachim Feise

Affiliation

Department of Information and Computer Science, University of California.

Abstract

Collaboration among several groups in geographically distant locations is increasingly common in today's workplace. However, managing this kind of collaboration tends to be a difficult and cumbersome task. The most common tool is the e-mail notification to keep the project members informed, and to distribute the workload among the project members. This paper presents WebDAV Posties, a tool designed to facilitate collaboration between geographically distant groups.

Keywords

WWW, WebDAV

pp

228-229

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Title

Providing flexibility within hypertext systems: what we've learned at HT workshops, CyberMountain, and elsewhere

Year 2000

Author

d. larsen

Affiliation

.

Abstract

Incorporating flexibility in presenting and developing hypertext content is vital to ensure that readers can engage the material on many levels, writers can convey the message in the most appropriate media and atmosphere, and software applications can meet the widest range of needs possible. Based on results from the hypertext writers' workshops at the Hypertext conferences and CyberMountain 99, this briefing argues for breaking out of system and content constraints to provide flexibility and presents a list of suggestions for developing that flexibility within hypertexts.

Keywords

application development, constraints, developers, flexibility, hypertext content, readers, writers

pp

268-269

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Title

Providing hypertextual functionalities with XML

Year 2000

Author

l. bompani, f. vitali

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, University of Bologna.

Abstract

Hypertext functionalities represent a form of the distilled wisdom of the hypermedia community. Given the peculiar nature of the World Wide Web, it is very difficult to successfully propose functionalities that become widely accepted. XMLC is a prototype of an XML browser that, given its modular architecture and general scope, can be proposed as the basis for implementing sophisticated hypertext functionalities on the Web.

Keywords

XML, displets, hypertext functionalities

pp

214-215

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Title

Reusable hypertext structures for distance and JIT learning

Year 2000

Author

Anne Morgan Spalter, r. m. simpson

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, Brown University.

Abstract

Software components for distance and just-in-time (JIT) learning are an increasingly common method of encouraging reuse and acilitating the development process [56 ],but no analogous efforts have been made so ar for designing hyper- text components that can be reused in educationalofferings.1 We argue that such structures will be of tangible benefit to the online learning community,serving to of load a substan- tialburden from programmers and designers of software,as well as allowing educators without any programming experi- ence to customize available online resources. We present our motivation for hypertext structure compo- nents (HTSC)and then propose a set of pedagogical struc- tures and their building blocks that reflect the categories of lecture,laboratory,creative project,playground,and game [36 ].

Keywords

components, design patterns, education, hypertext structure components, interactive graphics, spatial hypertext, structural computing, temporal hypertext

pp

29-38

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Title

Structure problems in hypertext mysteries

Year 2000

Author

c. willerton

Affiliation

Department of English, Abilene Christian University.

Abstract

Detective or mystery stories have always depended on linear storytelling. Can hypertext be nonlinear and still present a detective or mystery story? This paper analyzes how mystery stories work, examines one feasible structure for a hypertext mystery, and suggests hypertext opportunities for mystery writers. It concludes that the mystery reader's expectations (rather than assumptions about hypertext) should determine structure.

Keywords

detective, hyperfiction, hypertext, mystery, navigation patterns

pp

234-235

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Title

Text and hypertext: always a binary relationship?

Year 2000

Author

l. calvi

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, Trinity College.

Abstract

This paper focuses on the relationship between a paper-based text and its electronic counterpart, by addressing the question of whether it is possible to transliterate one into the other without altering the original content. A taxonomy of possible relationships can be derived. The paper analyzes a novel that exists in both forms as a case study of this problem.

Keywords

TEI, paper-based and electronic literature, taxonomies

pp

218-219

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Title

The pleasure principle: immersion, engagement, flow

Year 2000

Author

j. y. douglas1, Andrew Hargadon2

Affiliation

1Dial Center for Written and Oral Communication. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL USA. Tel: 1-352-392-5421
2Department of Management, University of Florida. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL USA. Tel: 1-352-392-5421

Abstract

While few critics writing on readers and hypertext have focused on the affective pleasures of reading hypertext fiction or interactive narratives like Myst, those who assess the experience of reading them tend to assume interactive texts should be either immersive or engaging. This study uses schema theory to define the characteristics of immersion and engagement in both conventional and new media. After examining how readers' experiences of these two different aesthetics may be enhanced or diminished by interface design, options for navigation, and other features, the essay concludes by looking beyond immersion and engagement to flow, a state in which readers are both immersed and engaged.

Keywords

aesthetics, hypertext fiction, interactive narratives, reading

pp

153-160

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Title

The travails of visually impaired web travellers

Year 2000

Author

c. a. goble, Simon Harper, s. m. stevens

Affiliation

Information Management Group, Department of Computer Science, University of Manchester.

Abstract

This paper proposes the inclusion of travel and mobility in the usability metrics of web design. Hypertext design and usability has traditionally concentrated upon navigation and/or orientation. The notion of travel extends navigation and orientation to include environment, mobility and the purpose of the travel task. The presence of travel aids are important for all users, but particularly so for those with a visual impairment. This paper presents the ground work for including travel into web design and usability metrics by presenting a framework for identifying travel objects and registering them as either cues to aid travel or obstacles that hinder travel for visually impaired users. The aim is to maximise cues and minimise obstacles to give high mobility as measured by the mobility index. This framework is based upon a model of real world travel by both sighted and visually impaired people, where travel objects are used for orientation, navigation, route planning and survey knowledge. Knowledge of the differences in travel between visually impaired and sighted people will enable the model to be used in assisting the design of better user agents and web content for visually impaired and other users.

Keywords

hypertext, mobility, navigation, travel, usability, visual impairment, web

pp

1-10

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Title

Toward an organic hypertext

Year 2000

Author

r. kendall1, Jean-Hugues Rety2

Affiliation

1Writing Program. New School University, 66 West 12th Street, New York, NY 10011, USA
2Laboratoire de Recherche en Informatique. Universit頤e Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France

Abstract

The Connection System is an adaptive hypermedia system for hypertext poetry and fiction. Its adaptive features can help maintain the large-scale structural integrity of the text that emerges during a reading, no matter what local naviga-tional choices the reader makes. Authors can define struc-tural components and specify adaptive behaviors for the textual and navigational elements within them. By estab-lishing criteria for displaying links or text fragments condi-tionally, authors can encapsulate their understanding of structural possibilities to better guide the formation of the emergent structure without reducing the reader's agency or freedom of interaction. The system models the reader's knowledge of textual components and uses this model to guide adaptive behavior and give the reader a better sense of how structural elements are unfolding. We consider the problems involved with modeling the knowledge of a liter-ary text, and we offer specific examples of how adaptivity can give the reader more control over the reading and make it more satisfying.

Keywords

adaptive hypermedia, hypertext literature, hypertext structure, organic form, theory

pp

161-170

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Title

Towards the prediction of development effort for web applications

Year 2000

Author

m. x. mendes1, w. hall2

Affiliation

1Computer Science Department, The University of Auckland. The University of Auckland, Auckland, Private Bag 92019, New Zealand, Tel: 0064-9-3737599 extension: 6137
2Multimedia Research Group. The Multimedia Research Group, The University of Southampton, Highfield, S017 1BJ, Southampton, UK

Abstract

To estimate the effort required to develop Web applications can be quite a difficult task, however accurate estimates of development effort play an important part in the successful management of major Web development projects. This paper describes the use of analogy to estimate the development effort of Web applications. Two datasets were used in the estimation process and the results were optimistic. As the estimation by analogy requires a considerable amount of computation, we have used an automated environment the ANGEL tool - that supports the collection, storage and identification of the most analogous projects in order to estimate the effort for a new project. We have shown that estimating by analogy is a candidate technique and that with the aid of an automated environment it is a practical technique to apply to Web development.

Keywords

Web development, analogy, effort estimation, estimation, hypermedia development, web development

pp

242-243

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Title

Visualizing interaction history on a collaborative web server

Year 2000

Author

a. dieberger1, Peter Lonnqvist2

Affiliation

1IBM Almaden Research Center.
2Swedish Institute of Computer Science, SICS.

Abstract

A CoWeb is a collaborative Web space that allows people to modify content and create new pages in a very easy fashion. We modified the original CoWeb to visualize interaction history information in an effort to make it a more social space and to allow users to engage in social navigation.

Keywords

history enriched environments, social navigation, visualizing interaction histories

pp

220-221

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Title

XLink and open hypermedia systems: a preliminary investigation

Year 2000

Author

Brent Halsey, k. m. anderson

Affiliation

Department of Computer Science, University of Colorado.

Abstract

XLink is an emerging Internet standard designed to support the linking of XML documents. We present preliminary work on using XLink as an export format for the links of an open hypermedia system. Our work provides insights into XLink's suitability as a vehicle for extending the benefits of open hypermedia to the rapidly evolving world of XML.

Keywords

World Wide Web, XLink, XML, chimera, open hypermedia export

pp

212-213

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